Herbert Kramer (German, English: Herbert Kroemer, August 25, 1928 -), American German physicist, 2000 for semiconductor heterostructure optoelectronic components used in high speed development, and Nobel
The physics prize.
Herbert Kroemer Personal profile
Herbert Kramer was born in 1928 Germany
(at that time in the Weimar Republic
But in the period.
The number is still The German Empire
Weimar), father is a civil servant, my mother is a housewife, all from the technical worker family, although they have received higher education, but hope that Herbert Kramer can get the best education, they did not make specific academic direction for his son, Herbert Keller said he chose Mathematics
. After graduating from high school in 1947, he Jena
To study physics, have heard of the German physicist Friedrich Hundlt (Friedrich Hund) class.
Herbert Kroemer Life experience
His internship in Berlin, using the "air bridge" fled. West Germany
And, in Gottingen University
Completed on transistor
In the hot electron effect theory of physics research and doctoral thesis advisor is German physicist Richard Beck (RichardBecker), obtained a doctorate in 1952. Then he will be positioned in the occupation of physics and semiconductor technology.
Kroemer is the first in a German Federal post central communication laboratory Semiconductor
Team work, and claimed to be a "theory of scholars". In 1954 he went to work in the United States, Princeton University
and Palo Alto
The number of research institutions, from 1968 to 1976 at the University of Colorado in Boulder (Boulder County of Colorado UniversityofColoradoatBoulder, a professor of physics). In 1976, the Department of electronic and computer engineering University of California, Santa Barbara Kroemer persuaded the limited project funds for the newly formed compound semiconductor technology, rather than investment in the development of silicon technology mainstream, which left the University of California Santa Barbara occupied a leading position in this field.
Kroemer came to Santa Barbara of University of California, the study focus from theory to experiment, at the end of 1970s became a pioneer in molecular beam epitaxy research. He is the first manufacturing and research of new synthetic materials, such as gallium phosphide (GaP) and silicon base on GaAs, after 1985 will focus on InAs synthetic materials (InAs), gallium antimonide (GaSb) and aluminum antimonide (AlSb), and the basic research and future open element combination and one of the important research topic is superconducting semiconductor hybrid structure, indium aluminum antimonide arsenide material consists of superconducting niobium electrode connection, can promote the superconductivity in semiconductors. Another research direction is under strong electric field in semiconductor electronic transmission, electronic band in partial oscillation, this structure is suitable for oscillator, usually called Bloch oscillator can reach terahertz (THz) frequency level.
He and Charles Kittel (CharlesKittel ThermalPhysics) statistical mechanics textbooks co authored (ISBN0716710889) published in 1980, is still widely used in many universities in the world.
Herbert Kroemer scientific research
Kroemer's research in the field of time is not popular, but in a few years to show its importance
. He pointed out that the use of semiconductor heterostructures can be greatly improved in mid 1950s Semiconductor
Components of the performance, and put forward can be achieved at 24 GHz (GHz) concept of heterojunction diode frequency. In 1963 put forward the concept of double heterostructure laser diode laser, which is the foundation and core technology. These two concepts are far beyond the level of research at that time, until 1980s, after the development of epitaxial technology to a large number of applications, and become the mainstream. In 2000, Kroemer received the Nobel prize in physics can be traced back to the early papers, they made in 1980s to become the "heterogeneous structure era", continue to dominate the heterogeneous structure of compound semiconductor, which includes not only the laser and light-emitting diodes, including integrated circuit, and a threat to the mainstream status of silicon integrated circuit technology.
Kroemer came to Santa Barbara of University of California, the study focus from theory to experiment, at the end of 1970s became a pioneer in molecular beam epitaxy research. He is the first manufacturing and research of new synthetic materials, such as gallium phosphide (GaP) and silicon substrate GaAs
In 1985, after the focus of InAs synthetic materials (InAs), gallium antimonide (GaSb) and aluminum antimonide (AlSb), and the basic research and future element combination open, one of the important research topic is superconducting semiconductor hybrid structure of InAs material by aluminum antimonide superconducting niobium electrode connection, can promote the superconductivity in semiconductors. Another research direction is under strong electric field in semiconductor electronic transmission, electronic band in partial oscillation, this structure is suitable for oscillator, commonly known as Bloch oscillator
Can he, Jian (THz) level frequency.
At the end of 1990s, Kroemer turned to pure theory, to early studies, also created some new research fields, such as electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic crystals, nano structure physics etc..
Herbert Kroemer achievement
Herbert Kramer and Zhores Alferov
Because of the development of semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed optoelectronic components, shared the 2000 Nobel prize in physics with the invention of integrated circuit Jack Kilby.
Herbert Kroemer Honors
1973, Institute of electrical and electronic engineers.
(IEEE), J.J. J.J. (aibeisi Award
In 1982, the International Symposium on GaAs and related compounds, the Heinrich Welk Medal - (Heinrich-Welker-Medaille)
1983, Institute of electrical and Electronics Engineers electronic devices, national lecturer (National Lecturer)
1986, Institute of electrical and electronics engineers, Jack Merle Award (Jack Morton Award) London
In 1994, Alexander von Humboldt Research Award (Alexander-von-Humboldt-Forschungspreis)
The physics prize
Herbert Kroemer Scientific research achievements
In 1963, he proposed the concept of double heterostructure laser, is one of the pioneers of this field
He has put forward the concept, far beyond the time in the field of semiconductor research level. In 80s, the idea and the corresponding techniques are widely used. After the University of California to do experimental research, he developed a practical semiconductor technology that includes high performance equipment, material research, solid state physics and many other emerging areas. Outstanding research achievements have won him many awards at home and abroad.
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences announced on 10, the Russian scientist Zeros Alferov, American scientist Herbert and Kroemer Jack Kilby
Because, based on "information technology work" and won the 2000 Nobel The physics prize
. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
The press release said, "three scientists through the invention of fast transistor, laser diode and integrated circuit, has laid a solid foundation for the modern information technology. Among them, Alferov and Kroemer will share half of the 2000 Nobel prize in physics prize, in recognition of their research in the pioneering work of semiconductor heterostructures. Because Kilby made in the invention of the integrated circuit in contributions received amounted to SEK 9 million ($1 million) and the other half of the prize.
The modern information technology in recent decades has profoundly changed the human society development, it must have two simple but also is the basic precondition: fast, short time of information transmission; two is a small volume, convenient to carry, can be used on any occasion. Three scientists work to meet these two requirements.
Alferov and Kroemer to meet the first condition made important contribution. They invented the semiconductor heterostructure technology, has been widely used in the manufacture of high-speed optoelectronic and microelectronic components. The so-called heterostructure semiconductor, mainly composed of many different band gap of thin layer. Communication satellite and mobile phone base stations have adopted rapid manufacturing technology of transistor heterostructures. The use of laser diode heterostructure fabrication technology, the Internet information transmission optical fiber cable can be realized. Semiconductor heterostructure technology can also be used for manufacturing a light emitting diode, automobile brake lights and traffic lights are used in light emitting diode, common lamp is also possible in the future is light diode