Pseudolarix (scientific name: Pseudolarix amabilis (Nelson) Rehd.
For Pinaceae) Pseudolarix
A kind of. Nickname Kanamatsu
(Hangzhou), water (Zhejiang Huzhou). The blade bar, flat soft, spirally scattered on long branches, on short branches from 15 to 30 gold clusters, spreading to the surrounding radiation, then turn golden, round as coins, hence the name.
As a famous ancient relic species such as plants, the earliest fossils found in Siberia
The late Cretaceous strata of the East and the West in ancient Miocene in the islands of Spitsbergen, Europe, Central Asia, the western United States, northeast China and Japan have also been found. Due to climate change, especially in the Pleistocene The great ice age
The advent of the local extinction of larch. Only in the Yangtze River downstream Chinese in a few areas to survive. Because of the sporadic distribution of individual, rare, strong intermittence, and urgent protection.
Wood texture straight, moderate hardness, material is slightly rough, brittle. Can be used for building, plate, furniture, appliances and industrial raw materials such as wood fiber; bark extract tannin extract, medicine (commonly known as Pseudolaricis) helps to treat intractable tinea and dyspepsia symptoms; root bark can be medicinal, also can be used for paper sizing; seeds oil extraction.
Speciesis Morphological character
Trees, up to 40 meters, diameter of 1.7 meters; straight trunk, bark rough, brown scaly, split into pieces of irregular branches spreading, crown wide; pyramid; reddish brown or reddish yellow growing branches, a year glabrous, shiny, two or three year old branches yellowish gray or brownish gray. Dilute purplish brown, old branches and short branches gray, dark gray or brownish gray; rectangular short shoot growth is extremely slow, with dense leaf pillow shaped part. Leaves linear, soft, sickle or straight, upper slightly wide, long 2 ~ 5.5 cm, width 1.5 ~ 4 mm (saplings and sprouting branches of leaves to 7 cm long, 5 mm wide), apex acute or acuminate, above green, midrib noticeable, the blue green, midrib, each side has 5 ~ 14 air hole line, a wide band of stomatal band midrib or nearly equal width; long branch leaf radiation stretch, short branch leaves clustered densely, spreading into the shape of a disc, autumn leaves yellow Chengjin.
Male flowers yellow, terete, drooping, length 5 ~ 8 mm, stalk length 4 ~ 7 mm; female flowers purple, erect, oblong, ca. 1.3 cm, with a short stalk.
Cones ovoid or obovoid, length 6 ~ 7.5 cm, diameter 4 ~ 5 cm, mature green or yellowish green, reddish brown when ripe, with a short stalk; scales ovate lanceolate in the middle, long 2.8 ~ 3.5 cm, base width of about 1.7 cm, on both sides of the ear shaped, apex obtuse with notches., with longitudinal ridges between the ventral fin and raised ridge marks, densely pubescent, glabrous scales back; bracts ca. scales of 1/4 ~ 1/3, ovate lanceolate, margin serrulate; seed ovoid, white, ca. 6 mm, a winged triangular lanceolate, pale yellow or pale brown yellow above, shiny, with seed scales and almost equal. Florescence in April, October.
Speciesis Growth habit
At an altitude of 100 meters to 1500 areas scattered in conifer and broadleaf trees. Its fast growth, acidic soil mountain area in warm, wet, like soil deep, fertile, well drained.
From early hi light, slightly resistant to light shade, after enhancement. In the annual temperature 15 to 18 degrees Celsius, the absolute minimum temperature of minus 10 degrees celsius. The strong performance of anti fire speciesis.
Speciesis geographical distribution
Southern Jiangsu (Yixing), Zhejiang, southern Anhui, northern Fujian, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Lichuan and Sichuan Wanxian
Speciesis Breeding method
Cuttings or seed propagation. Seed should be more than 20 years old growth trees. The cones are not fully ripe to early harvest, if the harvest late seed scales fall together with half. The nursery should be inoculated with mycorrhizal soil. Transplantation should be carried out in the bud before, should pay attention to the protection and with mycorrhiza. As mycorrhizal species Pseudolarix, suitable sowing and seedling in the forest. Or with mycorrhizal soil covering seedbed, suitable for nursery continuous cropping. The seedlings 15-20 cm tall, usually stay in bed for two years with three years of cultivation, planting seedlings. The seed harvest year, the implementation of direct seeding afforestation or artificial natural regeneration, also easy to succeed. The use of less than 10 years old young cuttings, the survival rate could reach 70%. Cuttage
Larch is a deciduous arbor, its propagation by cutting the main, also can sow. Cutting in spring or autumn, especially in early spring cuttage survival rate is high, generally above 85%. In the spring before germination, combined with pruning, their branches 10 to 12 centimeters, the top 3 to 5 full bud as well. The cuttings directly hit the bed, buried at a depth of 6 to 8 cm, the spacing is 5 x 10 cm, pay attention to prevent shading, the soil is too wet. insert After pouring enough water, with 50 cm high plastic film Gongpeng cover on farmland, keep seedbed moist, Gongpeng above the erection of 1.8 meters high shade, double zheyangwang materials, so that the air circulation, reduce the occurrence of pests and diseases. After rooting, peel off layer shade net, gradually increase the seedbed of light, the last remaining small Gongpeng film in cold winter. The following spring transplanting should bring up the old territory, with the starting with planting, easy survival. Planting season should be in the winter leaves to the next spring before germination. Such light should be sparse planting. 2 ~ 3 year after planting pine root soil, tending not pruning. Sow
The size of Pseudolarix significantly, generally every 3 to 5 years, or even 7 years to yield I. Young cones mostly empty seed grain, seed selection should be more than twenty years old growth trees. From 10 to November were put in ripening, indoor stalls, every 100 kilograms of cones can be 8 ~ 12 kg net. The seed germination rate of more than 60% in general. Seedling should first mixed forest soil money, so that people with mycorrhiza. Sowing in early February to early March, before sowing the seeds placed in 40CC water (cooling) by day and night, drill or broadcast sowing amount of 12 kg per mu. After sowing with mycorrhizal soil cover, the seed for the degree, cover straw or other covering, usually 20 days after germination and emergence, should promptly uncover. At the seedling stage half shade environment, can be sprayed Bordeaux disease on a sunny day. For dry early seedling stage, water and fertilizer management should be good. After September, in the vigorous growth stage, to strengthen management, to promote the rapid growth. In the normal management, the seedling height can reach 10 to 15 cm, can stay in bed for a year, the urban greening shall be transplanted big culture. Because there is a symbiotic relationship with Larch mycorrhiza, the propagation and cultivation must mix with mycorrhizal soil in the new area.
Spring planting in Larch buds before germinating, autumn and winter in the leaves. Many small seedling transplanting seedlings with soil, must dig up mud ball.
Speciesis cultivation techniques
From strong interval is longer, usually 3-5 years solid one time, 10 months late. When mature, scales to yellow can be harvested. 20-30 should be born without seed when seed pests strong. The interior is collected after stacking cones, the scales, cracking, threshing, screening available, and then piled up at a dry storage (seed rate 12-15%). The seed weight 20-24 grams per kilogram of pure 2000024000 grain seeds. The germination rate of more than 80%.
Speciesis Grow seedlings
As mycorrhizal species Pseudolarix, should set up a permanent breeding base at an altitude of 400-500 meters mountain, or mycelium forest seedling in soil. The plain and hilly areas can choose more shade the fertile soil, moist and loose as a local nursery. Shizujifei after bed preparation, to break the clods, intensive and meticulous farming flat bed. The planting season in early to mid March, before sowing seeds in 40 degrees warm water soaking and pregermination 18-24 hours, and then 0.5% formalin disinfection. A distance of 20 cm, seedling, sowing trench to spread a layer of fine soil. With the seeds of 15 kg per mu. After sowing to thin soil cover, available to cover a coke Nihui, still can see part of the seed is appropriate, then cover the grass.
After sowing 2 weeks after seedling emergence, 20 days out of qi. For most seedlings unearthed after the removal of grass cover. 5 July 1 - month fertilizer 2 times, each unit applying ammonium sulfate 2 - 5 kg. The seedling height of 10 cm, must stay in bed for a year, second year spring before germination, application of thin human excrement or application of ammonium sulfate (2 - 3 kg / mu), the remaining 6-8 million trees after thinning, 2 year old seedling height of 30 cm above.
Speciesis Afforestation technology
In the winter after the leaves to second years before germination of afforestation. The commonly used 2-3 annual seedlings afforestation.
Planting density: 200-240 plants / mu. The spacing of 1.7 * 1.7 ~ 1.5 * 2m. 2 years above the level of seedling height 35cm, diameter of more than 0.5cm. 3 years above the level of seedling height 50cm, diameter of more than 0.8cm.
Preparation method: bulk preparation of not less than 50 * 1250px, depth of not less than 500px. The planting hole bottom diameter not less than 750px, depth of not less than 750px.
Annual management: Pseudolarix initial growth is relatively slow, can be combined with intercropping, annual herb chopping soil raised 2 - 3 times, tending, not pruning, generally 5 to 6 years can be closed. After closing, every 3, 4 years, in addition to the 1 vine cut miscellaneous.
Thinning period: 12 - 15 years later when the canopy density was more than 0.9, pressed wood accounted for 20 of total plants - 30%, can carry out appropriate thinning. The lower layer thinning, the first thinning intensity of 25 - 35% of the total number of individuals per mu forest, retained 120 160 lines, 20 after 30%, after thinning density not less than 0.7, thinning interval for 10 years. Cultivate large diameter timber in 20 - 25 years before thinning 1 times, the remaining 60 - 80 strains.
The felling period: Plantation for 30 years, the general forest 30 - 50 years.
Speciesis Pest control
A large moth. The timely removal of bags, concentrated burned; on young larvae, with 800 to 90% trichlorfon 1000 times spray; in the mountain area from mulberry distant, sprayed budworm bacteria, Bacillus thuringiensis, Beauveria bassiana also has good effect.
Optional coarse and fine, high, low, the growth of healthy plants and planted in a pot made of jungle bonsai, should pay attention to the organic collocation clearly, low density, and with stone figures, can fully reflect the nature of forest landscape fresh. It can also be made into a straight shape, dry, dry, dry, double needle curved stem type bonsai can.
The maintenance points are as follows:
The 1 is too arid, barren or saline alkaline soil, will be completed, deciduous phenomenon; in acidic or neutral soil deep, fertile, well drained.
2 have not heat tolerant characteristics, optimum growth temperature is 15 to 25 DEG C, in the summer temperature of 32 degrees Celsius above that should be moved to the shade, not less than 0 degrees during the winter.
3 hi light, in addition to 50 to 70% should pay attention to the summer shade, the other seasons can be cultivated in the sun.
4 must pay attention to water control, make Pentu dry, to prevent rot, the general should be dry and wet, and often to the foliage and stems more water, to keep the soil and air humidity, to prevent dry leaf tip blight.
The 5 month growth period of application of thin liquid fertilizer 1 times, with the decomposition of organic fertilizer such as bean dregs diluted in water use, every rainy season, the hot season or Liqiu after stopping application.
6 pruning should be combined with the design, its growth, focus on growth speed on the growth period of slower growth of branches truncated, weak branches to temporarily retain, to grow strong after processing.
Speciesis The main value
Speciesis economic value
Wood texture straight, moderate hardness, material is slightly rough, brittle. Can be used for building, plate, furniture, appliances and industrial raw materials such as wood fiber; bark can extract, but also can be used for paper sizing; seeds oil extraction.
Speciesis Medicinal value
The root bark can be medicinal, can treat indigestion, anti-bacterial anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, scabies itch, anti fertility and inhibit the activity of liver cancer cells and other symptoms.
Speciesis Ornamental value
Can be used for garden, tree appearance is beautiful, leaves on short branches fascicled, radiation spreading into a disc like autumn leaves, coins, golden color, highly ornamental. This tree is one of the rare ornamental trees, and pine, cedar, redwood and Jin Song are collectively referred to as the world's five largest tree species. Can be isolated planting, clump planting, planting out or do scenic forest.
Speciesis protective measures
One of the main mountain in Zhejiang province has been built by nature reserve. The forestry department has listed the important afforestation tree species in Zhongshan golden larch, hilly region. Many city and botanical garden has been cultivated.
Speciesis scientific research
From the endophytic fungus JJ18 objective function: kill snail molluscicidal effect, the active site and the molluscicidal activity of the strains of Endophytic Fungi of Pseudolarix passage stability of JJ18, in order to explore the possibility of application.
Methods: according to the WHO of the molluscicide immersion test was observed under different treatments of JJ18 fermentation liquid molluscicidal effect.
Results: the active components of the fermentation broth of JJ18 strain concentration in the extracellular fluid, when the extracellular solution at the concentration of 10%, 72h molluscidal rate close to 90%, and the fermentation liquid external salt has good heat resistance, high light active substances in 7d does not change, strain is stable, molluscicidal activity concentrated in composition n-butanol extract.
Conclusion: speciesis metabolites of endophytic fungus JJ18 molluscicidal activity, there is a possibility of development and application.
The snail (Oncomelania hupensis Gredler) is the only intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, snail control is the key to the control of schistosomiasis transmission. The research work is still in the stage of laboratory research, is considered to be a kind of the most promising biological molluscicide. Actinomycetes (gray 230 (Streptomyces griseolus 230) of Streptomyces J and Streptomyces violaceoruber (Streptomyyce violaceoruber) etc.) and bacteria (convex Pseudomonas (Psudomomas conrexa Chester) etc.) molluscacidal studies have been reported, no study reports Chinese screw fungi killing. This study isolated endophytic fungi from Pseudolarix Pseudolarix amabilis strains JJ18 (laboratory number) has high molluscicidal activity in the study is the first vaccine drug.