limestone

Limestone (Limestone) referred to as to limestone. calcite As the main component carbonate rocks . Sometimes contain dolomite , clay mineral And detrital minerals, gray, gray, gray and black, yellow, red, brown red color, hardness is generally small, and Dilute hydrochloric acid The violent reaction. According to the origin and classification of sedimentary rocks.
limestone

limestone Rock classification

 limestone limestone
The limestone is mainly in the Shallow sea The formation of the environment. According to the genesis of limestone can be divided into grain limestone (water handling, sedimentary formation), Bioskeleton Chemistry and biochemistry of limestone and limestone. According to the structure can be divided into Wormkalk And oolitic grainstone, Leopard limestone And lump limestone. The main chemical composition of limestone is CaCO Three easy Corrosion Therefore, in the limestone area formed Stone Forest And the cave, called The terrain of Karst .
Burning lime and limestone cement The main raw materials are iron and steelmaking fluxes.

limestone Rock structure

The limestone structure is more complex, there are two kinds of clastic structure and grain structure. The clastic structure particles, micrite and microspar cements composed of matrix. Also known as debris particles, mainly Intraclasts Biodetritus, and oolitic, micritic matrix is composed of Calcium carbonate Composition of fines or crystal particle mortar, mostly less than 0.05 mm, microspar cements are chemical precipitates filling in porous rock particles between the diameter is greater than 0.01 mm calcite crystal Grain; grain structure is crystal particles by chemical and biological chemical deposition of.

limestone Structural classification

 
Content: plaster
Content:
Grain
Grain
Biological framework
         
Intraclasts
Biology
Ooide
Mass
Fece
           
I plaster limestone particles
I 1 particles of limestone
Ten
Twenty-five
Fifty
Seventy-five
Ninety
Ninety
Seventy-five
Fifty
Twenty-five
Ten
In clastic limestone
biology limestone
oolitic limestone
Mass of limestone
Pellet limestone
II crystalline limestone
III
reef
stone
stone
ash
rock
I 2 mortar containing particles
limestone
With the intraclast limestone plaster
Plaster containing biological limestone
Plaster containing Oolitic Limestone
With the mass of limestone plaster
Plaster containing pellet limestone
         
I 3 particles of limestone plaster
The matter of clastic limestone
The biomass of limestone
The quality of Oolitic Limestone
The matter mass of limestone
The quality of pellet limestone
         
I 4 limemud limestone particles
Intraclasts limemud limestone
The biomass of limestone plaster
Oolitic limemud limestone
Mass limemud limestone
Feces mud limestone
         
I 5 containing particles of limestone plaster
With the intraclast limestone plaster
Contains bio limestone plaster
Containing Oolitic Limestone plaster
Containing Oolitic Limestone plaster
Feces containing argillaceous limestone
         
I 6 lime
Lime
                 

Content: plaster
Content:
Grain
Grain
Biological framework
Intraclasts
Biology
Ooide
Mass
Fece
I plaster limestone particles
I 1 particles of limestone
Ten
Twenty-five
Fifty
Seventy-five
Ninety
Ninety
Seventy-five
Fifty
Twenty-five
Ten
In clastic limestone
biology limestone
oolitic limestone
Mass of limestone
Pellet limestone
II crystalline limestone
III
reef
stone
stone
ash
rock
I 2 mortar containing particles
limestone
With the intraclast limestone plaster
Plaster containing biological limestone
Plaster containing Oolitic Limestone
With the mass of limestone plaster
Plaster containing pellet limestone
I 3 particles of limestone plaster
The matter of clastic limestone
The biomass of limestone
The quality of Oolitic Limestone
The matter mass of limestone
The quality of pellet limestone
I 4 limemud limestone particles
Intraclasts limemud limestone
The biomass of limestone plaster
Oolitic limemud limestone
Mass limemud limestone
Feces mud limestone
I 5 containing particles of limestone plaster
With the intraclast limestone plaster
Contains bio limestone plaster
Containing Oolitic Limestone plaster
Containing Oolitic Limestone plaster
Feces containing argillaceous limestone
I 6 lime
Lime
(according to the East China Petroleum Institute)

limestone Rock distribution

Generated by the biological chemical effects of limestone, often contain rich organic debris. Limestone generally contain some dolomite and Clay mineral And when the clay content is up to 25%~50%, called Argillaceous rock . Dolomite content reaches 25%~50%, called dolomitic limestone. The limestone distributed widely, homogeneous, easy mining and processing, is a widely used building materials.

limestone The forming process

 limestone limestone
The main component of limestone is Calcium carbonate That can be dissolved in water containing carbon dioxide. Under normal circumstances a liter of carbonated water, can dissolve about 50 mg of calcium carbonate.
Lake deposition in the sea of calcium carbonate, in the loss of moisture, pressed cemented together and the formation of rocks, known as limestone. The mineral composition of limestone is mainly calcite (more than 50%) and some impurities such as clay and silty sand. The formation and biological role of the vast majority of limestone, biological remains accumulation of limestone coral limestone, coquinoid limestone, algal limestone, limestone in general biology. Made of calcium carbonate in aqueous solution (CaCO Three ) by chemical precipitation into limestone, called chemical limestone. Such as limestone, siliceous limestone etc..

limestone Rock types

 limestone limestone
Limestone is one of the most widely distributed mineral in the earth's crust. According to the sedimentary area, the limestone is divided into Marine sediment and Continental deposit And the former majority; according to their origin, can be divided into limestone Biological deposition Chemical deposition and secondary three types; according to the ore contained in the composition is different, can be divided into limestone siliceous limestone, argillaceous limestone and dolomitic limestone three. Resource distribution: China limestone is rich in mineral resources, as cement, solvents and chemicals. limestone deposit Has reached more than 800. From all over the country, autonomous regions are provinces and cities in the industrial zone in nearby.
The limestone mineral in each Geological age There are various stages of deposition, geological structures are distributed, but good quality, large scale limestone deposits often occur in certain layers. The cement used limestone as an example, in the northeast, North China Ordovician Majiagou limestone is an important stratum, South, East and southwest in Carboniferous, two fold, The Triassic Period The limestone in the northwest and Tibet in general more silurian, Devonian The limestone in East China, Northwest China and the lower reaches of the Yangtze River Ordovician The limestone cement raw materials is also an important horizon.

limestone Ore properties

Mineral composition of 1 ore mineral composition is mainly limestone calcite With, dolomite , magnesite and
 limestone limestone
Other Carbonate minerals Also, mixed with some other impurities. The magnesium was lime stone and magnesite appear, Silicon oxide Free form quartz Stone, and Opal The distribution in rock, alumina With the synthesis of oxide silicide Aluminum silicate (clay, feldspar Mica, iron compound); a carbonate (Ling Meikuang), Pyrite ( Pyrite The oxide (and free) magnetite , Hematite (water and hydroxide) Goethite In addition); Glauconite That individual types of limestone and coal, asphalt etc. organic matter And plaster, Anhydrite etc. sulfate , and compounds of phosphorus and calcium, alkali metal Compound and strontium and barium, manganese, titanium and fluorine compounds, but the content is very low.
2, the properties of limestone
Limestone has good processability and good polishing Cemented The performance, insoluble in water, soluble in saturated ammonium sulfate, and various acid can react and form the corresponding Calcium salt At the same time, the release of CO Two . The limestone calcination to more than 900 DEG C (1000~1300 C) decomposition into lime (CaO), released CO Two . Lime water deliquescence, immediately formed Lime [Ca (OH) Two ], lime water soluble after pulping, in the air is easy to harden.

limestone Process characteristics

Lime has thermal conductivity, firmness, water absorption, air permeability, sound insulation, no polishing, good bonding properties and processability and excellent performance, it can be directly used Raw ore Also, deep processing and application.

limestone The main purpose

Limestone is an important industrial raw material in metallurgy, building materials, chemical industry, light industry, construction, agriculture and other special industries. With the development of iron and steel and cement industry, will further enhance the importance of limestone.

limestone quality standard

 limestone limestone
The quality requirements of limestone, as the use of different. In general, metallurgy, chemical industry and other special industrial sector On limestone purity The requirements The construction industry And the agricultural high, in addition to China's metallurgical industry developed in People's Republic of China ZBD60001-85 professional standards for limestone, other industries are not national standards or professional standards, and by the application of the departments to formulate relevant standards. Building materials industry The quality of the products require the use of limestone
(1) the cement industry: for the production of cement lime materials, the quality requirements are listed in table 7. Yes Amorphous The particle size of limestone, requirements for 30~80mm.
(2): Generally speaking, according to the glass industry Glass The quality requirements and the selection of different CaO with different content of limestone, but requires the limestone is amorphous and stable composition.

limestone comprehensive utilization

comprehensive utilization technical method The characteristics and process of our country's limestone resources reserves, good quality. Thus our country large limestone mine the ore washing - crushing classification method of limestone ore, to remove surface dirt, Sand On the sand, sticky mud pollution. For the limestone limestone or low grade ore properties were large, with some foreign countries Flotation method Or photoelectric separation method. As with the flotation method of limestone and quartz and iron separation of limestone and dolomite; and by flotation or photoelectric separation method magnesite The separation.

limestone The development of the status quo

 limestone limestone
The development and utilization of the status quo, problems and Countermeasures
Limestone is widely used, is essential for various sectors of the national economy and people's life in the raw material. Mainly used for: (1) for the production in the construction industry cement And lime; (2) the metallurgical industry used as flux; (3) for alkali production in chemical industry, Bleaching powder And fertilizer; (4) used as fining agent in food industry; (5) in agriculture to improve soil; (6) in Plastics industry Used as a filler; (7) is widely used in a variety of architectural paint in the paint industry (in 8); paper industry Used as alkaline filler; (9) is used as filler of rubber in rubber industry; (10) used in the environmental protection industry Adsorbent .
Calcium carbonate is a natural calcite, limestone and Cretaceous As raw materials, crushing up to a certain degree of mechanical products, the production methods of dry and wet two, foreign countries have achieved significant progress in wet milling process is still blank in our country; in the process of production of light calcium carbonate with limestone, in light with the particle size of products Crystal Control there is a large gap compared with foreign. Therefore, the deep processing industry must be further development of limestone in the future, broaden the application fields, strengthen the comprehensive utilization, the value-added products, improve economic efficiency.

limestone Development trend

 The bench The bench
Limestone is an important industrial raw materials, metallurgy, building materials, chemical industry, light industry, agriculture and other departments. With the development of iron and steel and cement industry, limestone on demand will further increase. Cement production is huge, that year for mining Cement products to billions of tons of limestone. Forecast to 2020, the national cement production will reach 3 tons, which will require more limestone mining as raw materials. In addition, metallurgy, chemical and other aspects of the limestone is also a great demand. Therefore, the prospects for the development of industrial production of limestone vast, in order to make the limestone products with greater value-added benefits, develop the deep processed products of limestone is a future development direction.

limestone The development of production

limestone lime

The limestone calcination temperature of 1000~1300 to C, can be CaCO Three In CO Two Discharge made Quick lime . The lime white solid insoluble in water, fire, water release students mature lime, lime water saturated solution is alkaline, and CO in the air Two The reaction of CaCO Three Precipitation. The business is divided into high calcium lime (CaO = 90%), siliceous lime (CaO = 85%), calcium magnesium lime (MgO = 10%) and high magnesium lime (MgO = 25%) four.

limestone Lime

That is calcium hydroxide ( Lime )
 stone statue of Buddha stone statue of Buddha
A. molecular formula: Ca (OH) Two
B. relative molecular mass : 74.08
C. properties: white fine powder. The density of 2.24g/cm . Heated to 580 DEG C dehydration become calcium oxide, the absorption of CO in the air Two Change of calcium carbonate. Soluble in acid, glycerol , hardly soluble in water, insoluble in alcohol.
D. uses: for the pharmaceutical, rubber, oil and industrial additives Water softening Etc.. For the oil industry to add in lubricating oil, can prevent coking, sludge deposition and corrosion.
E. main raw materials and specifications: Limestone (CaCO Three = 98%)
F. preparation method and process of lime digestion in the limestone calcination kiln calcium oxide After the selection, water purification, digestion, followed by drying and sieving, calcium hydroxide products. The reaction is as follows:
CaCO Three =CaO+CO Two CaO+H (high temperature) Two O=Ca (OH) Two
The process is as follows:
Limestone, coke, roasting, selection, digestion, precipitation, water separation, drying, sieving and packaging. calcium hydroxide

limestone calcium oxide

A. molecular formula: CaO
B. molecular weight: 56.08
C. properties: white amorphous powder. The density of 3.25~3.38g/cm . The melting point of 2580 DEG C. The boiling point of 2850 DEG C. Placed in the air, in the air to absorb water and carbon dioxide generation calcium hydroxide and Calcium carbonate . calcium oxide And the effect of water (called "digest") to produce calcium hydroxide and heat release (produced alkaline). Soluble in acid, insoluble in alcohol.
D. uses: calcium oxide in steel, pharmaceuticals, pesticides, fertilizers, nonferrous metals, leather, calcium hydroxide, laboratory ammonia The drying and dehydration of alcohol etc..
The main raw materials and specifications: E. hydrochloride (HCl) calcium carbonate (CaCO 35%; Three 98%).
F. preparation method and process of calcium carbonate calcination method is the first reaction of calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid production calcium chloride Use. ammonia Neutralization, filtering, adding Sodium bicarbonate The reaction of calcium carbonate, precipitated by dehydration, drying and calcining. The reaction is as follows: CaCO Three +2HCl, CaCl Two +CO Two +H Two O
CaCl Two +2NH Four OH, Ca (OH) Two +2NH Four Cl
Ca (OH) Two +NaHCO Three To CaCO Three +NaOH+H Two O
CaCO Three To CaO+CO Two
The process is as follows,
Calcium carbonate with hydrochloric acid, acid solution, adding ammonia neutralization, settling, filtering, adding sodium bicarbonate reaction, dehydration, drying and calcination of calcium carbonate, calcium oxide, screening and packaging

limestone Light calcium carbonate

A. molecular formula: CaCO Three
B. molecular weight: 100.08
 limestone limestone
C. properties: white powder, odorless and tasteless, density: calcite type 2.711g/cm Nepheline, type 2.93g/cm . The melting point (110 ATM) 1289 ~ C. Insoluble in water, slightly soluble in alcohol, containing ammonium salt Water or carbon dioxide, soluble in dilute acetic acid, Dilute hydrochloric acid , Dilute nitric acid At the same time, release carbon dioxide, exothermic reaction.
D. application: mainly used in rubber, plastic, paper and other industries. filler Also, used as a coating and ink filler. Also for Toothpaste And the welding electrode, organic synthesis, metallurgy, Glass Asbestos, Malthoid Production. Or industrial wastewater neutralizer, and stomach duodenum Ulcer disease antacids, acid poisoning Antidote .
The main reaction type: Ca (OH) Two +CO Two To CaCO Three +H Two O
Manufacturer: Sichuan Chongqing Songshan chemical factory, Guizhou Anshun The glass Yunnan chemical plant, Kunming chemical plant, Gansu chemical plant, Henan Lanzhou District Jiaozuo The three chemical factory, Henan County chemical plant, chemical plant, Hunan Hengyang third Shanghai New River chemical plant, Shanghai calcium carbonate factory Jiangsu Yixing lime factory, Zhejiang chemical plant, Anhui Wuxing Linghu Anqing Chemical raw materials factory, Shandong Zhangdian chemical plant, Shandong Zibo Hu Tian Luo Cun chemical plant, Beijing Hebei ore materials factory, chemical factory and Liaoning Tangshan East Mine Benxi Lime chemical plant.

limestone Heavy calcium carbonate

(commonly known as solo powder, Shuangfei powder Three, fly, fly) four
A. molecular formula: CaCO Three
B. molecular weight: 100.08
C. properties: white powder, odorless, tasteless. No change when exposed in air, the density of 2.71g/cm . The melting point of 1339 DEG C. Almost insoluble in water, in the presence of ammonium or Ferric oxide The water dissolved, insoluble in alcohol. Dilute acetic acid, dilute hydrochloric acid, dilute nitric acid boiling bubbles occur, and dissolved. Thermal decomposition of calcium oxide and carbon dioxide.
D. use: by crushing fineness The different industry is divided into four different specifications: Solo, flying, three fly, four fly, respectively, used in various industrial sectors.
Solo: used in the production of powder Anhydrous calcium chloride That is the auxiliary material of sodium dichromate production, the main raw material of glass and cement production. In addition, for building materials and poultry feed etc..
Shuangfei powder: is the production of anhydrous calcium chloride and glass and other raw materials, rubber and paint white filler, and building materials.
Three flying powder: used as plastics, paint and paint filler.
Four: fly ash used as the filler wire insulation, rubber molded products and the filler asphalt roofing system.
E. main raw materials and specifications: Limestone (CaCO Three = 90%)
F. preparation method and process of grinding method is CaCO Three More than 90% of the lime crushing, grading, separation and preparation of products. Process for:
Limestone, grinding, classification, separation, cyclone Heavy calcium carbonate The manufacturer
Shandong fertilizer plant in Qingdao and Shanghai Powder Factory etc..

limestone Collection of information

The geological museum collection information Chinese:
 Chinese limestone geological museum collections of pictures (a) Chinese limestone geological museum collections of pictures (a)
Picture description Benxi: Chinese bridge Huang Baiyu limestone (Limestone) specimen photographs. Grey; grain structure; massive structure; the main mineral composition of calcite
Collection units : China Geological Museum
 China limestone geological museum collections of pictures (two) China limestone geological museum collections of pictures (two)
Picture description: Chinese cloud limestone (Limestone) specimen photographs . Grey; grain structure; massive structure; the main mineral composition of calcite.
Collection units: China Geological Museum
 Chinese limestone geological museum collections of pictures (a) Chinese limestone geological museum collections of pictures (a)
Picture description Benxi: Chinese bridge Huang Baiyu limestone (Limestone) specimen photographs. Grey; grain structure; massive structure; the main mineral composition of calcite
Collection units : China Geological Museum
 China limestone geological museum collections of pictures (two) China limestone geological museum collections of pictures (two)
Picture description: Chinese cloud limestone (Limestone) specimen photographs . Grey; grain structure; massive structure; the main mineral composition of calcite.
Collection units: China Geological Museum