Douglas fir ( Name
: Pseudotsuga sinensis
Dode yellow fir, Douglas fir short alias), Podocarpus
That belongs to the genus of conifer forest. Pinaceae
A Pseudotsuga evergreen Tree
Tall and straight trunk, bark, broken into irregular block; branchlets yellowish green, or gray, branches usually glabrous, branches are brown haired, short handle bar leaves, 1.5--3 cm long, about 2 mm wide, apex concave above, midrib below midrib sag, uplift, two white stoma
Pendulous, ovoid or ovoid elliptic, 4.5--8 cm long, brown when ripe, Central Seed scales
Frog shaped, fan-shaped shell, rhombic circular, ca. 2.5 cm; 3 cm wide, base on both sides of the recess, scales back dense shorthair, Bracts
Long exserted, apex recurved, three lobed, lobes acuminate in seeds, densely brown pubescent, ca. 9 mm, a relatively long winged seed, disjunct distribution in China
And North america.
Douglas fir Morphological character
Trees, up to 50 meters, diameter of 1 meters; young pale gray bark, old gray or dark gray, split into irregular thick pieces; annual branches pale yellow or yellowish gray (dry brown), grey biennial sticks, branches usually glabrous, branches are brown haired. Leaves linear, arranged in two rows, 1
.3-3 (multi 2-2.5) cm, ca. 2 mm wide, apex obtuse is concave, base broadly cuneate, above green or light green, there are 21 white stomatal bands; cross section with pointed ends, a layer of subcutaneous layer of cells arranged in series, the central one (diluted two) layer of continuous subcutaneous layer of cells lining. 球果卵圆形或椭圆状卵圆形，近中部宽，两端微窄，长4.5-8厘米，径3.5-4.5厘米，成熟前微被白粉；中部种鳞近扇形或扇状斜方形，上部宽圆，基部宽楔形，两侧有凹缺，长约2.5厘米，宽约3厘米，鳞背露出部分密生褐色短毛；苞鳞露出部分向后反伸，中裂窄三角形，长约3毫米，侧裂三角状微圆，较中裂为短，边缘常有缺齿；种子三角状卵圆形，微扁，长约9毫米，上面密生褐色短毛，下面具不规则的褐色斑纹，种翅较种子为长，先端圆，种子连翅稍短于种鳞；子叶6（稀7）枚，条状披针形，长1.7-2.8厘米，宽约1毫米，先端尖，深绿色，上面中脉隆起，有2条白色气孔带，下面平，不隆起；初生叶条形，长1.5-2.3厘米，宽1-1.4毫米，先端渐尖或急尖，上面平，无气孔线，下面中脉隆起，有两条白色气孔带。 Florescence in April, month cone 10-11.
Douglas fir Growth habit
With light Douglas fir resistance to drought, barren, strong wind resistance, fewer pests and other characteristics, such as soil and climate factors to adapt to wide range, with strong ecological adaptability. Shallow root root, especially Developed, up to 10 meters, florescence 4--5 month, 9--10 month after cooked cones, cracking, seed dispersion, natural regeneration ability.
In the distribution area In the subtropical zone
to Tropical North
In vertical distribution, altitude
300--2800 meters often scattered in the mountain, Coniferous forest
And at high altitude Guizhou
The western region, the warm and humid subtropical monsoon climate, annual average temperature 10.5 to 13.5 DEG C, less than 10 DEG C - 2500 accumulated temperature 4000 degrees Celsius, the coldest month (January) the average temperature 2-4 degrees, the hottest month (July) 17 - 22 degrees Celsius temperature, extreme low temperature -8 - -14 degrees, annual rainfall of about 1000 mm, yellow in sharp relief Shan mountain plateau, woodland
The slope, 10-30 degrees, in some areas up to 50 degrees in the wet Mountain valley
, The river front
Can the normal growth of Douglas fir. For soil Acidic yellow soil
, Yellow brown
and purple soil
, PH value
5.5 - 6. But at an altitude of about 300 meters in Qiandongnan, the climatic characteristics of warm humid subtropical climate zone, annual precipitation is 1100---1300 mm, annual mean temperature 16 to 17 DEG C, more than 10 degrees temperature 5000---6000 degrees, the mean temperature of January 3 - 6 C and 28 C temperature in July 5, the absolute low temperature is -4 DEG C - -6, soil
by red earth
, Yellow red soil
. Douglas fir growth is good, also can grow in limestone mountain, but more slowly. Such as the Weining Black Stone River District Hom was grinding, Department, hold both unitary etc.. There is a small area of pure forest, forest soil rich in organic matter, texture is sandy loam or loam, loose and moist, dark green forest community appearance, neat.
The community structure is clear, can be clearly divided into tree layer
, Shrub layer
, Herbaceous layer
Shrub layer mainly Viburnum (Viburnum foetidum var. vectangulatum right angle), Hypericum
(Hypericum acmosepalum), Lobular cuckoo
(Rhoclodenedron sp.), Corylus yunnanensis
(Corylus yunnanensis), herbaceous layer mainly Plantain
(Plantayo asiatica L.), Oplismenus undulatifolius
(Oplismenus undulatifolius), Edelweiss
(Leontopodium leonto podioifes). Inter layer plants Smilax China
(Smilax sp.), Raspberry
(Rubus sp.), Yunnan Paederiascandense
(Poederia yunnanensis). While appearing in Douglas fir mixed forest altitude
800--2200 meters, canopy density of 0.2 - 0.7, the dominant species in the fir tree layer, plant
Tall and big， Trunk
Well, the tree layer often mix with Cypress
(Cupressus funebcris), Keteleeria evelyniana
(Keteleeria evelyniana), Yunnan pine
(Pinus yunnanensis), Fir wood
(Cunninghamia lanceolata), Huashan pine
(Pinus arnandi), Incense
(Plutgcaryu strobilaceae), lemon (Alnns nepalensis) from alder, Lacquer tree
(Toxicodendron vernicifluum), under the forest due to the influence of human activities, shrub and herb layers were sparse; the shrub layer is mainly a Yunnan (Myricanana), Corylus yunnanensis
(Corylus yunnanensis), Rhododendron simsii
(Rhocdodendron simsii), cyclobalanopsis glauca
(Cydobalanopsis, glaua) (Pyracantha crenulata) fine teeth firethorn, Zanthoxylum ovalifolium
(Zanthoxylum dinophyllum), c.seguinii (Costanea seyuinii), the main types are: Mao herbaceous leaf hispid Arthraxon (Athyxon prionodes) (Arisaema, consanyuineum), Arisaema fern (Pteridum aquliinmm var. latiusculum).
Douglas fir Distribution
Is the endemic species of Chinese, produced in Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou
Hubei, Hunan. In Western Hubei, Northeastern Guizhou, Northwestern Hunan and southeastern Sichuan, born in 800-1200 meters above sea level in Sichuan area; Southwest and central Yunnan and northeast Guizhou, northwest born in 1500-2800 meters above sea level.
Guizhou is one of the main distribution area of Douglas fir, mainly in Weining
, Leigong Mountain
Other places have scattered. In Western Weining and more concentrated into pieces, such as Blackstone
So, station, zhejue, Hella
The village of Douglas fir forest, the station has a unitary hold keep relatively intact pure forest stand structure, maximum tree height up to 32.5 meters, diameter 48 cm. Meitan County Fish springs Wangcuncun
Wang Group also had a dominant species of fir forest, tree height is 3-13 meters, diameter of 4--20 cm, an area of 66.6 hectares, Douglas fir in Guizhou highest distribution altitude of 2335 meters, Weining black stone river more than the lowest, Sansui yard; Xinchang Town Lang village at an altitude of about 300 meters, up to 200 years old, height 31 meters and a circumference of 301 cm, the average width of 12.7 meters, the largest cave township near Liping for a solitary wood, 37.5 meters high, circumference of 568 cm.
Douglas fir Biological value
Disjunct distribution in Douglas fir China
and North America
The excellent material, a material. Douglas fir
Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco is the genus of North American species. Study on Flora
The classification and distribution of academic significance, is also the rare germplasm resources of tree breeding, can be used as a distribution area of afforestation.
Sapwood heartwood pale brown, red brown, straight texture, fine structure, the proportion of 0.6 for housing construction, bridges, poles, plate material, furniture, stationery and synthetic fiber raw materials such as timber. Douglas fir has strong adaptability, fast growth, good timber, in the areas of the mountains in the upper part of optional for afforestation.
Leaves are used as medicine.
Douglas fir Breeding method
Reproduction by seeds. After seed selection of seeds to be stored, choose spring fertilizer
Sowing fertile sandy loam, unearthed after 20 days. Seedlings to shade, and keep the soil moist. The wild tree cone pest rate is high, not easy to seed, can be transplanted under natural forest in situ seedling, cultivation, accelerated growth. And shall establish a guangyuan.
Douglas fir Living conditions
Although the wide distribution of Douglas fir, stuffy no large area of pure forest, mostly sporadic distribution or patches. Due to excellent material, tired of deforestation, the distribution area is shrinking. The convenience of harvesting trees, almost all were cut down. The remaining plants in the ridge and inaccessible mountains. Hezhang County
Coke Xiang Chun Le Village 1916 meters above sea level, the distribution of 1.5 hectares, tree layer
The main Douglas fir and Yunnan song mix; there are 20 hectares of scattered. Weining County: at an altitude of 2335 meters more than the black stone river yard, the community area of 44 hectares, He Kan Cun
Zhu Jia yard altitude
2345 meters, the pure forest of 11 hectares, 2250 meters in elevation of the unitary station hold both, fir pure forest of 5 hectares, at an altitude of 2053 meters up Jue Xiang Duan Jia Liang Zi, community area of 300 hectares, is 2070 meters above sea level in rural area of 18 hectares. In addition to some pure forest, and often Yunnan pine
, Keteleeria evelyniana
, Corylus yunnanensis
, Populus adenopoda
With the students, in Weining, in addition to the distribution of the pure forest of Douglas fir and Douglas fir dominated by forest and forest, fir scattered 533 hectares.
Panxian Ping Xiang Guan Ying water shed, 1900 meters above sea level, 21 hectares of forest and fir, Douglas fir scattered on 5 hectares, often with Yunnan Keteleeria and cuckoo mix.
Wang Group, Meitan Wang Jia Zhen Village fish fish hole even 830 meters above sea level distribution of 66.6 hectares, and Cypress
Songtao dragon Ying Zhuang, 890 meters above sea level, Huang Shanlin area of 11 hectares, and Fir wood
(Pinus massoniana) and mixed.
Shibing Ma Xi
Daheba village village, 918 meters above sea level and Douglas fir Fir wood
(Fagus longipetiolata) and mixed, an area of 15 hectares.
In addition to the above: in Tongzi Shi Gang, Tao Qian's growth Huangni cave
Wangmo Jiashan, Wuchuan Fuxing town pen Huang Town
Moss bud village flat a stone there were occasional patches of Douglas fir stand, there are scattered in Sansui Xinchang Town, Liping cave, Lang Cun, Libo, Dejiang, Leigong mountain. Douglas fir in Guizhou vertical distribution range at an altitude of 300 meters - 2800.
Thus, Douglas fir in Guizhou distribution of the total area of about 687.1 hectares, the total number of about 367380 lines, the total volume of about 9900 cubic meters, the forest land area of about 230.8 hectares, the number of approximately 172400, volume 6770 cubic meters, the only natural fir remains sparsely populated, more traffic inconvenience, because the forest was repeatedly harvesting is gradually evolved into the forest, community
To lose the dominant position in.
Douglas fir protective measures
Should be prohibited deforestation, protect the existing forest management, especially good parent trees, and seed breeding, expand the planting.