Volcano ash refers to less than 2 mm in diameter from the volcano eruption Gravel And mineral particles. In the explosive volcano movement, solid rocks and lava is decomposed into small particle And the formation of volcano ash. It has a volcano activity in Normal atmospheric temperature And the presence of water and lime (CaO) reacts with hard water Gel The ability of hydrate. So after grinding can be used as cement. Mixed material And the concrete admixture.

Ash Structure

Ash Produced by the volcano activity , That is fine Volcano debris . From rock, mineral, volcano Glass Debris composition, diameter less than 2 mm, which is very subtle
 Ash Ash
The volcano ash called volcano dust.
In the solid and liquid ejecta in the volcano volcano ash, the amount is maximum, the most widely distributed, they are often deep ash Yellow and white color, piled up after pressing to become Tuff .
In the gray matter of the volcano Mixture In the presence of a certain number of activity Silicon dioxide Activity alumina Other active components.

Ash The formation principle

Volcano At the outbreak of the rock, or Magma Be crushed into small particles, thereby forming a volcano ash.
It is different from the volcano ash ash, hard, insoluble water .
Volcano ash reaction Refers to the activity Component Reaction with calcium hydroxide, C-S-H, hydrated calcium aluminate or hydrated calcium aluminate sulfate as reaction products, including, calcium hydroxide Can be derived from the addition of lime, can also be derived from cement Calcium hydroxide released during hydration.
stay Volcano ash cement The water in the process of reaction is volcano volcano ash admixture in the active component and release of calcium hydroxide cement clinker hydration reaction at.
The hydration process of cement is a volcano The two reaction Process.
The first is the cement clinker hydration, release of calcium hydroxide, and then is the volcano ash reaction.
These two reactions are carried out alternately, and each other, mutual constraints, and not simply isolated.
Water under pressure from the small nozzle to form fog.
The same principle, molten magma in the huge pressure, the formation of magma from the volcano vomit fog, mist solidified into small particles of magma formed volcano ash, namely the atomizing effect of the formation of magma volcano ash.

Ash The main harm

Ash Physiological damage

The particle diameter is smaller, the parts of the deeper into the respiratory tract. 10 micron diameter particles are usually deposited in the on call
 To shoot an Irish farm near the volcano ash clouds To shoot an Irish farm near the volcano ash clouds
The suction, 5 microns in diameter can enter the respiratory tract of the deep, 2 microns 100% deep into the bronchioles and alveoli.
Inhalable particles are inhaled, will accumulate in the respiratory system, causing many diseases. The crude particulate matter The exposure can damage the respiratory system, induced asthma.
Fine particles May cause heart disease, lung disease, respiratory disease, reduced lung function etc.. Therefore, for the elderly, children suffering from heart disease and other sensitive populations, the risk is bigger. In addition, the particles in the air is the main reason for reduced visibility, and will damage the surface of the building.

Ash environmental effect

Volcano ash fall will bring harm to the people, in 1991 the Pinatubo volcano erupted, typhoon and rain wet and heavy volcano landed in densely populated areas, about 200 people died in the collapse of the roof.
In April 16, 2010, according to Taiwan's "United Daily News" reported that due to Volcano A volcano erupt had spread over Europe, Taiwan Airlines Flights to Europe announced the cancellation or delay takeoff.
After the Iceland volcano eruption mass, British Civil Aviation Airport closed. Import Norway Finland, Denmark, Sweden, etc. A cloud of ash from the volcano Effect of thousands of flights were cancelled state.
It is reported that the internal combustion engine through inhalation of air, and produce energy. Volcano ash can drill into the aircraft engine parts, leading to a variety of damage.
As in the sandstorm driving car, internal parts of engines will be blocked.
In addition, tiny particles in the volcano may block Pitot tube The airspeed sensor. Dust will plug the device which can produce erroneous readings. The plane will stall, the pilot may not be informed of the speed at that time.

Ash Function

The main purpose of volcanic pumice, abroad as follows
One, such as building materials: lightweight concrete mortar, decorative plate filler 2% lighter than ordinary concrete, refractory The high degree of 2%; brick, building slab, load-bearing components, hydraulic, thermal engineering, bridge engineering building components; railway ballast; cement (with pumice as raw material).
Two, grinding industry: glass glasses and abrasive materials, soft metal and plastic polishing agent, the tube and the screen before electroplating polishing agent, polishing metal (silver, copper, furniture and musical instruments), wood, metal surface cleaning and friction, Stone .
Packing: metal tableware wiping lotion. Circuit board cleaning abrasives. Work clothes washing with soap, detergent powder.
Three, daily chemical packing materials: cosmetic, soap and cosmetics, toothpaste machine.
Four, petroleum chemical molecular sieve. Rubber, asphalt, papermaking, paint filler, filtering agent, pesticide carrier, ceramic glaze, enamel ingredients. replace Light calcium carbonate As a plastic filler.
Five, insulation material With pumice as the main raw material, made of mineral wool and its products by high temperature melting, used for ceiling insulation.
The mineral and ore types: Volcano due to temperature and pressure are different, there is a great difference between the mineral composition and composition, according to its composition can be divided into basaltic pumice deposits, Liparite Quality, quality, trachyte andesite deposit.
Chinese pumice is very rich in resources. From Heilongjiang in the north to the South Hainan Island The volcano distribution area have pumice mineral distribution, in northern areas, better quality, more new eruption. China pumice resources to basaltic pumice, rhyolitic pumice only Changbai Mountain Area, andesitic rocks are rare, only Changbai Mountain Tianchi Discover.

Ash application area

Ash Building material

Natural lightweight concrete aggregate . Such as wall panels, floor and roof panels; the roof insulation layer, insulation layer; hollow block; heat-resistant concrete; cement. Mixed material ; Preparation of non clinker cement; building facing materials; sound insulation Insulation materials . Advanced optical glass abrasive, polishing agent, plastic rubber filler etc.

Ash Chemical materials

Pesticide carrier, fertilizer control agent, milling as molecular filtering agent, desiccant and catalyst, petroleum chemical storage sieve enzyme carrier, hard plastic filler, toothpaste, soap and other daily chemical packing.

Ash technical requirement

The quality of the ore is usually required: loose bulk density <1g/cm3; chemical composition, compressive strength , Particle size distribution The water absorbing rate, Sediment percentage General knowledge.
The product quality requirements Technical condition of mining For example: Jilin Antu County round pool of zeolite deposit, Minimum mining thickness 0.5m, The rock eliminating thickness More than 0.2 m, the stripping ratio is 0.5:1. Chifeng County of Jilin province and pumice deposits, the minimum mining thickness of 0.5 m, the rock eliminating thickness 0.2m, stripping ratio is 0.5:1.0.

Ash Derivative products

Silicate mud
Silicate mud, referred to as the volcano ash cement. Consists of Portland cement clinker and volcano ash mixed material (such as volcano ash, tuff and pumice, zeolite, diatomite, fly ash, clay, shale burning, burning coal gangue), gypsum, and ground.
Chinese standard: Cement volcano ash mixed material adding amount by weight is 20 ~ 50%; allow adding does not exceed the total content of 1/3 composite ground granulated blast furnace slag, instead of part of volcano ash mixed material, instead of after the volcano ash mixed material in cement shall not be less than 20%.
Volcano ash cement is divided into 275, 325, 425, 525 and 625 grade five. Volcano ash cement compared with ordinary cement, the proportion of small, low hydration heat, good corrosion resistance, water requirement (the cement paste required to reach a certain fluidity when water) and shrinkage of large, frost resistance is poor, low early strength, but the strength of rapid development, hydration and strength development the volcano ash cement environmental conditions significantly affect the humid environment is advantageous to the strength development of cement.
Volcano ash cement generally applicable to underground water and moist environment, concrete engineering, should not be used in dry environment, the freeze-thaw cycle and dry wet alternate and engineering high early strength.

Ash Protective measures

Anti-dust masks
The main object is to prevent anti-dust masks particulate matter . The "dust" concept is relatively narrow, belong to this concept of dust particles, dust (including mechanical crushing production), mist (liquid), smoke (combustion generated) and microorganisms, also known as aerosol .
Can enter the deep human lung particle size is very small, usually below 7 m, called the respirable dust, harmful to health, is the cause of all kinds of pneumoconiosis.
So, anti-dust masks by covering the mouth, nose and chin, and face to form a sealed space, by forcing air pollution through the suction filter.
The mask body is usually made of filter material anti particles, with head or ear with a fixed, sealing face nose the nosepiece to help shape, but also rely on other methods, some still mask nose clip parts increase seal.
The masks are not replaceable parts, so after the failure of the overall need to waste, also known as disposable masks, masks or maintenance free.