The blood glucose is called blood glucose. In each tissue cell activities required for most of the energy from glucose, blood glucose levels must be maintained so need to maintain a certain body organs and tissues. Normal in the morning ( The value of risk can significantly reduce the complications of diabetes.
blood sugar common sense
The sugar called glucose, the vast majority of cases are Glucose
(English - Glu). In each tissue cell activities required for most of the energy from glucose, blood glucose levels must be maintained so need to maintain a certain body organs and tissues. 3.61~6.11mmol/L is in the normal fasting blood glucose concentration. The fasting blood glucose concentration is more than 7.0mmol/L called high blood sugar. The blood glucose concentration is lower than 3.61mmol/L called Hypoglycemia
General, we get the blood biochemical examination report written in: Glucose
Sugar is one of our body essential nutrients. People eat grain
, Vegetable & Fruit
So, through the digestive system into Monosaccharide
(such as glucose) into the blood, transported to the cell body, as a source of energy. If one is not consumed, into Glycogen
Stored in the liver and muscle, liver can store 70 to 120 grams of sugar, about 6 ~ 10% of the liver weight. The cell can store Glycogen
Is limited, if excessive intake of sugar, the excess sugar is converted to fat.
When food is digested, storage of glycogen, become a normal source of sugar, blood glucose concentration remained normal. In strenuous exercise, or a long time without food, will consume glycogen. This cell will decompose fat to supply energy, fat 10% glycerol
Glycerol can be converted into sugar. The other part can also produce energy through oxidation of fat, but the metabolic pathway and glucose is not the same.
The human brain and nerve cells must sugar to survive, when necessary the human body will secrete hormone, the body parts (such as muscle, skin and organs) destroyed, will be one of the proteins into sugar, in order to survive. Like all those refugees used to see in the pictures As thin
It is for this reason.
The body's blood sugar is regulated by a pair of hormones: they are Insulin
When feel, when blood sugar is low, islet A cells secrete glucagon, mobilization Liver
The reserves of glycogen, released into the blood, causing blood sugar to rise; when feel when blood sugar high islet B cell
Will promote the secretion of insulin, blood glucose into liver glycogen reserves or promote blood sugar into Tissue cells
blood sugar normal value Fasting blood glucose (fasting blood, glucose, FBG) normal value
The average fasting whole blood glucose was 3.9 ~ 6.1 mmol / L (70 ~ 110 mg / dl), plasma glucose was 3.9 ~ 6.9 mmol / L (70 ~ 125 mg / dl).
The fasting blood sugar was 6.7 mmol / L (120 mg / dl), plasma glucose was 7.8 mmol / L (140 mg / dl), 2 repeated measurements can be diagnosed as diabetes.
When fasting blood sugar in 5.6 mmol / L (100 mg / dl), plasma glucose at 6.4 mmol / L (115 mg / dl) above, should be done in glucose tolerance test.
When the fasting blood sugar more than 11.1 mmol / L (200 mg / dl), said little or lack of insulin secretion. Therefore, the fasting blood glucose was significantly increased, without other examination, can be diagnosed as diabetes. The normal value of postprandial blood glucose
1 hours after the meal: blood glucose 6.7-9.4 mmol / L. A maximum of no more than 11.1mmol/L (200mg/dl)
2 hours after the meal: blood glucose less than 7.8 mmol / L.
3 hours after the meal: third hours after the return to normal, the urine was negative. The normal value of blood glucose
The pregnant women were not more than 5.1mmol/L
1 hours after a meal of pregnant women: 1 hour postprandial blood glucose values for the detection of pregnant women Diabetes
In the detection, the authority of the data showed that pregnant women 1 hours after a meal should not exceed 10.0mmol/L is the normal level of blood glucose;
2 hours after the meal after meal: the pregnant women with normal blood sugar level of general provisions shall not exceed 11.1mmol/L, the value of normal blood glucose 2 hours after meal provisions shall not exceed 8.5mmol/L of pregnant women.
Through the detection of normal blood sugar, blood glucose to standard value to help you improve the prevention and control of diabetes.
blood sugar Blood glucose determination
Diabetic patients often need to read Veinal blood
The determination of blood sugar, cause some inconvenience to the patient.
The measuring range is 0.5 ~ 27.7 mmol / L (10 ~ 500 mg / dl), some patients can bring l blood glucose test instrument.
Use the steps home blood glucose meter:
Put the needle
The clean fingers, disinfected with alcohol cotton, must not use iodine alcohol
The test strip is inserted, the test strip electrode insertion meter socket after insertion will prompt blood glucose meter
1 warm and massage fingers to increase blood circulation.
2 short arm droop, let the blood flow to the fingertips.
The top 3 thumb interphalangeal joint with critical blood collection, blood sampling pen pierce the skin on the fingertips side.
The sample from the side, inhalation of blood glucose test strips, or drop in blood glucose test strips.
(hint: now the blood glucose test strips on the market sell into the siphon and blood type. The characteristics of the siphon for blood samples needs less, use the enzyme glucose oxidase is specific for glucose, high accuracy. Blood samples needed more blood type, the accuracy is higher than the siphon, usually for the hospital or family economic groups in the use of good).
Note: do not force the thorn after extrusion, in order to avoid tissue fluid into the blood, resulting in deviation of test results.
The results showed that blood glucose meter will show the current value of blood glucose in 5 to 20 seconds.
On the market there are pen and other types of blood glucose testing instrument for use. The finger blood or ear blood capillary blood glucose, slightly higher than the vein
Blood glucose values. But it should be noted that, when the cold, edema and Vascular spasm
When slightly affected. Our country has been able to produce Changchun Blood glucose test strips
. Since 90s, foreign developed non-invasive blood glucose detection instrument is used near infrared computerized measuring the change of absorption through the skin surface, can be measured in 5 seconds from 2.22 to 22.2 mmol / L (40 ~ 400 mg / dl) blood glucose.
blood sugar Blood glucose meter
about Blood glucose meter
The problem with the purchase, really need to carefully. The common market in accordance with the sugar glucose meter measurement technology can be divided into electrochemical test and light reflection test technology in two categories. The former is the electron enzyme and glucose response using the current count facilities, read the number of electrons, and then converted to glucose concentration readings. The latter is the intermediate produced by enzyme and glucose reaction (with color material), using the detector strip reflector of the reflected light intensity, the intensity of the reflected light, into glucose concentration, with high accuracy.
At the time of purchase should grasp 4 elements:
1 accuracy, and at the same time should be as far as possible Blood Draw
The test values were not difference is too poor, otherwise it may delay the condition of tragedy;
2 see service, customer service service should understand the blood glucose meter, availability of test paper is in place to prevent the emergence of "cooking without rice" situation;
3 see the machine operation, such as the blood taking needle is convenient, how many needs of blood, machine reading time, size and clarity of the display, battery replacement is convenient or not, whether the machine appearance, size and so on;
4 see price at Blood glucose meter
The purchase price is not the most important, the key is the quality, but the general blood glucose meter good in thousand yuan, for many families is an extra burden, needs a comprehensive measure. Of course, the easiest way is to ask your trusted doctor.
blood sugar Hypoglycemia
Male: Glu<50mg/dl (<2.78mmol/L);
Woman: Glu<45mg/dl (<2.5mmol/L) (normal male, female hungry after 72 hours minimum). adrenaline
Yes Glucose metabolism
The influence and Insulin
The role of combination. It promotes glycogen decomposition and Glycolysis
Therefore, increased blood glucose and blood lactic acid, which is due to the activation of adrenaline in liver and muscle phosphorylase
blood sugar Reason
One Excessive hypoglycemic drugs: Insulin
Or sulfonylurea treated patients or newly drinkers, namely during treatment, patients with primary high blood sugar, by the use of antidiabetic drugs (especially insulin) in a short period of time after blood sugar drops too fast or too large decline, hypoglycemia Symptom
But, Blood glucose was measured
Still in the normal range. Diabetes
The initial and application of hypoglycemic drugs in patients with obvious.
2 severe hunger:
do not give long-term feeding.
blood sugar Harm
Hypoglycemia brings great harm to the patient, will cause memory loss, unresponsive, dementia
Until life-threatening. Patients induced by cerebrovascular accident section, Arrhythmia
and myocardial infarction
blood sugar Prevention
The time to eat, the law of life;
It can not arbitrarily increase the dosage;
The time for Insulin
Should carefully check the dose;
The constant amount of exercise;
Often the blood sugar;
Take the candy to spare.
blood sugar Treatment
(a) correct hypoglycemia.
(two). Etiological treatment
(three) the principle of medication
1 mild oral syrup or candy.
2 serious and persistent hypoglycemia should be followed by 5-10% 500-1000ml glucose infusion for several days. The intravenous injection of glucose is difficult to glucagon injection.
3 idiopathic hypoglycemia should be mental and physical exercise, diet, appropriate increase in protein and fat, reducing sugar.
blood sugar Hyperglycemia
Under normal circumstances, the blood glucose concentration is slight fluctuations in the day, generally slightly lower fasting blood glucose, Postprandial blood glucose
Slightly higher, but this fluctuation is kept within certain limits.
blood sugar diagnostic criteria
Fasting blood glucose >6.0mmol/L.
Postprandial blood glucose >7.8mmol/L.
It is called high blood sugar, high blood sugar note: not a disease diagnosis standard, but a judgment of detection results, Hyperglycemia
Is not the same as diabetes, refer to the diagnostic criteria for diabetes: Diabetes
blood sugar The prevention of high blood sugar
There can not be any withdrawal;
Long chronic hyperglycemia
According to the medical staff and nutritionists indicated eating;
The usual attention to blood glucose control, often check the blood sugar value;
To avoid public places, to prevent infection;
If there are nausea, vomiting or have a fever, do not arbitrarily stop, should immediately seek medical attention;
The causes of occurrence of hyperglycemia, avoid to happen again.
The usual amount of exercise, reasonable diet, can prevent high blood sugar.
The daily inhalation of negative air ions, also has the effect of prevention and treatment of high blood sugar.
High blood sugar can cause vascular disease. Diabetic macrovascular disease
Refers to the aorta, coronary artery
, basilar artery, renal artery and peripheral artery atherosclerosis. Among them, atherosclerosis serious illness and high mortality. About 70% to 80% of diabetic patients died of diabetic macrovascular disease.
blood sugar Symptoms and treatment
Refer to the corresponding Encyclopedia ( Hyperglycemia
The symptoms and treatment)
blood sugar Microvascular disease
High blood sugar can cause microvascular disease, so that patients have different degrees of abnormal microcirculation. With the extension of the course of treatment is not timely and will lead to microvascular disease exacerbation and development, make the patient Blindness
And disability. Microvascular disease is mainly manifested in the retina and kidney, Myocardium
Nerve tissue, and toes, so that patients suffering from.
blood sugar Hypoglycemic food
: Weixin temperature, sweet white, is a favorite vegetable. Onions contain not only stimulate insulin synthesis and secretion of substances for the treatment of diabetes, and prostaglandin A and the content of amino acid, expansion of blood vessels, regulating blood fat, prevent arteriosclerosis. Therefore, the diabetic accompanied by dyslipidemia is the most suitable.
sweet non-toxic, have Buzhong effect. Pumpkin contains can inhibit the absorption of glucose and fructose, and the body of excess cholesterol, prevent high cholesterol, prevent arteriosclerosis. Modern medical research shows that pumpkin also contains adenine, pentosan, mannitol and many other substances beneficial to humans, and promote the role of insulin secretion. Patients with diabetes every day cooking pumpkin 100 grams, has a good effect on the improvement of symptoms.
: cool and sweet, sweet and crisp, with the exception of heat and thirst quenching effect. Modern pharmacological studies have shown that cucumber sugar is only 1.6%, is common in patients with diabetes on behalf of the food, and can be obtained from vitamin C, carotene, and cellulose Mineral
Etc.. Cucumber contains alcohol acid, can inhibit carbohydrate into fat in the body. Patients with obesity and diabetes have hypertension, every eat cucumber 100 grams, good.
Four Balsam pear
Taste: bitter cold, tender meat, rich in nutrients, especially vitamin C content in melons first. Pharmacological research found that Momordica saponins contained in bitter gourd, have very obvious hypoglycemic effect, not only has the similar Insulin
Like (so called plant insulin and), stimulating insulin release function. One test, for the treatment of type 2 diabetes with oral preparation of Momordica saponins, the total effective rate can reach 78.3%. So, if the diabetic with balsam pear 1, cut to the flesh washed, sliced boiled 1 times, every 1 ~ 2 times, is conducive to the control of blood glucose.
Five Money Liu composite tea
: Cyclocarya paliurus
The bark, leaves and roots have insecticidal itching, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect of the wind, in addition, collocation of persimmon leaves Huang Jing, Jue Mingzi, yam etc.. For the treatment of diabetes, because of its pharmacological effects significantly reduce
Blood sugar, fat and Niaotang
blood sugar test method Glucose oxidase method
Glucose oxidase method: specificity, low cost, simple method. The normal value: fasting whole blood ranged from 3.6 to 5.3 mmol / L (65 ~ 95 mg / dl), plasma ranged from 3.9 to 6.1 mmol / L (70 ~ 110 mg / dl) . Folin - Wu Shifa
Method: the content of blood sugar, Folin Wu method is measured, not all is glucose, many non sugar reducing substances. Numerical and measured than the actual high, this law has tended to be eliminated. From 4.4 to 6.7 mmol / L normal fasting blood glucose (80 ~ 120 mg / dl).
blood sugar Fluctuation
(1) climate factors: the cold stimulation can promote the secretion of adrenaline. Output increased liver glycogen, muscle uptake of glucose decreased, and the blood sugar condition worsened; hot summer sweating, pay attention to add water, otherwise Blood concentration
The blood glucose level;
(2): cold after cold can make blood sugar rise;
(3) patients due to trauma, surgery, infection, severe trauma, vomiting, insomnia, anger, anxiety, irritability, fatigue, and acute myocardial infarction
The stress situation: can make blood sugar rise quickly, and even induce Diabetic ketoacidosis
(4) drug doses: some patients by drug reduction; some long-term do not check blood glucose, so the blood sugar increased after the original dose is not adjusted, due to drug doses, caused by elevated blood sugar, even ketoacidosis
(5) sudden changes in the working environment, living environment: lead to patients with a temporary body adverse reaction;
(6) excessive ingestion of high fat food: Islet function
Not very good insulin secretion to increase blood glucose levels;
(7): the cause of chronic constipation Metabolic disorder
The adverse effect of blood glucose, blood circulation;
blood sugar Blood glucose conversion The blood glucose value representation is two units.
One is the mg / dl (mg/dl), as a unit; the other is mmol / L (mmol/L), as a new business unit. Although the new system to promote the use of units, but a unit is still used in a certain range. So, know how to convert between the two is very necessary. Conversion formula of two units: mg/dl, 18=mmol/L; mmol/L * 18=mg/dl. For example: 120mg/dl translated into numerical mmol/L units, should be divided by 18, namely 120mg/dl / 18=6.67mmol/L; 6.67mmol/L converted into numerical mg/dl units, should be multiplied by 18, which is 6.67mmol/L * 18=120mg/dl. High glucose diet tips
One Porridge can make blood sugar dancing
Porridge: usually boiled, drink will soon go after digestion, blood sugar will also rise very rapidly. But the porridge faster under too fast, sometimes you eat porridge, no other, it is very likely not to point you will feel hungry, hungry, then you need to eat something else, then your blood sugar as in dance, on the next stop wave. If you don't like the food can make some soup soup, try not to oil, such as some soup; if the broth, put the oil left out.
Two Don't mistake more easily than Steamed Rice by Steamed Buns Hyperglycemia
If the weight of rice and noodles cooked before, then its heat is the same, such as half and half meters on both sides of the heat is completely consistent. But although steamed after the heat, but the volume is not the same, for example, half meters you steamed out even more than half two steamed Steamed Buns more, so the patient will feel I ate a lot of Steamed Rice blood sugar is not high, but I only have such a high blood glucose Steamed Buns. The reason is that you actually have a lot of time to eat Steamed Rice meters fluffy volume inside, is a kind of sense, you would think m better, practical heat from the angle of raw material is the same.
3 nuts can make blood sugar strong
: for example, melon seeds, peanut itself contains certain fats, will allow patients to increase in heat, eventually transformed into high blood glucose.
blood sugar Matters needing attention
In the control of blood glucose or poor patients in critical condition should be monitored daily 8 times, until a stable condition, blood glucose control. When the condition is stable or has reached the goal of blood glucose control can be monitored weekly 1-2 times.
- use Insulin
In the beginning at least 5 times daily blood glucose in the treatment, achieve the goal of treatment after the daily self-monitoring of blood glucose 2-4.
In the use of oral medicine intervention and lifestyle of patients with blood glucose monitoring 2-4 times weekly. Blood glucose monitoring
The detection of glucose - before the meal, when the blood glucose level of fasting blood glucose level is very high time and space is the first concern, there is risk of hypoglycemia (elderly, better glycemic control) should be measured fasting blood glucose.
- 2 hours postprandial blood glucose monitoring for fasting blood glucose has been well controlled but still can not achieve the goal of treatment.
Monitoring of blood glucose - insulin injection for bed patients, especially in injection Long-acting insulin
In the night of blood glucose monitoring for insulin treatment is close to treatment goals and fasting blood glucose.
Would appear Hypoglycemia
Symptoms should be timely detection of blood glucose.
In strenuous exercise before the appropriate blood glucose monitoring.
blood sugar Detection error A misunderstanding: Not to the hospital regularly measure blood sugar
Diabetic patients should be self monitoring and management, the first to observe their own health conditions such as diabetes, "a little" (eat more, drink more and more weight, reduce urinary symptoms, malaise) or not, should regularly check the size of the heart, rhythm, lower limb, with or without edema, The fundus oculi
If there is a problem, whether there is Skin ulcer
Some laboratory tests can help diabetic patients better monitoring of their own situation, some patients can be done at home, such as blood glucose, which is an important means of self management in patients with diabetes mellitus. To understand the blood glucose concentration by blood glucose monitoring, can help patients adjust the effect of diet, exercise and judgment at any time. The condition is relatively stable, relatively good glycemic control in diabetic patients, a month can be monitored 5 to 7 times, including fasting blood glucose after meals, two hours postprandial blood glucose, blood glucose monitoring every night, a blood sugar on it, such as the first monitoring of fasting blood glucose, every few days after breakfast after blood glucose monitoring then, every few days after lunch of blood glucose monitoring...... Monthly monitoring of 5 to 7 times can.
Sugar is not easy to control the type I diabetes or insulin function in type 2 diabetic patients, it is necessary to increase the frequency of monitoring, and some even require daily monitoring for 4 to 8 times, as in before meals and after meals two hours before bedtime, one or two o'clock at night. After a stable condition can gradually reduce the number of determination, general determination of 4 to 8 times a week.
In addition to self monitoring of blood glucose, blood pressure in diabetic patients to understand whether diabetes monitoring on patients caused more damage is also very important, because it is easy to increase blood pressure in patients with diabetes, and thus damage the cardiovascular and heart. For people with diabetes, The normal blood pressure
130/85 mmhg. But it is worth noting that the electronic Sphygmomanometer
There are some errors, better than the commonly used measurement of mercury blood pressure meter in hospital, so diabetics should regularly to the hospital blood pressure measurement. Misunderstanding two: No regular measured glycosylated hemoglobin
In addition to blood glucose and blood pressure in these patients can monitor their own projects, glycosylated hemoglobin
And the monitoring of urine ketone and urine protein, urine is also very important, but in order to ensure the accuracy of test results, the monitoring must be done to the hospital. Among them, glycated hemoglobin can stably reflect the people in two or three months. The average blood glucose levels, glucose metabolism reflect the in vivo situation. According to the test results, the doctor can determine whether patients with effective health care program, eat is appropriate, whether exercise properly, blood glucose control is good, whether you need to adjust the treatment options for patients.
In addition, some patients with diabetes need to test indicators monitoring only a hospital can do, such as Niaotang
, Urine ketone
Although, all has the corresponding test paper, you can do at home, but the effect is difficult to achieve accurate. If microalbuminuria can monitoring patients with diabetic kidney are minor damage early, generally 1 to 3 months to be checked once patients have impaired renal function monitoring frequency to be higher, the index accurately only in a hospital laboratory to. Urine ketone is the intermediate product of fat metabolism, this value is high, it is likely to occur in patients with diabetes mellitus Acid poisoning
Lead to coma. Therefore, in sustained high blood glucose in excess of 13.3, going to the hospital to do Urine ketone
Some patients see their fasting blood glucose and Postprandial blood glucose
Compared to normal, do not want to measure HbA1c, however, each measured fasting blood glucose or postprandial blood glucose, blood glucose was only representative, which does not reflect the overall situation of blood glucose in a period of time people. Therefore, regular monitoring of HbA1c is very important. Misunderstanding three: The level of blood glucose only by domestic instrument
Home blood glucose meter is at the fingertips of blood capillary blood glucose was measured. This monitoring is to have certain limitations, when blood sugar is more than 13.3 or less than 1.1, the blood glucose meter cannot display the digital display, but on behalf of the high ("HIGH") or low ("LOW"), this time can not use blood glucose meter to measure blood sugar. Especially when the blood glucose value is too high or not (domestic) blood glucose meter readings, the situation is more dangerous, so as soon as possible to the hospital blood test, but also check when necessary Ketone
Timely treatment. In the use of blood glucose meter, we must first learn how to operate, to avoid improper operation led to inaccurate detection results, waste paper. Misunderstanding four: Morning fasting blood sugar pills
Experts pointed out that some patients usually stick to get up early every day after medication before breakfast, so even if the fasting blood glucose, but also used to get up early to take medicine on time. However, this will affect the value of blood sugar, fasting blood glucose was measured before and therefore do not take medicine.
In addition, patients with diabetes blood glucose in the day but also pay attention to keep the life and drug habit, don't eat less or do not eat hypoglycemic drugs, this will lead to inaccurate detection results, affect the patient's treatment. The detection of the day before 10 in the evening after dinner is best not to eat or drink, don't eat too much greasy.
The key is to control diabetes control mouth, stride leg". Many patients with diabetes often go to a restaurant called "dayaji". Experts pointed out that the restaurant eating is not suitable for diabetic patients, because the general restaurant dishes, not only the heat is relatively large, and most of the oil, salt, sugar and more, it is taboo to patients with diabetes. Misunderstanding five: No blood glucose was measured before exercise
In addition to diet, exercise therapy in patients with diabetes is also very important, which is "taking the legs". Many of the diabetes patients are aware of appropriate activities every day, but ignore the monitoring of blood glucose before exercise. In fact, low blood sugar is not moving, otherwise it may. In addition, the movement once dizziness and other symptoms of low blood sugar, should immediately stop; if necessary, timely take some sugar to reach normal blood glucose.
Some of the park for laying the pebbles and gravel road, many people love to walk on promoting blood circulation to massage the soles of the feet, and some people even love go barefoot. But this health care is not suitable for patients with diabetes, because diabetes patients should pay special attention to foot care, gravel roads will increase the probability of damage in patients with diabetic foot, increasing their risk for diabetic foot. In addition, the movement to prevent foot sweat too much, the experts also suggested that patients with diabetes in the best toe clip on cotton soft, breathable, flexible items, to prevent excessive friction or overlapping toes. Misunderstanding six: Patients do not pay attention to the foot Diabetic foot
Is one of the serious complications caused by diabetes. Experts pointed out that in patients with diabetes foot gangrene
The incidence rate is 17 times higher than non diabetics. For diabetic patients, even a slight injury, may also cause infection, gangrene and amputation. Therefore, attention must be paid to the patients with diabetes foot care, every day to wash with soap and warm water feet and no irritation. The temperature is not too high. To keep the feet and toes dry; skin care products available with foot particularly dry on foot; Wash one's feet
Promptly after pruning long nails, nail polish should be cut flat front, prevent inward growth. If you have a foot Cocoon
Do not pull the hand, or with a knife, do not paste chicken and other irritating chemicals ointment.
In addition, diabetic patients do not wear shoes barefoot, usually best to wear white or light colored socks, health foot and observation. Socks stockings also not too tight, because the blood circulation in patients with diabetes itself is not too tight, not conducive to the blood circulation. Diabetic patients should pay attention to wear shoes, it is best to wear round, flat, soft leather shoes, but also pay attention to the shoes inside there is no body, no head, joints, because these may lead to diabetic foot wear new shoes, best supporting loose fit to wear. Finally, the expert reminds, diabetic patients once found foot infection, wear, blisters, should promptly and timely contact with the doctor.
blood sugar The significance of monitoring
Self monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes control benefits
Found hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia, timely adjustment of drug blood glucose values directly reflect the actual glucose metabolism level, blood glucose control refers to the overall blood glucose control all day long. Many factors can cause the fluctuation of blood glucose of patients, such as unreasonable diet, excessive drinking: improper movement: the influence of drugs (drugs or other drugs used improperly): mood swings: Stress state
(such as colds, fever, trauma, surgery, pregnancy and in other chronic diseases, etc.)...... A lot of patients blood glucose fluctuations in the state of the day. Self monitoring of blood glucose, blood glucose fluctuation is to understand the value of a day. Blood glucose monitoring, including monitoring of blood glucose before and after meals and at night.
Monitoring of blood glucose before and after meals, is conducive to the adjustment of varieties of hypoglycemic drugs, dosage and medication time.
Blood glucose monitoring at night, is conducive to the discovery of nocturnal hypoglycemia and morning fasting hyperglycemia. Before going to bed at night or around 3 points too high or too low blood sugar, the next morning there will be a high blood sugar, but different processing methods. Therefore, if the patient sleep has obvious discomfort, should increase blood glucose monitoring before or at night at about 3, to provide a reference to the doctor, in order to make the treatment more reasonable.
Has a very important significance to understand the role of insulin and blood glucose monitoring in different periods. The morning before breakfast or fasting blood glucose reflect human basic state of insulin secretion level, if more than the normal blood glucose (>6 mmol / L) tips Insulin
The basic shortage is not sensitive to insulin action or patients: Postprandial blood glucose
Reflect an increase in glucose uptake after additional insulin secretion level. Medication or diet control patients, especially the need to observe the postprandial blood glucose. 2 hours after meal blood glucose is one of the important indicators for monitoring blood glucose, normal <8 mmol / L, postprandial blood glucose higher 2 Cardiovascular
The greater the chance of complications.
Identify and exploit the movement mode, time and quantity on the basis of exercise contributes to glucose uptake, but intense exercise will make the body in a state of emergency. The movement began with the movement of blood sugar can increase time, increase the amount of exercise and physical consumption, blood glucose will be reduced, or even cause hypoglycemia. So, before and after exercise should also monitor blood glucose, and suitable for exercise, exercise time and the amount of their own.
Self monitoring of blood glucose in economic benefit
There are two international studies prove that milepost and some small sample observation: intensive treatment the blood glucose target value, will greatly reduce the incidence of diabetic patients of heart, brain and kidney, eye and peripheral nerve chronic complications and worse.
According to the statistics for the treatment of developed countries. The complications of diabetes
The cost is about 3~4 times the cost of sugar used directly. If the strong promotion of self monitoring of blood glucose, so as to timely adjust the treatment plan will greatly reduce the loss due to health complications brought to the patient, as well as national and personal medical expenses. This is why blood glucose monitoring by the International Diabetes Federation as one of the reasons for treatment of diabetes.
blood sugar Don't sauna
When people in the sauna, transpiration of wet air, can play the effect of Huoxue Tongluo, but for diabetic patients with unstable blood sugar, these benefits the sauna become dangerous.
Because the sauna room temperature is high, leading to vasodilation, easy to sweat, even may cause dehydration, caused by the change of blood glucose in patients with diabetes. Diabetes insulin injections, if the sauna, will accelerate the absorption of insulin, hypoglycemia reaction.
In addition, the sauna bathroom ventilation is not good, increase the concentration of carbon dioxide in the bathroom, up to 2 ~ 5 times than the general room. In too much carbon dioxide environment, most people will not have too much harm, but people with diabetes are prone to some discomfort, such as headache, nausea, palpitation after bath, bath is dizzy we often say "".
Note that, even if the good blood glucose control, may be appropriate to the sauna, nor the steaming time is too long, and pay attention to add more water, a little discomfort, you should immediately from the sauna room.
blood sugar Common problem
blood sugar Different time
Even in patients just home from the hospital to check blood sugar, can also be found in a measurement of blood glucose and blood glucose measurement in different hospitals. The reason is that with the activities of the body, the body is bound to the consumption of sugar. But after eating, the uptake of glucose into the blood, the blood sugar consumption in supplement.
blood sugar Different sampling points
By the heart through the artery
To supply Blood capillary
. The blood supply in the blood, including nutrients to the tissues, by vein
Return to the heart. The blood glucose test paper, sampling parts used for finger capillary. The capillary blood contains a portion of the depleted blood glucose. The blood glucose level will change due to the different measurements?
Yes, will be different. In this case, the different measurements will affect the measurement results (not correct results).
1 in the blood draw process, if the "beep" sound from the front, left the blood glucose test strips from the blood, it will affect the measurement results.
2 in the blood draw process, if the "beep" sound, still keep for a long time blood glucose test strips and blood contact, will also affect the measurement results. After a period of time in the blood after measurement
In case of contact with air, blood will immediately begin coagulation. The condensation development in blood to significant extent. Unable to obtain the correct measurement results. Therefore, to achieve a sufficient degree in the blood, to draw blood immediately. For repeated measurements, will puncture point blood wipe clean, scratch, re measurement. The use of learned blood, appeared again draw blood phenomenon
In the process of drawing blood from the blood. If you open up the blood glucose test strips after blood draw again, unable to obtain the correct measurement results in this case. So, should replace a new blood glucose test strips, in The volume of blood
To a sufficient degree, measurements were performed again (in the blood draw process, don't take away from the blood glucose test strips). Extrusion force is too large to cause blood glucose detection is not accurate
If the extrusion force is too large, it can lead to cells within the subcutaneous tissue of transparent liquid can be squeezed out, and blood mixed together. This may lead to incorrect results. Blood glucose test strips placed for long time in the air, blood glucose test strips into the moisture in the air, it will affect the measurement results.
blood sugar The glycemic index
food The glycemic index
(GI) is a food can cause the body blood glucose how many, glycemic index is determined by the Human trials
The evaluation method of food is the chemical method, it is often said that the glycemic index is a kind of physiological parameters.
According to the definition of WHO or FAO generation index of blood glucose, GI refers to the body to eat food containing 50g carbohydrates tested food after the blood glucose response area under the curve (AUC) with the same amount of carbohydrate food containing standard reference blood glucose after AUC ratio. The formula is:
Area / same amount of carbohydrate standard reference meal 2H curve of blood glucose response GI= 50g carbohydrate containing foods under test after the blood glucose response curve area of 2H * 100
High GI food into the gastrointestinal digestion after fast, high absorption rate, fast glucose release glucose into the blood, after the peak is high, the high blood sugar rise;
Low GI food, in the gastrointestinal for long time, the absorption rate is low, the slow release of glucose, glucose into the blood after the peak is low, the rate of decline is also slow, it simply is relatively low blood sugar.
use Glycemic index
, reasonable arrangements for meals, is good for the regulation and control of blood glucose. As long as half of the food from the replacement of high glycemic index into low glycemic index, can significantly improve the effect of blood glucose.
When the glycemic index was below 55, as the food for low GI food;
When the glycemic index in 55 ~ 75, the food is medium food GI;
The glycemic index is more than 75, the food for high GI foods.
The glycemic index diet therapy for diabetes mellitus
The glycemic index is a food, increase blood sugar effect and the standard of food (usually glucose) increase blood sugar effect ratio, refers to the human consumption of certain foods will cause blood sugar reaction much.
The glycemic index is a measure of all kinds of food may have much impact on the glycemic index. Eating a food within two hours, measuring the blood glucose level, blood glucose response in the area under the blood glucose response line / line to eat equal portions of glucose within two hours (the area under the glucose tolerance curve) X100, this ratio is called the glycemic index.
Noodles, pasta, black rice, barley porridge, cornmeal porridge, corn grits porridge, noodles, lotus root starch, konjac, tofu and beans, milk and milk products, in addition to the known watermelon, pineapple fruits.
Mixed dietary glycemic index:
Celery fried egg, Steamed Buns + Steamed Buns + Beef in Brown Sauce, fried egg cake + fungus, stuffing dumplings, celery pork buns, hard wheat flour dumpling soup, fish, meat stuffing Steamed Rice + Braised Pork with Vermicelli.