Latin America

Latin America, refers to U.S.A To the south of America Area, and is located North latitude 32 degrees 42 'and Latitude Between 56 degrees 54 'of the mainland, including Mexico, Central America , West Indies and South America .
Latin America
Latin America east of the Atlantic, West Pacific, North and south is more than 11 thousand kilometre . What the more than 5 thousand and 100 km wide at the narrowest point. Panama Only 48 km wide isthmus. North The Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean . Area of 20 million 567 thousand square kilometers. 2008 population 577 million people. Mainly Mestizo And a person of mixed time, Black , Indian and White person .
Is the language of the inhabitants in, Latin and English The dominant. Because this area belongs to the latin. So the United States in many countries of the south is known as the Latin American countries, this area is known as the Latin america.
A total of thirty-four Latin American countries and regions Mexico , Guatemala , Honduras , Salvatore , Nicaragua , Costa Rica , Panama , Cuba , Haiti , Dominican , Jamaica , Trinidad and Tobago , Barbados , Grenada , The Commonwealth of Dominica , Saint Lucia , Saint Vincent and the Grenadines , Bahamas , Guyana , French Guiana , Suriname , Venezuela , Columbia , Brazil , Ecuador , Peru , Saint Kitts and Nevis , bolivia , Chile , Argentina , Paraguay , Uruguay , Belize , Antigua and Barbuda . There are still in the more than and 10 United States Britain and the Netherlands under the rule of law Colony .

Latin America History

Indian A South American pioneer of civilization. The central Andes highlands of South America is the birthplace of ancient civilization. Early in tenth Century, the Indian tribes live in the area of the Incas, established in southern Peru and Cuzco as the center of the Inca empire. In the heyday of fifteenth Century, the territory of North Ecuador north, South Talca in Chile, a population of about 900 to 12 million. At that time, agriculture has been well developed, the cultivation of corn, beans, potato, cassava and other crops, Chenopodium, domesticated llamas and alpacas, in irrigation works, traffic, road building, handicraft industry has also reached a high level. The glory of the Inca culture is an important part of mankind's material and spiritual civilization. In southern Columbia, Chile and Paraguay are the Inca Empire outside the population is relatively concentrated area.
At the beginning of sixteenth Century, the Portuguese and Spanish began to enter. The Portuguese occupied Brazil, Spain ruled Brazil in addition to vast areas of South america. At the end of sixteenth Century, the British, French and Dutch after a fierce battle, the Guyana region segmentation and offshore islands. Since then, the whole continent entered 300 years of colonial period. Spain has established in South America Peru (including Peru and Chile), New Granada (including Columbia, Ecuador and Venezuela) and La Plata (including Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay) 3 viceroyalty, Portugal established the governor in Brazil. With the implementation of various rulers violent slavery, forced Aboriginal for unpaid labor on plantations or mines, plundered the land of South America and treasure. Indian homes destroyed, ancient civilization was destroyed, population decline. As a supplement of the labor force, settlers from Africa into a large number of slaves. Suzerain Mercantilist policy, forced the American people's agricultural and mineral products specializing in the production of one or two in the international market profiteering, the formation of a single product, leading to social and economic deformity Development . Spain, Portugal and other countries of the social system, customs, religious beliefs and cultural traditions, with the influx of immigrants, spread to the west, South America, Indian to replace the Portuguese language, became the official language in common use.
South American people for freedom and liberation, carried out a long-term struggle. By the second half of the eighteenth Century, Li maintenance system has become the biggest obstacle of social development for the sovereign state, the development of this contradiction is to promote South American people onto the road of the war of independence. In 1810, the armed uprising fire throughout South america. After more than and 10 years of fighting, finally overthrew the Spanish and Portuguese rule. To 1826, have established 10 national independent state, only a few areas of Guyana is still under British, French and Dutch rule.
After independence, criollos in Latin America area mastered most of the country's regime, with the implementation of
 Latin America Latin America
A Latin American characteristics "test Diluo" type of military dictatorship, maintenance latifundio land ownership and feudal exploitation, slow economic development. In Britain, the United States will become the world supply of raw materials to take advantage of a weak point, they, dumping goods and capital output places. Especially at the end of nineteenth Century the rise of the United States, with its economic strength and favorable geographical position, crowding out other powers, become the overlord of South america. The peoples of South America were anti imperialist, anti colonialism, hegemonism, long struggle to maintain national sovereignty. After the Second World War, the struggle is becoming more and more deeply and widely. South American countries spearheaded against superpower maritime hegemony struggle, set off a wave of nationalization to recover national resources as the main content, actively promote regional economic integration, to establish a new international economic order, has made great achievements in the development of national economy.
In 1966 and 1975, before the British Guyana and the Dutch Guyana has to get rid of the ruling independence. The South American division of Guyana and the United Kingdom, Argentina dispute Malvinas Islands (Falkland Islands), a total of 12 independent countries. They are Developing country .
Latin America is the original habitat of the Indian labor. Since 1492, the Spanish Portuguese adventurers embark on Latin America, soon become the two countries. At the end of sixteenth Century, Britain, France and the Netherlands and other countries took some island in the West Indies from Spain, a few areas of South American continental margin and the Central American isthmus. At the beginning of nineteenth Century, Portugal and Spain where declared their independence. The past more than and 10 years, Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago, Babado J, Guyana, the Bahamas, Grenada, Suriname, Dominica Federation, lucia, St. Vincent The Grenadines, Belize, Antigua and Barbuda, Britain and the Netherlands also has to get rid of the rule, the declaration of independence. The existing more than and 10 by Britain, America, France and the Netherlands ruled the land. From Spain and Portugal rule Latin American countries gained independence, and later by the United States and Britain's control and exploitation.

Latin America geographical environment

Latin America position

Latin name: Latin america.
Latin America refers to the United States to the south of America, between latitude 32 degrees 42 minutes and latitude 56 degrees 54 minutes,. Including Mexico, america, West Indies And South america. Latin America is a geopolitics The concept of the America residents in terms of language, English and Latin dominant, because this area belongs to the Latin family, therefore, in many countries in South America, known as the Latin American countries, this area is known as the Latin america.
Latin America east of the Atlantic, West Pacific, North and south. The total length of more than 11 thousand kilometers, more than 5 thousand and 100 km wide at the narrowest point. The isthmus of Panama Only 48 km wide. North of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean . Area of 20 million 567 thousand square kilometers. The population of 577 million people (2008). Mainly Mestizo And a person of mixed time, black, Indian and White person .
The country
A total of thirty-four Latin American countries and regions: Mexico, Guatemala , Honduras , Salvatore , Nicaragua , Costa Rica Panama, cuba, Haiti , Dominican , Jamaica , Trinidad and Tobago , Barbados , Grenada , The Commonwealth of Dominica , Saint Lucia St. Vincent and the grenadines, Bahamas , Guyana , French Guiana , Suriname , Venezuela , Columbia Brazil, Ecuador , Peru , Saint Kitts and Nevis , bolivia Chile, Argentina, Paraguay , Uruguay , Belize , Antigua and Barbuda . There are still in the more than and 10 colonies in America and Britain, and the Netherlands under the rule of law.

Latin America Range

 Caribbean Caribbean
Latin America is the play from Mexico western hemisphere The whole area of the south. It is on the East Caribbean The sea and the Atlantic, and the African continent, the shortest distance of about 2494.4 kilometers; West Pacific; south across the Drake passage and Antarctica; North Mexico and the United States. Bravo (i.e., the Rio Grande River) and adjacent to the u.s.. It includes North America Mexico, central and South america. In history, this area is mainly Latin and Spanish Portugal In the colonies, called in Latin america. In addition, the Caribbean Sea and the West Indies in Latin America has the same historical experience, in the geographical division, used to take it with Latin American drawn in the same category, referred to as the Latin American and caribbean. Geographically, the Latin American and Caribbean range in the East, South America, East northeast of Brazil Branco Cape (west longitude 34 degrees 46 minutes), West to the Pacific coast of the United States and Mexico junction (west longitude 117 degrees north, 09); Colorado River The United States and Mexico junction (latitude 32 degrees 42 minutes), South to South America, the southernmost tip of the war Oswald Angle (latitude 53 degrees 54 minutes). And across the Strait of Magellan and across the corner of the ward flo Tierra del fuego
The southern most Horn Then, in the highest latitude South America on (latitude 55 degrees 59 minutes). That is to say, the Latin American land is about 32 degrees from north to latitude 55 degrees north and south, across two hemispheres, but most of them are in the southern hemisphere. The main part of it in equator And the two north-south line The regression line Between。 The line through the capital of Ecuador Quito To the north and thousands of meters The Amazon River The mouth of Brazil not far from the city of belem. Capricorn Through the South American continent's largest industrial area St Paul To the north of the suburb; and The Tropic of Cancer It is through the Gulf of Mexico, near the Havana The latitude. It can be said that in addition to Uruguay, Latin American and Caribbean countries are in part or in the regression line between the north and South two.

Latin America topographic features

Latin American terrain, Mexico is basically a prairie, said Mexico Plateau . In America is a mountainous area. The West Indies is mostly in mountainous. The Western Pacific coast of South America, stands Andes . East of the Andes, plain and plateau phase, from north to South Linuoke plain, Guyana Plateau , Amazon Plain , Brazil Plateau , La Plata plain , Patagonia Etc..

Latin America geology

 Latin America Latin America
The region from north to south, a total length of 11 thousand km, a total area of more than 20 million 700 thousand square kilometers, accounting for about 13.8% of the world's land area, equivalent to 3 times of the continent, the South America area (including the nearby islands) is about 17 million 970 thousand square kilometers, accounting for about 12% of the total land area of the world. In Latin America, Coastline 45 thousand km long, of which the South American coastline of about 28 thousand and 700 kilometers, and more To the mountains The coastal erosion consistent. The Pacific coast, especially between latitude 10 degrees to 33 degrees in a section of the coast, is typical of the rise Fault coast Cliff, forced the sea, there is almost no transitional coastal plains and offshore continental shelf And the depth of 6000 meters above the Peru trench and Chile trench near the coast, in some places even less than 100 km. The Pacific coast of Columbia and Ecuador, due to the settlement by transgression, the shoreline twists and turns, the formation of large bay, the Guayaquil Bay is the largest bay along the Pacific coast of South america. The coast of southern Chile is a fjord, winding coast, island complex column. Mexico and the Pacific coast in the Americas The Alps Fold out, Volcano For many, the Pacific coast Volcano belt A part of the narrow coastal plain. The east coast of Mexico and The southern United States The formation of the Gulf of Mexico coast, this area has been extended to the coastal plain Yucatan Peninsula Generally, a width of 100 km to 500 km, the width of 800 km. It is made of continental margin The rise of exposed sea. In South America, north of the Caribbean coast of the west coast, mountains and the North-South vertical intersection along the mountain valley, seawater intrusion, the formation of toward the interior of the Bay, such as darien, Venezuela Bay Etc.. The coast of the Atlantic, in addition to the east coast of Brazil and Branco Punt a northward extension of the coast, basically is the coast, shore a wide continental shelf, especially the Amazon River to the northwest section of the coast and latitude 30 degrees to 40 degrees in a section of the the Atlantic coast, is straight shallow Liman coast At the mouth, formed the horn River port; some sections such as the southwest coast of Pakistan, was closed and formed silt lagoon.

Latin America Islands

 Yucatan Peninsula Yucatan Peninsula
The Latin American continent Peninsula There are less, and the junction of Mexico in Central America Yucatan Peninsula (180 thousand square kilometers), northern Mexico Baja California Peninsula (143 thousand square kilometers), northern South America The Guajira Peninsula (14 thousand square kilometers) and southern Chile. Taitao Peninsula (10 thousand square kilometers). The region more islands, the island area of about 390 thousand square kilometers, mainly distributed in the northern Caribbean, East and South America, southern coastal area. The Caribbean islands by the Greater Antilles Archipelago And the Lesser Antilles and Bahamian Archipelago One of the biggest island. The island of Cuba , located in the Greater Antilles, North America Florida Peninsula 180 kilometers, an area of 110 thousand and 860 square kilometers. South America, southern coastal islands are separated and across the Strait of Magellan, Tierra del Fuego and is located in the waters between south the Atlantic and Antarctica (Malvinas Islands The Falkland Islands The west of Argentina). territory More than and 500 kilometers, is now Argentina and Britain disputed islands. In the Amazon River at the mouth of the world's largest river alluvial formation by Marajo Island That area of nearly 50 thousand square kilometers, the growth of lush plants, is believed to be the world's largest eco tourism resort, a long red feather local bird is a unique local animal. In addition, some Latin American countries have some islands and the islands in the far away from the land of the Atlantic and pacific.
 Marajo Island Marajo Island
In the Atlantic, 1100 kilometers away from Brazil local characteristics of Linda island and Martin Island gas from Brazil, San Pedro and St Paul local 900 kilometers away from Brazil Island, the easternmost 345 km Brazil Branco cape has been designated a national Ocean Park Fernando Denuoluoniya island. In the Pacific, from the South American continent as far as Chile Easter Island (3700 km away from the coast of Chile), there are thousands of respect each weighing 90 tons of "Mao Ayisi" head statues and has so far failed to decipher the symbols on the island, adds mystery to the whirling little islands from the mainland; 600 km, the Juan Fernand islands, Ma Sidi Island America is one of the most ancient land, for allegedly " Robinson Crusoe "Renowned story. In addition, the important islands in the Pacific and Chile's Sara Gomez A; in 900 km away from the coast of Ecuador is in line with the equator Galapagos Islands There, a variety of complex climatic conditions, changing topography, forming a unique ecological environment and species diversity, as a famous British scientist Darwin The evolution of species and hypothesis " The origin of species "Provides an important basis for.

Latin America climate

Within the range of Tropical Latin America 3/4, every continent in the world, it is the most superior climate conditions. From the temperature in most areas, the annual average temperature of 20 degrees Celsius, compared to other states, has the characteristics of warm, it is not as cold in Asia and North America, Africa is not so hot. From wet, the annual precipitation statewide average up to 1342 mm, equivalent to 3.2 times of Oceania, is one of the world's most humid island. Climate types Tropical rain forest And the tropical steppe climate. Tropical rainforest climate Mainly distributed in the Amazon tropical grassland is mainly distributed in the Brazil plateau.

Latin America Agricultural products

Many Latin American area climate. Adequate rainfall, fertile soil, rich in agricultural products. The main crops are rice, wheat and corn. Sugar cane crops, coffee, bananas, cotton is the most important. Sugar production accounts for about 1/4 of world sugar production, the Caribbean is the "world bowl" and said that Cuba is the world's most populous country to export sugar. Coffee production has been far more than Africa, the international market of coffee, more than 60% from Latin America, Brazil's coffee production and exports, ranking first in the world. Banana production, exports accounted for about 80% of total world exports. Ecuador is the world's largest exporter of bananas, there are a large number of exports of Honduras, Panama and guatemala. Cotton yield increased rapidly, many countries with the largest export cotton exports from Brazil and Mexico. In addition, there are vast forests and rich coastal fishery resources in Peru coastal waters is the world famous fishing ground One of。

Latin America natural resources

Latin America Overview

The main part of the Latin American region in Low latitude Both sides and the equator line, 80% regions in the tropical and subtropical, temperate climate, Temperature difference Small, rainfall and seasonal distribution is relatively uniform. Superior geographical location and climatic conditions, provide abundant natural resources to the region, but also to provide good conditions for plant growth and reproduction. The average altitude of the region is only 600 meters, at an elevation of 300 meters above the plateau, hilly and mountainous area accounts for 40% of the total area, accounted for 60% in the altitude of 300 meters below the plain, especially South America The Andes The vast area of the East region is vast, relatively flat, for the development of the world is the longest, most extensive River Basin, the Amazon River and many other rivers flow the largest possible.

Latin America Forestry

 The Amazon rainforest The Amazon rainforest
The region is rich in forest resources, forest cover large area. South American forest area of 9 million 200 thousand square kilometers, accounting for more than 50% of the total area of the whole continent, accounting for about 23% of the world's forest area. Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean islands, a total area of approximately 700 thousand square kilometers of forest. The rainforest is to preserve the world's largest and most complete, a total area of 5 million 500 thousand square kilometers, of which 330 million square kilometers in the territory of Brazil, tropical rain forest area accounted for 60%, the remaining 40% are distributed in French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia. The region is also rich in animal and plant resources, according to statistics, The Amazon rainforest In many species of animals and plants in the world is the one and only, only plants up to 86 thousand ~ 90 thousand. The growth of many can have economic value for edible and medicinal and resources, for example Rosewood , Sandalwood , Mahogany Wood, perfume, Snake mulberry wood Cinnamon, Cinchona And all Coconut tree , Palm tree In the Andes; and in America the growth of some rare spruce, cedar and other economic forest; the coastal zone is the growth of salt tolerant mangrove tree in tannin extract; River flat The growth of the waterlogging area of trees and other plants.

Latin America Animal

Various types of Latin American climate and vegetation provide favorable conditions for animal growth and reproduction, has formed a rich and independent animal Neotropical . The Amazon rainforest is the most abundant vertebrate region in the world, mammalian and amphibian animal animal and reptile animal both rich and with regional characteristics; bird species is the world's most abundant, only Brazil has more than 1600.

Latin America cash crop

The region has great potential for development of grain crops and economic crops. The total arable land area of 160 million hectares, accounting for about 7.7% of the total area; arable land area of 570 million hectares. Corn, wheat, rice, beans and other food crops and sugarcane, bananas, cocoa, cotton is planted widely in Latin america, citrus Coffee and other economic crops. One of Brazil's coffee and bananas, cassava The yield of soybean production ranks first in the world, ranking second in the world, cocoa production ranks third in the world. South America has a large area of grassland, pasture, grassland area of 440 million hectares, accounting for more than 25% of the total area of the whole continent and the world 14% of the total area of grassland, suitable for large-scale development of animal husbandry. Argentina pasture area of 140 million hectares, Pampas Is the Latin American famous natural pastures, the production of a large number of high-quality beef and mutton is famous in the world.

Latin America waterpower

The region has numerous rivers and large rivers mainly arranged in a crisscross pattern, in South america. In the basin area, 84% rivers into the the Atlantic River, the 11% into the Pacific Ocean, the remaining 5% of the Inland river. Abundant precipitation in the Latin American region, the average annual rainfall of 1000 mm above the area, the area accounted for 70%; and from the Andes snow collection, waterpower Is rich in resources, estimated water reserves of 467 million kilowatts, accounting for about 16.9% of world water reserves, only reached 213 million kilowatts of hydropower resources in Brazil. Water resources development in Latin America has accounted for about 3.6% of world water resources, focus on some of the main tributaries of the amazon, Parana River San Francisco River, Orinoco On the river.

Latin America Mineral products

Latin American region rich in mining resources, modern industry needs more than 20 kinds of mineral resources in the most basic and most of all, some mineral reserves of the world. For example, Mexico has proven oil reserves of up to 103 million tons of oil reserves in Venezuela is about 8000000000 tons, ranking first in the world. The region has proven natural gas reserves of about 3 trillion cubic meters, mainly in Mexico and Argentina. About 1000 tons of iron ore reserves, Brazil's iron ore reserves of the world, its production and export volume ranks second in the world. Copper reserves of about 1 tons, ranking first in the state of song, Chile's copper reserves, ranking second in the world, Peru ranks fourth in the world. The coal reserves of about 500 tons, mainly distributed in Columbia and Brazil, only Columbia coal reserves of up to 240 tons. In addition, Brazil beryllium, tantalum and niobium, Suriname and Jamaica bauxite, Mexico silver, sulfur Cuba, Chile saltpeter, nickel, Columbia emeralds are among the best in the world.

Latin America Seafood

The long coastline of Latin America and the Caribbean, two things are surrounded by the ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, rich fishery resources, there are many natural fishing grounds, such as Peru, Chile coast, Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, Brazil and south the Atlantic coastal waters are the world's important fisheries, rich Sardine Perch, mackerel, tuna, Cod As well as a variety of shrimp. The amount of fishing in the world. In addition, the region is rich in freshwater fish in the river, as many as 2500 to 3000 or more.

Latin America Regional division

brief introduction
The region consists of 4 parts, a total of 33 countries and a number of non independent area.

Latin America Mexico

The geographical location is North America, but it was a colony of Spain, from race, culture, history, belong to Latin america. The border in northern Mexico and across the Bravo River and the United States, South and Central America Guatemala and Belize to the East, Mexico bay to the Pacific Ocean on the West. Mexico land most of the Mexico plateau, East, West, South three have mountains and plateau tilted from south to north, the north is broad Inland basin ; south of the volcano, at an altitude of more than 2000 ~ 3000 meters; land area of 1967183 square kilometers.

Latin America Central America

 panama canal panama canal
A narrow land from southern Mexico to northwestern Columbia, middle America, the narrowest point is panama canal Where the width is only 48 kilometers. In America to Nicaragua Lake Is divided into two sections: the northern section of North South West, South Northwest - southeast direction, is a strategic road bridge connecting north and South America and the Pacific and the Atlantic communication. In America a land area of 540 thousand square kilometers. In the administrative divisions, including Belize, Costa Rica, Salvatore, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama in 7 countries.

Latin America South America

Western Hemisphere in the southern part of the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Atlantic to the East, northwest and Central American isthmus is north of the Caribbean, south across the Strait of Drake and antarctica. The South American continent wide north south narrow, slightly triangular, north-south span 66 ~ 68 latitudes, the longest distance of 7150 km; its widest point is from Brazil to the eastern end of the Branco Cape in northwestern Peru, Parini angle, namely from west longitude 34 degrees west longitude 81 degrees 46 'to 20' wide things, up to 5100 km. South of the Tropic of Capricorn, a significant contraction. South America land area of about 17 million 970 thousand square kilometers, including Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, 12 independent countries not yet independent of French guiana. Among them, the territory of Brazil the largest area of 8547403 square kilometers, half of the total area of Yuezhannan America, after Russia, Canada, China and America, ranking fifth in the world.

Latin America West Indies

 West Indies West Indies
From the greater antilles, The Lesser Antilles And Bahamian archipelago, from north to south is arc shape, and with the South American mainland to the north and east coasts of America together, constitute a Marmara That is, the caribbean. The width of about 2800 km, 1400 km long from north to south, an area of 754 thousand square kilometers, with an average depth of 2491 meters. The habit of this area is called the caribbean. In the West Indies for large islands Continental island The smaller islands belong to. Island And coral island. The island area of 240 thousand square kilometers, there are 13 countries and some independent islands in the area. The Greater Antilles in Dominica, Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica 4 countries and the United States Puerto Rico And the Cayman Islands etc.. The Lesser Antilles in Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Lucia, Dominic, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago in 8 countries and British Vilgin Anguilla, Montserrat, and the Turks and Caicos islands, American Vilgin Guadeloupe, Martinique The Netherlands Antilles, Aruba . There is a national Bahamian archipelago in the bahamas.

Latin America Ethnic population

Latin America population

according to The United Nations Population Fund "1998" global population statistics, in 1998 the total population of the Latin American and Caribbean region was 499 million 500 thousand, accounting for about 8.4% of the total population of the world. Latin America The life expectancy of the population The male is 65 years old, female 71 years old. A higher proportion of city population, 1995 The rate of city As of 73.4%, equivalent to the European level. Is expected in the next 10 years, the city rate will reach 85%.
In Latin America and the Caribbean 499 million 500 thousand population in Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean 174 million 600 thousand, 324 million 900 thousand South American continent. All the countries in the region, is the country with the largest population in Brazil, 165 million 200 thousand in 1998, after Chinese, India, the United States and Indonesia, in the 5 world.
Latin America population distribution Imbalance of the mainland, compared with its vast land area, the population density of small, densely populated areas to the West Indies, Eastern Brazil and Argentina coastal forest areas, population natural conditions poor scarce; national population distribution in plateau temperate tropical city; speed; capital and other important city population concentration. The distribution of population is a long historical process, the social and economic conditions of each area, Natural geographical environment The long-term effects of natural growth and population migration and the result of many factors. The development of productivity and the progress of human society, especially the development of science and technology to improve the ability of people to resist the adverse environment. However, due to various reasons, has reasonable spatial distribution of the population is still difficult to achieve.
The Latin American region in the continents of the world is one of the areas of rapid population growth.

Latin America race

Latin American population - ethnic racial composition is very complex, they are derived from all of today's 3 basic human race, the mongolians, Europa race Australia and the Negro race. According to research, the local Indians of Latin American Mongolians; America was discovered after the arrival of the Latin American colonists (mostly Spanish and Portuguese ) and later traveled to America European immigrants (including Italian, French and german, Ukrainian And the Balkans and other people) is a Europa race; seventeenth Century to nineteenth Century was Nigro as a slave race in succession from Africa into black. But truly belong to these 3 individuals for the pure blood of residents has a few, more than half of the 3 people half breed. In addition, there are quite a number of Chinese immigrants Japanese Indians and other peoples in asia. Overseas Chinese and Chinese mainly concentrated in Brazil, Peru, Mexico, Cuba and Panama, after 1950s, the overseas Chinese in Argentina, Venezuela, Chile, Uruguay and other countries gradually increased.
Latin American countries The composition of the population Basically depends on the Interstate Migration status, i.e. immigration sources and quantities also depends on the degree of racial integration. In the history of European immigrants as the main source of population in Argentina, Uruguay and Costa Rica, the residents of predominantly white; the Argentina white, accounting for 97% of the total population, Uruguay accounted for 90% of whites; absorption of black slaves more Haiti, Jamaica, barbados, Dominica Lucia, such as the Caribbean island, the residents of the black majority; the history of the Indian cultural center, such as Peru, Bolivia, residents are still to Indians in the majority; Mexico and Central American countries in a variety of mixed race people, the proportion is as high as 80% to 90%.

Latin America language

 Latin America Latin America
The use of the Latin American languages are Spanish, Portuguese, English, French, Dutch and a variety of Indian. Etc.. Spanish is the most widely used, most of the country's Department of Latin America Official language . The main use of Portuguese in Brazil. Haiti, French Guiana and French French West indies. Babado J, Jamaica, Guyana, Belize, Bahamas and other countries to use english. Suriname and The Netherlands Antilles Such as the use of more Dutch residents of Indian area, the general use of Indian. Indian dialects of more than 1700 kinds, in Nahuatl, Quechua, mayan, Guarani And the Aymara language, the Mapuche language is widely used.

Latin America Custom and human feelings

Latin America Common ground

Refined and courteous hospitality. No matter which place you to Latin America, you will receive courtesy and respect, if you are older or larger titles is even more so. It should be noted that the male dominated omnipresent in the continent.
In Latin, definition of "man" is the word and the United States and Canada have different. People usually think that the word on behalf of Latin chivalry Among them, care and manhood. stay Latin America Women, especially mothers, are subject to praise, respect and care. Their main task is to take care of the family, rather than participate in Commercial activities .
Religion and language
Continent of Latin America (including America) in the same religion - Catholicism In addition, Portuguese speaking Brazil Haiti and French Guiana French speaking Dutch speaking Suriname Belize and the Caribbean English, other countries speak the same language - spanish.
Almost every country in Latin America, European colonization had been before, and most are also the Spanish and Portuguese colonies. European colonial invasion from the East began, brutal and bloody, ravaged and conquered the local ancient civilization: Aziz Turk , Maya and Inca . Unlike here in the North American continent, North American settlers mostly to seek freedom and democracy, and the Latin American invaders are here to establish a dictatorship and the feudal system.
social structure
The social structure almost everywhere in Latin America there is a polarized society, only by two stratum Components of the "haves" and "proletariat". The middle class does exist, perhaps in this class in some countries is booming, but in any case, for the whole of this region, the middle class is only a number of rare class. So for the first time the visiting people, they are often shocked by the great differences between the standard of living of extreme wealth and poverty.
Personal relationship
Business is often built on the basis of personal relationships. Latino love really go about their business partners. For this reason, visitors, especially Americans, to the negotiating process is too long, always around often lose patience. Do business here is very important for the use of a personal relationship. Therefore, we must remember that in all commercial activities, establish a good personal friendship and mutual trust is the basis for your success. Also remember that Latinos are willing to do business with North Americans, because they believe the North American people are very rich, very successful. However, sometimes they will produce jealousy, or even fear of the North American use of power from the interests of Zhongmu.
Social life and social life, the Latin American people like food, music and laughter. They attached great importance to family life, some of the family celebrations, such as birthdays, weddings, vacation, full of joy.
Just in time for the United States and Canada business people, most of the Latin American custom of their frustration is the Latin American people's concept of time. North Americans were very punctual and the concept of time is also very strong. But the area south of the Rio Grande is completely different. Latin American people's view is that "life is a circle, there is no beginning or end." So when you go south, you must be patient, be prepared, even if everything is normal, your trip may also be longer than expected. When you must determine the meeting time, or else take your time to the hotel, if you have and the Latin American colleagues know that if he said at 9 in the morning to pick you (may actually be at 10 and 11 p.m.), then you have to smile and ask La Hora Ingles or La Hora espamol (in English or Spanish in the time of the time). Those who often deal with North American and Latin Americans often will return to you a smile, and will remember your time requirements.
Indian In almost every Latin American countries (except Argentina), you will find the original seed and Indian descent, residents of the continent. In Brazil, from Africa slave trade The population of this country, more diversified in color.
These are some of the major Latin American countries in common. Then take a look at the differences between them. Every Latin American countries have their own unique take pride in the history of the road: their origins, they are patriots, their hard work and their abundant resources. Therefore, to a country, we must first understand their own unique culture and people, this is very important.

Latin America Difference

Brazil is the largest country in Latin America, a population of about 150 million. It is the United States and Canada, a place frequented by business people, second only to Mexico. In the business world, will often hear" Runaway inflation "This word, which is Brazil's financial industry, cancer, continue to occur over the past few decades Inflation Each year, to reach 500% or higher. Although at the beginning of twenty-first Century the situation has improved, the cash flow is still doing business in Brazil should pay attention to the problem. Nevertheless, the rich natural resources, with many full of life, love life of the people of the country, attracting a lot of Americans and Canadians spend a lot of time and money to seek business opportunities.
 Buenos Aires Buenos Aires
Come to Buenos Aires, you will think that the capital in European countries. Fashion, architecture, nightlife, style of cooking in Paris, Naples and Madrid The legacy. At the turn of the century from Italy and Spain, and then from the British and German large-scale immigration came here left a deep impression. Business people here, sophisticated, generous and efficient. Many North American businessmen believe that Argentina is one of the most fascinating Latin American countries.
Bolivia and Argentina as the East and the West as big difference. Bolivia 50% of the population are Indians, 25% is of mixed Indian and European race, the rest of the population from many countries. As a Latin American country with the highest above sea level, it looks like a huge mountain. The mining industry is the pillar industry of Bolivia.
Chile is like a long, curved stretch of the rope on the west coast of the lowland. Chilean business people from Britain, Germany and Spain are the descendants of the composition. Women are usually the visiting business will be comfortable with the cordial reception, but also rarely encountered in other Latin American countries have common male chauvinism. (definition of male chauvinism refer to introduction part of Mexico)
Columbia commercial center of Bogota and America welcome to most of the visiting guests, where sophisticated atmosphere and prudent, full of rich culture. However, these advantages have been the envy of the existing notorious repute drug trade (in the north coast is very popular), sporadic violence and the revolutionary in the big city groups of homeless children and other issues impact. In the business world, "courteous" often used to describe the merchant of Columbia. American business women will be courtesy and respect, if you have a certain title and professional backgrounds, and not so overbearing more so.
Located in the south of the United States, is the fastest population growth in Latin america. When you first came to the crowded Mexico City When you may find all of the Mexicans are crowded there, and you squeeze them. The result is smoky, endless traffic, and then the thicker mist. Mexico 37% workers are women, but in the company, only a small number of women in leadership positions or in senior management. This is a country rife with machismo, but this kind of macho in the Americans, only those with pistols, bearded, Xie Zhaoyan proudly display their love of the man's image. However, as explained earlier, in the opinion of the Mexicans and throughout Latin America, macho symbol of strength, confidence, courage and courage are positive features. Therefore, Mexico men for women is full of chivalry and care for me. In spite of this, and women do business, they still have a sense of superiority, so you must be prepared.
Many Americans would think that Panama, the Panama Canal. However, for the visiting American business, the history of the United States intervention The Canal Zone Is a mixed blessing. On the one hand, the Panama Business English, and understand the business story. But on the other hand, there are also Panama anti-Americanism . For the visiting tourists, another issue of concern is that the main city of Panama Panama City The crime rate is high and cologne.
In Peru, you will have tremendous impact on the Indians was shocked. Compared with other Latin American countries, The people of Peru The higher the proportion of Indians in the mouth. Peru is the commercial center of Lima, located in the meandering west coast, drought covered with dust, the whole city is like being painted brown. Visitors will generally have a generous reception, but compared to other markets and the economy is relatively backward, business center and only basic living commodities.
For most North American people, to do business means to Venezuela Caracas Go. When you pass through from the airport to Caracas where the valley stretches. The coast mountains When you would think that coming to a metropolis of the United States or canada. Caracas is full of people and high-rise buildings, there is a constant flow of traffic flow, traffic. Venezuela's economy in one of the most prosperous economy in Latin America, to do business in North America many. English is widely used, many Venezuelan businessmen have been educated in North America, but Latin Americans both traditional hospitality. But again, please remember, Latin American women's traditional role is to take care of the family, men occupy the dominant position.

Latin America Business practices

If you say something in Spanish and Portuguese, which in the daily life of course would be put to some handy. But unless you are very fluent in Spanish or Portuguese, or the use of such language for business discussion is not wise. Because many Spanish words and phrases have different meanings in different countries. You'd better hire a translator or find a credible, language fluency assistant.
Every Latin American countries are also slightly with some of their Spanish accent. For example, the Cuban people say the Spanish pronunciation of some vague, many syllables are omitted, if you are not trained, you might think this is the most difficult language in the world. On the other hand, Columbia people speak Spanish in Latin America was considered the most pure and most accurate spanish.

Latin America urban development

Latin America Survey

The development of Latin American city lasted about 2000, roughly divided into 3 periods.

Latin America Development period

 Tenochtitlan Tenochtitlan
In each major stage of the development of Indian culture, especially in the The Mayan culture Inca culture, and Aztec Civilization Heyday, have left the precious relics of ancient indian. The site records the ancient Indian culture -- the history of the development of city center. The Maya in about A.D. eighth Century established more than and 100 towns. Toltec established brilliant Tula City; the Aztecs in Texcoco lake island built magnificent Tenochtitlan . In the birthplace of the Inca Inca culture, people create tens of millions of population, as the center of Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador and spoke today in Argentina and northern Chile large empire Cuzco is the capital of the Inca Empire.

Latin America During the colonial period

The Spanish and Portuguese colonists arrived in America, has been established for colonial conquest and rule base in their footing. From the establishment of the first town on the island of Haiti Santo Domingo Since the conquest and colonial in 300 years, the colonists have in the South American continent along the coast and in the Caribbean island, established in Havana, Cartagena, Lima Bogota, Buenos Aires Chile. Santiago And Salvatore of Brazil Rio de Janeiro Other towns, renovation and expansion of the Cuzco, Quito, Mexico City Indians of the ancient city of the original. Along with the economic development of the colonies, settlers built many mainland mining towns in mineral district, such as Bolivia Potosi In Mexico, Pachuca, Guanajuato, Taxco, Brazil ou Rupp Reto, Cuiaba Etc.. In order to facilitate the colonial and foreign exchanges, the colonists also built some port city and tourist city, such as Mexico Veracruz And Acapulco, Panama and Balboa Cologne Brazil. Porto Alegre Etc..

Latin America During World War II

The first half of nineteenth Century, the Latin American countries gained independence, along with the influx of immigrants from Europe and the European and American capital, the Latin American region has become the global production of raw materials, gradually accelerate the pace of city construction, some agricultural products of origin, such as Argentina Pakistan in the southwest areas, coffee Pampas Agricultural and pastoral areas, rapid economic development, the status of the city has been strengthened, especially in the big city all the institutions of economic management, and become a powerful force to get rid of the traditional rural control. Latin American city the rapid growth of population, 1910 to 1960 of the total population increased by 1.8 times, and the 50 big city population increased by 5.6 times. After the two World War, Latin American countries have implemented import substitution and export substitution industrialization, the rapid development of industrial city, a large rural population into the city, the city population is rapidly expanding, City scale In 1990 the city population continues to expand, as high as 70%.

Latin America Other

Latin America The most in the world

Peru vanadium reserves is the world's largest;
Chile is the world's most narrow country
 The Itaipu dam The Itaipu dam
Chile's copper reserves is the largest in the world;
Chile saltpeter The reserves are the world's largest;
Columbia emerald reserves is the world's largest;
Hope Packie EP rock salt mine in Columbia is the world's largest;
Brazil and Paraguay have in common The Itaipu dam Is the world's first dam;
The Brazil plateau is the world's largest area of the plateau;
Amazon Plain Is the world's largest alluvial plain, the largest tropical rainforest area;
Itaipu Dam Is the world's second largest hydropower station; (formerly first, now replaced by the Three Gorges)
Ecuador Bill Caban village is the first in the world Long Life Village - CHINA .

Latin America Music

Most of the residents are of Latin America A person of mixed blood So, music as well as natural from the emotional life of the society. Here the so-called European style, African Style, are already infected with the new world of color, gain new life. It is the original Indian Music culture According to the ancient style is inherited, rather than absorb all sorts of influence on the one hand, on the other hand, as people living in the reality of the expression of emotion, and added a lot of subtle changes. A combination of these three factors, if the rhythm of view, can be cited, - Slovenia Nimes Minkowski "Latin music" in the words to explain: in the melody, "the Indians to provide a five tone scale of basic, influence of European settlers performance in the expanded scale, increasing chord, black rose change sound modification. In the beat and rhythm, with endless long sentences to Indians, monotonous drumming as accompaniment. The rhythm is the Spanish colonists, the typical double beats 3/4 and 6/8, the result of the staggered rhythm features in the section of central. The black influence was almost constant 2/4 beat added syncopation." The mixing process of these three factors, the book cited research Dagu, Latin America folk music The development is divided into three stages: 1, pure Indian tune, five tone scale 2, scale of Indian; the so-called "hybrid", the result is similar to the size of the European Indo European mixed scale; 3, "mixed and mixed", is to use black African ornaments and ornaments to scale further complicated changes.

Latin America Politics

 Latin America Latin America
At the Congress of Peru Initiative Next, on December 7, 1964 to 11, Argentina, Brazil, Columbia, Chile, Costa Rica, Salvatore, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Mexico and Venezuela (2 observers) 119 members in 13 countries meeting in Peru of Lima, decided to set up The Latin American Parliament (Latin-American Parliament). In July 18, 1965, the Latin American Parliament was formally established in Lima. The Latin American Parliament headquarters is located in the original Lima, St Paul moved to Brazil in July 1993. Its purpose is to promote the integration of Latin American and Caribbean countries and regions together. The Latin American Parliament from 22 countries and regions in Latin America and the Caribbean members. These countries and regions are: Argentina, Bolivia, Aruba, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Ecuador, Salvatore, Honduras, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Netherlands Antilles, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay and venezuela. The conference is The highest power Before 1995, biennially, 1995 revised articles of association provisions held annual meetings; Leadership Committee is responsible for the daily work in the General Assembly session, a meeting held every six months, if necessary, held a special meeting by the speaker, speaker, deputy speaker, alternate secretary, alternate secretary secretary general, former speaker and consultative Council which served as speaker by Member States members take turns; the General Secretariat for offices, both coordination and supervision functions, be responsible for convening the meetings to assist the Leadership Committee to prepare for the big agenda and drafting documents, distributed protocol, proposal or statement; the implementation of the budget and make financial report as to the general assembly; 13 standing committee, responsible for the analysis and research work; 5 special committees and advisory bodies; Consultative Council, responsible for legislation and Political consultation Work.

Latin America Pull culture

The world is China country with an ancient civilization One of, and Latin America, Aziz Turk created the Maya and Inca three ancient civilizations. China and Latin American ancient civilization for human progress and development and write a glorious chapter.
A China, and Latin American cultural characteristics
Chinese and Latin American culture both have their own characteristics, there are also similarities. The main features are: first, Chinese culture China cultural tradition since the origin of development has never been cut. China cultural development stretches without a break, continuous without interruption, compared with the Latin American culture, including any other ancient civilizations are different. Second, Chinese culture and the origin of the Chinese nation, with distinctive multiple origins unbalanced regional development characteristics. There are a number of Chinese cultural center of origin, The Yangtze River The Yellow River is the birthplace of China culture. On the other hand, Chinese culture is a fully inclusive and equitable, "harmony" culture, the "cohesion" and "part-time" is the unity of opposites. Chinese culture with strong compatibility. Third, Chinese culture with local characteristics. These features Chinese culture of the Chinese nation formation "structure you have me, I have you, make China culture rich and colorful and has long life.
The main characteristics of Latin American culture: first, unlike China culture, the original indigenous cultures of the Americas was invaded by the traditional European settlers cut. Because of the late Middle Ages European settlers to America's conquest and colonization, interrupted the development of Latin American indigenous culture of Indian, the Indian native culture could not become the subject of Latin American culture, but by the transplantation of European culture as the main body, the American Indian native culture and African black culture for minor constituents. Second, diversity and diversity. Latin American culture is the culture of "hybrid" or "mixed" culture. There are similarities between multiple origins of Latin American culture diversification and diversity and China culture, also has the difference. The same is the origin is various, the difference is the Latin American culture is the confluence of the Christian culture, European and American Indian native culture and the black African culture and a variety of different sources of culture and fusion. Third, openness and originality. A few Latin American cultural conservatism and exclusiveness, it is good at introducing and absorbing the latest achievements of other cultures, has a great affinity, and strong fusion, to create with its own distinctive characteristics of Latin American culture. Opening and innovation is the fundamental development of Latin American culture.
The history of contact and mutual influence, two pull culture
about China ancient culture And there is no contact between the ancient Latin American cultural problems in the Chinese and foreign scholars always have different opinions and arguments, so far inconclusive. There are two kinds of opinions basically, forming a "homologous" and "self" two factions. The ancient Latin American culture originated in the Chinese culture, that the ancient Latin American culture and ancient culture is China each along a unique path of development. "The main representative scholar homologous faction" and characters: the French Sinologist of Nepal, the former president of Mexico, Professor Mexico keatchie EK veryan Hof Professor Gustavo Vargas, Columbia, Chinese. Zhang Taiyan Xing, male, Dr Chan Zhang Chen Zhiliang, Chu Qianzhi (Nancun, Ma Dengtuos Under the name of "self"); the main representative scholars are: first Western Sinologist Cola Bo Lott (Germany), Hilleg (Holland), Joseph Needham (UK), the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences researcher China Xianai Professor, Peking University Express some Department of history, Peking University doctoral student Jiang Zudi.
According to the Chinese and foreign literature, pull cultural history in the Ming Dynasty (starting with the late sixteenth Century) of the sea" The Silk Road ". Since the first half of sixteenth Century to late seventeenth Century, some China merchants, artisans, and servants along seaman was opened between the Chinese - Philippines - Mexico Pacific trade routes, namely the maritime "Silk Road", arrived in Mexico, Peru and other Latin American countries, living, business or work there. The Chinese in Manila during this period to Latin America "about five thousand or six thousand people. The Chinese China silk, porcelain, handicrafts and other products and China culture to Latin American countries. At the same time, known as the "China ship"" Manila Galleon In return, the "Mexico Silver Eagle ocean, Latin American special corn and potato and tomato, peanut, Sweet potato Incoming food and tobacco Chinese, Chinese diversity to the development of the financial sector and the Chinese played a role in promoting, promoting the material and cultural exchanges between China and Latin america.
Contract laborers, Chinese, overseas Chinese and Chinese plays an important role in promoting the cultural ties in la. From 1870s to early nineteenth Century, hundreds of thousands of Chinese laborers and laborers contract composed of labor force, join the people of Latin America to agriculture, mining development and transportation construction, has made important contribution to the host country's economic development, civilization and social progress, promote the prosperity of Latin america. The construction of the Panama Canal, the development in the Americas, the Caribbean Sugar cane, coffee, cotton plantations and mining Chile saltpeter and Peru guano, Panama, Peru and Mexico and other countries in the construction of the railway, embodies the Chinese sweatshops.
In addition, the early overseas Chinese and Chinese overseas Chinese and Chinese, and later the fine tradition of the Chinese nation, customs and culture (such as clothing, cooking, Spring Festival, etc.) to Latin America, the production skills (such as rice cultivation, tea cultivation, the use of traditional Chinese Medicine) taught Latin American people. Overseas Chinese in Cuba and other countries but also with the local people fought side by side, bloodshed, played an important role for the independence and liberation of the country.
In November 1974, Trinidad and Tobago's prime minister Williams's visit to China, specifically speaking in nineteenth Century made to Chinese laborers in Latin America and the Caribbean contribution. He said, "the Chinese and their descendants in various fields of law, medicine, business, education, sports, literature and art, and actively promote the development of our specific".
Three, cultural exchanges to promote the development of friendly relations between the pull
Cultural exchange is the link of spiritual dialogue, emotional communication and friendship. Chinese government attaches great importance to the development of cultural relations with Latin American countries. Cultural exchanges and cooperation in the consolidation of the traditional pull friendly cooperative relations and friendly cooperation between the established in twenty-first Century to pull, and pull both political, economic and trade relations, to deepen mutual understanding between the government and the people, and enhance mutual solidarity and cooperation has made great contribution to.
After the establishment of People's Republic of China, Chinese with many countries in Latin America are the first from the cultural exchanges, gradually increase and expand other contacts, the eventual establishment of formal relations. Cultural exchanges set up a connection to pull people's friendship bridge, to push the establishment of formal diplomatic relations played a role of trailbreaker unceased. So far, Chinese with 21 Latin American and Caribbean countries established formal diplomatic relations.
Since the reform and opening up 28 years, Chinese cultural exchanges with Latin American countries has been from the folk to the official, to the officials and people with China has about 20 Latin American countries signed dozens of cultural exchanges and cooperation agreements or culture, education and science and technology exchange and cooperation agreement. Especially since twenty-first Century, cultural exchanges and contacts between Chinese and Latin America more frequent and close cultural exchanges to promote the development of bilateral relations play an important role. For example, in September 2000, held in Mexico the "imperial period China: Xi'an Dynasty cultural relics exhibition"; in 2001, Mexico cultural relics exhibition "mysterious Mayan" held in Xi'an, Guangzhou, Beijing and Chinese Shanghai. In May 2006, "meet in Beijing" activities in Mexico as the main guest country; June; "Mexico: from three to contemporary mural painting", "Mexico Modern Architecture Exhibition" and "Mexico contemporary pottery exhibition in China Art Museum; July," Puma worship of the ancient civilization of Mexico Exhibition "opened at the Capital Museum in Beijing. From April 2006 to September, China National Museum And the Peru National Cultural Committee jointly organized the "lost in National Museum classic - the Incas and their ancestors treasures". In May 25, 2004, Peking University established the Brazil cultural center, the president of Brazil Lula Attended the inaugural ceremony. In July 2005, the Ministry of culture of Bolivia held a "China culture week". February 2006, China University The delegation visited Cuba and Columbia and other countries; in May, China government cultural delegation paid a friendly visit to Brazil, Cuba and other countries. In 2004, President of the Academy of Social Sciences Chinese Chen Kuiyuan Academy of Social Sciences China rate represents a delegation to visit Cuba, in social science scholars have held the two Symposium on. In addition, at the beginning of twenty-first Century, on behalf of China academy delegation also visited Brazil, Argentina, Venezuela, Mexico and other Latin American countries.
Pull the cultural exchange in the Latin American relations development plays an increasingly important role. As in November 2004, President Hu Jintao in Brazil Congress said in a speech, the pull in the "cultural exchanges close, has become a model of dialogue among different civilizations. Through the rich and colorful cultural activities, so that both sides of the people especially the young generations to get more spiritual communication and understanding, together for the diversified development of world cultures".