Cave

The cave ( Pinyin D ng o Xu Cave, English That is,) in the soil, in the cliffs or dig out in the hills in the space, especially to the surface of the natural cave basement. Usually made of water Erosion Or, wind The formation and weathering of microorganisms and other external.
Cave
The cave is the most popular classification method according to the scale of points. A caver performance is through caving length or depth data and to reflect the.
Water soluble and limestone is a prerequisite for the formation of karst cave. Water soluble rock dissolution for heavy calcium carbonate, year after year, tunnel space increases, when the weight of the top, can not afford to collapse, collapse only changes the shape of space does not change the size of the space. Collapse with water is taken out, the water continued to karst bedrock, so the hole was formed. Following the principle of chemical reaction is the formation of the cave, but it is reversible.

Cave Historical records

The cave in people's minds, has always been a mysterious region, Europeans think that the cave is the hell of a channel, the Tibetans believe that cave is a place of evil, never easily enter. The film describes the hidden treasure hole and guarded by a python, and various additional on the top of the mysterious spell, raised people on the cave yearning, also had a fear.
The history of cave scientific paper records and very long history. As early as in the "Shan Ching" ( The spring and autumn war In the first time) and pharmacology work "Shen Nong's herbal classic" (Western Han Dynasty) in a karst cave and its chemical sediment records. Many caves have visitors, in the exploration before the Sui and Tang Dynasties, leaving a large number of stone inscription, and other cultural relics. Geographer, traveler Xu Xiake (1587--1641) personally explored more than 300 South karst caves, became a pioneer in the world cave exploration and study. In modern times, the research Chinese karst caves and cave archaeological culture by Beijing Zhoukoudian as the representative of the great ape hole. With the development of national economic construction and the development of Sino foreign joint cave exploration activities, a number of detection is very difficult to detect the giant cave system And made a number of new results. Karst cave more and more are found and detection, was developed.
According to preliminary statistics, the tunnel length is now a survey of more than 500 meters of karst cave in more than 400. As of 2002 and May, China measured more than 3000 meters in length of cave 108; was developed with the tour of the cave about 3000 of the total; has an important archaeological cave nearly 100. The largest known cave system in Guizhou Suiyang Shuanghe cave group, now probing the total length of more than and 117 km; second Guangxi Leye The Bailang underground river cave system has detected a total length of 75 kilometers of the cave channel again; Hubei Province Lichuan TENGLONGDONG county, Tunnel Dry hole and a total length of 52.8 km; Guizhou province Xiuwen Bailongdong cave system, Zhenyuan The river cave, Suiyang Tunnel length shuanghedong and multi bin holes are more than 20 kilometers. There are many caves in the giant cave hall, the world known plane area more than 30000 square meters of single Hall for a total of 24, Chinese has 7, Guizhou will River Cave System in the seedling hall area of 116 thousand square meters, ranking second in the world. From a single volume hall, Guangxi Leye County The Red Rose Hall large volume groove in the cave is 7 million cubic meters, ranking second in the world.

Cave Cave environment

Cave climate phenomenon itself, is mainly regulated by water and air convection. The cave is actually a relatively constant temperature environment. Have a certain impact on the cave's average temperature elevation, but generally at 11-15 DEG C. This is the origin of the cave "cool".
The air flow hole, in addition to the regulation of climate, the growth of stalactites cave is also a great impact, so when the cave cave exploration or development, not easy to get through the tunnel, it is often a consequence of destruction.
Into the hole often when entering a narrow channel, will feel very anxious in the wind, a walk immediately in smooth water. This is to say that the "chimney effect", it is because of the different height (or fracture), caused by natural convection of air inside and outside the tunnel with different temperature phenomenon. The "chimney effect" shows a strong seasonal variation, moving from the bottom to the top of hot air in winter, summer, spring and autumn, the opposite; when the pressure is close to the inside and outside of the tunnel, with the change of outside and the temperature, wind the daily changes in different time.
There is a high negative ion in the cave, self purification function can stimulate the human respiratory tract, improve immunity, there will be a feeling of excitement which is why enter the cave.
The hole will have a trace of radioactive elements, pure carbonate rock is lower than other radioactive. But the long-term work and stay in the cave, still have to pay attention to the cumulative time of stay. This is the reason why the development and utilization of the cave to the monitoring of radioactivity.
The change of comprehensive human physiological causes, in the following four aspects:
1 biological rhythm -- no change of season, hole damage time factors, the "biological clock" was destroyed, and the cycle is elongated.
2 changes in Climate Chaos -- not in the temperature and humidity in the cave, long time, may cause chaos.
3 feel chaotic -- a long time in the static and dark environment, not accustomed to hearing and vision stimulation, cause
To cause central nervous system dysfunction, nervousness, and hallucinations.
4 cold -- can lead to tension and super tight protection mechanism in the human body, produce the slow and fast response to stress.

Cave Cave classification

Cave In the underground space

The original cave is the underground space and surrounding rock is formed at the same time. In general, Never mind and groundwater. The main tunnel (commonly known as the volcano lava cave) and travertine cave. The formation of the volcano cave is caused by the flow of magma inside and outside temperature, the outside cooling fast, will form a hard shell, and the central continue to maintain the high temperature magma flow, have been previously formed hole.
The cave is the first secondary formation of rock, rock and then formed by various forces of the cave. The dissolution of the formation of the cave, karst caves and semi karst cave. Karst cave is very common in China, and is now the investigation and research of the main object of cave science. Semi karst caves such as Sichuan stretches of conglomerate Karst cave. The formation of mechanical erosion caves, such as the waves of sea wind erosion into the cave, cave in arid area, soil erosion in the caves.

Cave According to the space form

(is to) into horizontal, inclined, vertical and integrated four.
According to the size of cave classification is divided into four levels......
Small: less than 50 meters in length, vertical depth of less than 50 meters
Medium length: 50 meters ~500 meters, vertical depth of 50 meters ~200 meters
Large length: 500~5000 meters, vertical depth of 200~1000 meters
Giant: more than 50000 meters in length, vertical depth greater than 1000 meters

Cave According to the hydrological conditions

Dry hole
Tunnel tunnel is divided into water inlet hole and hole.

Cave SPELEOGENESIS

CaCO3+H2O+CO2, Ca (HCO3) (dissolved rock cave forming)
Ca (HCO3), CaCO3 (+H2O+CO2 = lower precipitation formation of stalactites)
Karst cave is also subject to the process of formation, development and decline. The formation of sinkhole collapse, is a manifestation of the development of the cave.
Name
origin
The distribution characteristics of China
Carbonate cave
from Karst formation
Widely distributed in Chinese, the largest number of the largest.
Gypsum cave
Due to its low mechanical strength, is also the causes of dissolution.
The distribution of more in gypsum karst area, but little cave.
Conglomerate hole
The soluble gravel or cementation and dissolution.
Rarely in the China number, generally not the length.
Xuanwu cave
Magma erupted, due to the formation of differences in the surface and bottom of magma cooling rate.
Chinese are distributed in the northeast and Yunnan modern volcano area.
Sand hole
The formation of sandstone weathering intensity difference.
 
Granite cave
In general by the tectonic movement or block movement and the formation of.
 

Name
origin
The distribution characteristics of China
Carbonate cave
from Karst formation
Widely distributed in Chinese, the largest number of the largest.
Gypsum cave
Due to its low mechanical strength, is also the causes of dissolution.
The distribution of more in gypsum karst area, but little cave.
Conglomerate hole
The soluble gravel or cementation and dissolution.
Rarely in the China number, generally not the length.
Xuanwu cave
Magma erupted, due to the formation of differences in the surface and bottom of magma cooling rate.
Chinese are distributed in the northeast and Yunnan modern volcano area.
Sand hole
The formation of sandstone weathering intensity difference.
Granite cave
In general by the tectonic movement or block movement and the formation of.

Cave The cave represents

Cave The characteristics of the cave

Bacon rock: This is one of the world's most beautiful cave scene, cave in rock texture resembling Bacon pork, it is formed in the inclined roof is saturated with water after calcite hardens into thin rock body. Sometimes, the water is rich in calcite containing iron oxide or organic substances, so that the "Bacon rock" with yellow, brown and orange. With the drop of organic matter and iron oxide concentration, residual multilayer structure, resembling Bacon pork.
Ice: ice is water ice, rather than the structure of rock, very spectacular, with a variety of forms. Sometimes the glaciers formed a hollow cave, Alaska California menden Holzer cave is formed beneath glacial ice.
Stone branch: like other caves unique structure, stone branch is rich in calcite (calcium carbonate stable form) water formation of speleothems, they are usually from the roof or wall extends down the stalactite.
Cave pearls: cave pearl formed in a shallow pool, pool water saturated calcite, when carbon dioxide escaping from the drop, and some precipitated calcite residue in the bottom of the pool, its appearance is like a pearl, a diameter of about 20 cm, although these substances initially have an irregular shape, but eventually formed sphere, because a sphere structure provides a minimum the surface area of maximum deposition.
Rock: rock in different cellular cellular precipitation or evaporation formation of speleothems, it is rock erosion or dissolution traces formed by the decomposition of appearance, has a honeycomb structure. Black mountain in South Dakota, United States there is a typical honeycomb rock.
Stone stone frame: the frame is flat and smooth stone platform in the cave, looks very much like a desktop with a glass coffee table, it is usually formed in a cave pool calcite deposition process, these precipitates are usually flat, thin form stone structure. With more calcite precipitation, stone frame only under the water until the growth, with the rock together, eventually forming a platform structure.
Frost Cave: cave is usually made of frosted opal, gypsum, and water, which is the most representative of aragonite frost. Although the majority of frost is white, but sometimes also has a variety of colors. It has very unique characteristics of acicular aragonite, they can grow into "Bush frost", with irregular aragonite frost chemistry, this is because the aragonite cave in low pressure and low temperature condition is not stable.
Flower: Flower cave cave is composed of gypsum and other substances, when water and carbon dioxide and sulfur together, after seeping from the cave wall, accompanied by water evaporation, the final residual gypsum material. But the structure is different from the stalactites, cave flower from the starting point of penetration of "growth", and to curve outward, looks like the delicate petals. At present, the United States of Kentucky, there are many Mammoth Cave cave flower.
The balloon: a balloon hole hole is little-known, scientists speculate that the cave "balloon" is due to high pressure liquid formed from the moonmilk cave wall leakage, typically, moonmilk is on top of rock or rock cave formation of water droplets in layers of sedimentary rocks, which is composed of calcite or a water magnesite white fine crystals. When the humid environment, moonmilk like cream cheese with high plasticity, exude from liquid swelled like a balloon.
Crystal Cave: Mexico Naica ore has the huge gypsum crystal, the wonderful structure that scientists were surprised. Usually, the cave temperature is low, but the ore magma above the hole in the Naica, maintained at a temperature of 44 degrees Celsius, humidity reaches 100%. In 2000, they found a "Crystal Cave" here, hundreds of thousands of years, water rich in calcium sulfate in the cave, when the temperature reached 58 degrees Celsius, these minerals will be transformed into a transparent crystal.

Cave Most of the cave

The world's longest cave system: the Mammoth Cave is 556849 meters long
The world's deepest hole: Georgia KruberaCave 1710 meters deep
China the longest cave system: Guizhou Shuanghe tunnel 100044 meters long is now ranked sixteenth in the world
Chinese the deepest hole: Chongqing Wulong gas pit depth of 920 meters
Chinese largest cave Hall: Guizhou grid will River seedling Hall of 116000 square meters

Cave Cave protection

For potholers or lovers should do, positive, spontaneous consciousness to promote the protection and implementation of protection. In the cave, we in addition to garbage and photos, should not take any of the items. Don't break any growth, do not kill cave animal, do not pollute the water cave. People for a long time, should take the single queue. In foreign countries, it is the size of special containers, leave out.
The development of the cave, should be in line with the principle of scientific planning, scientific development. Practice has proved that in the absence of a comprehensive survey, surveying and planning situation, to development, lack of protective measures, will bring serious consequences to the resources for developers, cave resources will not have long business vitality.

Cave Exploration record

Cave Chinese/English

Sino British joint investigation of caves
Time: from December 21, 1987 to 1988 and from February 23, 1989 to April 2nd 27 January
Location: Guangxi, Douan Obama, Fengshan Zhu County
The personnel: Andy Eavis 22.
The Chinese people: Xue Wen Zhu 16 people.
Exploration results: from December 21, 1987 to January 1988 27, mapping cave 29.687 kilometers, among them bama county 15.735 kilometers, Mashan County 13.952 kilometers.
China and Britain in 1989 fourth cooperation, the actual mapping and detection of the 26 caves, a total length of 40 km.
The fifth Sino British joint investigation of the cave
Time: March 17, 1991 to April 21st
Location: Yunnan, Mengzi, Sichuan Xingwen
The personnel: Andy Eavis 11.
Chinese personnel: Zhu Xuewen 21 people.
Exploration results: Fifth British cave exploration measured in the range of Nandong underground river basin within the cave and the shaft 13, peripheral Dazhuang, Caoba Basin karst hill The study area more than a dozen small caves, a total length of about 400 to 500 meters.
The sixth Sino British joint investigation of the cave
Time: August 16, 1992 to September 29th
Location: Tibet, Sichuan, Xingwen, Junlian Gongxian, County Chongqing
The personnel: Andy Eavis 25.
Chinese personnel: Zhu Xuewen 5 people.
Exploration results: Tibet's largest cave - Boomer village in Tibet (Qimu tribute check hole cave of Italy). The width of 11 meters high, 8 - 10 meters, the width of the high is 4 - 5 meters, a total length of about 50 meters. In Sichuan Xingwen County The range of stone forest, four Dragon, Xing Yan, Xianfeng, week five townships 220 square kilometers of the total detection of 15 main cave system, measuring the total length of 24.8 kilometers of new caves.
Seventh joint exploration
Time: July 27, 1994 to September 9th
Address: The Three Gorges of the Yangtze River region
The personnel: Mr. Andy Eavis 13
Chinese personnel: Zhu Xuewen 6 people
Exploration results: exploration work from August 14th to 24, a total of 7 caves detection system, drawing the cave length of 15 km. The depth of volume ranked first in the world, ranking second in the world (Xiao Zhai big funnel Xiaozhai Tiankeng ).
Eighth joint exploration
Time: July 26, 1996 to September 21st
Location: Chongqing, Wanxian Wuxi, Fengjie Yunyang, and Wulong (Three Gorges area)
The personnel
Brown The team: Brian Judd 12
Andy The team: Andy Eavis 15
Chinese personnel: Zhu Xuewen, tankai gull 7
Exploration results: investigated the characteristics of the overall development of plateau type karst. A total of 31 caves were detected, and the total length of nearly 24 km. To examine the area of Karst Tourism resources. Proven Qutangxia Gold hole, confirmed the cave archaeological value.
Ninth joint exploration
Time: December 1, 1997 to December 19th
Location: Chongqing, Wanzhou, Fengjie, Fuling Nanchuan
The personnel: Andy Eavis 18
Chinese personnel: Zhu Xuewen 12 people
Results: a total of 5 exploration detection of karst caves, a total length of more than 2000 meters of Surveying and mapping.
Further study of the work area of Karst Tourism resources.
Tenth joint exploration
Time: August 23, 1999 to September 25th
Address: Chongqing Fengjie Xiaozhai Tiankeng Wulong, Wushan Yunyang
The personnel: Andrew James Eavis 10
The Chinese people: Zhu Xuewen, Zhang Yuanhai and other 4 people
Exploration results: confirm the Tiankengdifeng position in the world.
Xiaozhai Tiankeng and Tianjing gorge seam The detection of underground river 1800 meters.
The eleventh Sino British Joint cave exploration
Time: October 1, 2000 to October 19th
Location: Guangxi Lingyun Leye,
The personnel: Gerard Campion 16
Chinese personnel: Zhu Xue steady, Han Daoshan and other 4 people
Exploration results in: Lingyun County The detection of the 6 caves, 10 km total length of Surveying and mapping.
Ma Wang Cun The sand hole and Silver Village Pengjiawan hole has the potential value of tourism development.
The detection of the Dashiwei The underground river and east west wind rock hole hole, a total length of 6 kilometers of cave surveying and cartography.
The thirteenth Sino British Joint cave exploration
Time: March 8, 2002 to April 14th
Location: Guangxi Leye Dashiwei Sinkhole
The personnel: Androw James Eavis 21
Chinese personnel: Zhu Xuewen 5 people
Results: the total length of the cave exploration and mapping of nearly 40 kilometers. Detection of vertical shaft more than and 40. To determine the maximum vertical field of Dashiwei cave to a depth of 820 meters. In the karst system upstream and downstream of the cave and found a large number of (near 30) underground cave really species, including many rare species such as crab and blind blind fish.

Cave Australia

The first Sino Australian joint cave exploration
Time: December 30, 1992 to February 6, 1993
Location: Chongqing, Nantong munekage, Guangxi Guilin
Australia: Rauleigh Webb 5
Chinese personnel: Zhu Xuewen 6 people
Results: the exploration in Nantong Mining Area, dam, Wandong jungle, auspicious star Nantian, youth, Maxell Such as the range of about 260 square kilometers in the survey of Mo Zi hole Jade Palace cave monkey hole Hing factory Dong Yuzhu dragon palace cave Chinese cave Buddha cave stockade laolongdong Liangfeng cave goose hole hole DALONGDONG Shao Qi hole hole Wang Jia Ba Tunnel 19 caves, and one of the 10 caves were surveying and mapping, surveying and mapping the length of more than 10 kilometers.
stay Tongjing Scenic Area After three days of female monkey hole detection hole Yang Jia Dong cave bamboo hanging hole brick shaft shaft size 10 cave pond.

Cave Italy

Italy joint cave exploration
Time: August 9, 1993 to August 28, 1993
Location: Sichuan Huaying Guilin, Guangxi
Italy: Rosario 10 Ruggieri
Chinese personnel: Zhu Dehao 6 people
Exploration results in: Huaying Exploration work, a total of 22 mostly in cave exploration, vertical shaft. The mapping of cave length of over 4 kilometers, the total depth of 616 meters vertical shaft.
Italy cave joint investigation
Time: December 26, 2001 (10 days)
Location: Guangxi Nandan
Italy: Rosario 4 Ruggieri
The Chinese people: Han Daoshan, Zhang Yuanhai
Results: the exploration expedition in Nandan in the middle of the road to the lake pond before the village visits, found Shi Linqun and sinkhole.
The survey shaft 18. The actual measurement 2.

Cave Sino-American

Sino US joint cave exploration
Time: March 7, 1988 to March 19th
Location: Hunan Chenzhou Wanhua rock
The United States: Ron Bridgemon.
Wang: Chinese personnel training etc.
Exploration results proved: Yan million water cave length up to 4500 meters, the main tunnel 2245 meters long, located underground river along the stretch direction.

Cave South Africa

(Indochina Yugoslavia Cave) joint exploration
Time: November 1988
Location: Sichuan Xingwen
13, 90 days' cave joint exploration
Time: February 19, 1990 to April 1st
Location: Guangxi Tiandeng County (Dragon Mingxiang, Du Kang Xiang Fu, Xinxiang, Ning Gan Xiang And to all the township Zibo Boshan district (Shandong) Chaoyang Township And Tumen township)
Exploration results: measuring 6 hole (China is measured 2, the Japanese side measuring 3, common measuring 1.) Measuring hole total length of 1527.6 meters.
In 16 caves were collected in more than and 10 species of 91 specimens of cave deposits.

Cave Sino-Japanese

In the cave joint exploration
Time: February 20, 1992 to April 1st
Location: Guangxi Gongcheng (Xiling township, Jia Xiang Millet, wood), Pingle (supporting urban and rural areas, two town, Fusing Township )
The Japanese personnel about 8 people: Optical Valley
Chinese personnel: Wang Fuxing 7 people
Results: a total of 30 deep exploration. The shaft 10, the total length of 13.3 km, the total vertical depth of 402.1 meters.
Cave more than and 30 categories of biological specimens collected in 23 caves, more than and 500 specimens.
In 97 cave joint exploration
Time: February 18, 1997 to March 24th
Location: Guizhou Renhuai (three, Huo Shi Gang, Chang Gang, MA)
Results: a total of 8 shaft exploration detection, the cumulative depth of about 1100 meters, a total length of 5730 meters.
In 98 cave Biology Observation
The time from October 13, 1998 to October 27th;
Location: Guizhou Dafang County Liupanshui, Luodian Li Bo, Guangxi, Bama, mountain wind.
Results: a total of 16 exploration caves, found many beetles, collected a large number of samples, of which there are many species of the new genus.
In 99 cave joint exploration
Time: August 15, 1999 to September 20, 1999
Location: Guangxi Leye
Japanese personnel: Yamada Ryoji 6 people
Exploration results: the successful completion of the Guangxi Leye Tongle town detection White rock Foot Tun vertical depth greater than 350 meters, the mouth diameter of 500 meters by 380 meters, the mouth area of 190000 square meters, the total volume of 30000000~50000000 cubic meters of large karst funnel.
The detection of the surrounding inclined cave cave and the level of nearly 20, a total of more than 4000 meters long.

Cave Related terms

The dolomite, dolomite mineral name, its chemical composition is CaMg (CO3) 2.
The edge of the stone, calcium carbonate water pools formed edge. Edge stone edge lace, some small stone dam, often water into the pond. The edge stone is not flat at the bottom of the cave along the groundwater flow due to dissipation of carbon dioxide, calcium carbonate precipitation.
The edge of the stone dam, formed across the direction of water flow to the downstream side of the dam convex stone.
The piercing, both ends of the underground river or from the underground water level of river, the cave opening transmission corridor.
Cave deposits, as formed by the physical and chemical effects of mechanical deposition, deposition and water cave speleothem deposition.
The cave system, specific area by people can enter or has hydraulic connection connected cave pipeline, also refers to the complex channel and the cave cave cave hall.
Cave exploration, English Caving, which entered the cave exploration activities.
The hole has a large hall, long and wide hole hole hole hole.
Sinkholes, by water flowing along the fracture erosion, dissolution and formation of dissipating surface water in the vertical cave collapse, often connected with the underground tunnel or cave hall, the depth of up to 100 meters.
The cave collapse accumulation, hanging from the ceiling, wall, hole collapse with the formation of collectively stone, gravel and rubble breccia deposits.
Cave biological accumulation, mainly formed by animal feces, skeletal soil like speleothems.
The underground river, also known as the underground river, river channel has the characteristics of.
The cave life, narrow and broad points. Narrow cave creatures can only breed in the specific environment, outside the cave has lost the survival ability of biology, it is also called the true cave creatures. Such as lower plants, algae, microbes, invertebrates, vertebrates, they blind loach, spiders, millipedes, centipedes, Zaoma class. Cave animal eyes were degraded, lack of pigment. Generalized cave creature refers to all species in distribution.
Cave plants, species and quantity are few, only in some special plants near the entrance to the cave, inward with reduced light intensity, plant species decreased rapidly, organs and tissues of plants also changes. They are mainly ferns, mosses and lichens, algae.
Cave animal, including animal, animal like cave cave and hermit of cave animal. A.'s cave animal, only survive in the dark world, cannot live in the outside environment of the animal body, usually lack pigment, no eye or only very small eyes, but long tentacles, sense of smell, with low energy consumption The new supersedes the old. As the cave fish, OLM, cave spider, moth and hard film foot limb involved. B. hi cave animal, complete its life cycle, can live in the dark cave in a humid environment in a cave animal. Such as earthworms and some salamanders. C. stranger of cave animal, living in temporary cave animal such as bats.
Groundwater tracer detection, water or soil water and groundwater or surface vanishing point method of hydraulic connection between the dew point.
 Cave Cave
[water] underground groundwater diving water, groundwater is completely filled all the underground space.
The goose down growth on the tube, the same slender hollow stalactites.
The subterranean rivers after the latent period, the surface of the ground. The main difference between it and the underground river is carrying significant import and export, and the underground river and underground water, as the main source of export import volume.
Peaks, high-rise buildings of limestone peaks, dispersed or in groups on the ground, looking like.
Peaks associated base peaks, between peaks often form "U" shaped saddle terrain.
Calcite, calcium carbonate mineral name, its chemical composition is CaCO3.
The rainbow Straw, namely siphon, a water filled, inverted "U" shape, there are underground karst pipes water level difference at a distance above the surface, import and export.
The foot hole, the water level along the underground development of cave formation. By the flood erosion, denudation flood formed in Shifeng foot.
 Cave Cave
Curling stone, spiral or twist up stalactites. By full of calcium carbonate in water from the roof or wall of the capillary leakage and deposition, can grow in any direction.
Karst That is, Karst is a synonym of karst, the original is Slovenia The names of Northwest local limestone platform, called Kras, German called Karst, was used as the name of the dissolution of limestone area.
Liu Shi, the formation of calcium carbonate sedimentary water. The formation of said top flow stone, said wall formed in the wall flow formed in the bottom of the stone, stone called underflow.
lotus , also known as cloud basin, from the center outward, to form on the growth of large bowl bottom small calcium carbonate sediments, round or muddy circular disc. It is the center of the ring, and most of the corresponding stalactite roof. The distribution in the bottom of the hole more open cave, the top plate in the same horizontal plane, the periphery of total closed boundary stone dam, storage.
Flow marks, by water corrosion and erosion, formed in the wall of the wavy concavo convex. It can flow through the identification form.
Sinkholes, dissipating surface water near the vertical or inclined cave.
Anchor, namely English Belay, single rope or rope or ladder where insurance.
The maze, composed of various direction, scale, and interconnected caves in nearly horizontal cave system.
Diving pit, Sump, water flooded the underground tunnel roof.
Karst area is a puddle, Tan shaped, well shaped deep natural groundwater outcrop.
 Cave Cave
[in] the stony coral stalactites surface, dripping water and water spilled water in capillary water under the action of adhesion of coral calcium carbonate deposits formed on the surface of the wall or stalagmites, stone curtain.
Gypsum, calcium sulfate, CaSO4.2H2O.
Stone, also known as the color palette, the calcium carbonate sediments composed of two parallel plate shape shield. Stone shield is composed of some properties of the seepage water pressure along a crack at a certain angle exudation from crack mouth department began to form on the two surface and the shape of the annular layer by layer growth precipitation into shield sediment, the shield diameter from more than and 10 cm to 4 or 5 meters, the thickness is generally 2 ~ 10 cm. When the seepage water more, they formed stalactites or stone mantle in the lower part of the shield.
Stone curtain The wall or roof, sheet flow sediment outflow with calcium carbonate to form pleated flow stone, shaped like a curtain, also known as stone curtain, stone curtain.
Have the flag stone, or the inner wall on the continuous flow of thin and translucent flag shaped stone stream.
Well, to the tunnel diameter than the big chimney like deep deep down, tens to hundreds of meters.
From the top of the karst cave stalactite, downward conical or cylindrical calcium carbonate sediments, shaped like a stalactite named. The change of water inflow due to infiltration of temperature and pressure, carbon dioxide by water, supersaturated calcium carbonate precipitation. Start with small protrusions attached to the ceiling, then gradually increase downward, with concentric structure, at the entrance of the stalactite, because algae attached growth, organisms have to positive, so this downward growth often inclined to stalactite cave, belong to Karst biological .
Stalagmite cave dripping water to the bottom, in the bottom of occurrence of splash effect, the evaporation of water, carbon dioxide to escape, calcium carbonate precipitated calcium carbonate sediments, bottom-up growth, such as bamboo shoots, with overlapping cap features.
Columns, column and the corresponding growth of stalagmite stalactite formed after the connection.
A clump of flower stone flower, non gravity water accumulation spread on the surface of the wall or other caves (FOG) deposition.
Shi Huihua, also known as travertine, on the surface by karst springs, river, lake sedimentary formation of large voids of secondary calcium carbonate.
Erosion, chemical erosion by flowing medium, especially for the water soluble rock.
Sinkhole, steep cliffs around (rather than any form of slope but does not include the late reformation of depth and width) were more than 50m of surface pit.
The natural bridge, roof collapse and underground river cave, residual roof across the valley. The two ends of the middle and the ground is vacant and like a bridge.
The skylight, underground river or cave top to the surface euphotic part of [7].
 Cave Cave
[] the cave cave pearl pearl, formed in the Underground River Cave drip pit has a concentric circle structure of spherical calcium carbonate sediments. The oolitic, globular and pie is large.
rock pendant The protrusion is located in bedrock, roof, wall.
The chimney from the hole to the vertical or near vertical cave, cave was narrow, only a body support, crawling, the corresponding climbing method called chimney climbing.
The rock, sedimentary rocks of sedimentary rock layer or a layer.
Karst, karst water such as limestone, dolomite and rock salt dissolution and the resulting Geological phenomenon .
Karst funnel, also known as Doline doline, transliteration, a saucer shaped, cone shaped or funnel-shaped Closed depression By vertical fracture, dissolution or cave roof collapse, the funnel formed in the karst area, individual funnel vary greatly, ranging from several meters to hundreds of meters.
The karst, namely "Karst landform", caused by the karst landform. In the carbonate rock (limestone and dolomite, Marl Etc.) strata in the most widely distributed, the ground often rugged, rocky, Qi Lin, a common surface stone bud, grike, Stone Forest Funnel luoshuidong, Karst depression , poljes, valley, karst peaks and other forms, is developed by underground underground river, cave and other caves.