The Mississippi River

The Mississippi River (English: Mississippi River) is U.S.A The largest river is. world The fourth longest river.
The Mississippi River
It originated in the U.S.A North Lake Itasca On the Mississippi River to Heyuan, full-length 3767km. yes North America The longest process, Drainage area The most widely, the largest river water, located in South Central North america. The river sediment amount of 4.95 tons. One of the world's three largest river basin belongs to the black soil area. Usually originated in the western United States The Rocky Mountains The The Missouri A tributary of the Red Stone Creek (RedRock) (in Montana For Heyuan, it) was 6021km, the world's fourth rivers; drainage area of 3 million 220 thousand Km2, accounting for the United States area of 4l%, covering the eastern and central areas. The average annual runoff of 580 billion m3 (including Atchafalaya River ). The average annual sediment yield was 312 million T.

The Mississippi River River profile

Length of the Mississippi River 6020 km length after Africa The the Nile , South America The Amazon and China The The Yangtze River First, is the river of the North American continent.
It originated in the The Rocky Mountains The largest tributary of the East The Missouri The source of the starting, 6020 km long, ranked fourth in the world. North River Basin The five Great Lakes Nearby Lake Itasca South Dakota. The Gulf of Mexico The East. The Appalachian Mountains To the west, The Rocky Mountains L, watershed area of 3 million 220 thousand Km, accounting for about North America Area 1/8. A collection of about more than and 250 branches, more than the east coast and long tributary of the West Bank, the formation of asymmetric dendritic giant. Water rich, nearly estuary Where the average annual flow of 18 thousand and 800 cubic meters / sec.
The Mississippi River North America The river of the crown, together with its major tributary to Drainage area The calculation, is second only to South America Amazon River and Africa Congo River Ranked third in the world, the basin area (about 3 million 100 thousand - Km) river. The Mississippi River as the central artery of a highly industrialized countries, has become one of the world's busiest commercial waterway. It was difficult to navigate the river flows through the North America "Some of the most fertile farmland, now controlled by humans and make use of. The Mississippi River has two branch, the East and west of the Ohio River The Missouri .

The Mississippi River A river

The Mississippi River The river

 The Mississippi River Map The Mississippi River Map
From Heyuan to Heyuan The state of Minnesota The St Paul Navigation starting point. The cool, quiet meandering in numerous lakes and swamps of the lowland country. Upstream from St Paul to Missouri Louis Near the Missouri River estuary. This section through the limestone cliffs, along the route through Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Lino Iowa The river water on both sides of the Taiwan straits. This is a section of the Algonquian language. Indian The characteristics of people known as the "father of the river". From Missouri to the river empties into the estuary of Ohio river section, 322 km long. Missouri river rapids, muddy, especially in the period of abuse it to clear the Mississippi River not only increases the flow rate, and input a lot of sediment. In the Ohio River Illinois Cairo is the import, the lower Mississippi River, the river is full, River course There are 2.4 kilometers wide, the distance between the two sides, a brown tide slowly toward the Gulf of Mexico.
Many of the tributaries of the Mississippi River, the more important of the 54, because Climatic geomorphology The similarities and differences of conditions, the hydrological characteristics of different things on both sides of the river. One of the main tributaries of the Ohio River, Missouri River, Arkansas River, Red River and Tennessee River Etc.. These tributaries like a tree on the lush branches like distribution throughout the valley.

The Mississippi River Through the area

If the Missouri - Jefferson (Lei De Luo G The length of the river) in Missouri and Mississippi confluence after Mississippi
 The Mississippi River Delta The Mississippi River Delta
Than the river, the total length of 5971 kilometers, ranking fourth in the world. However, the Mississippi River trunk length of 3780 kilometers, ranking twentieth in the world only. The Mississippi River flow of about 17000 cubic meters per second (600000 cubic feet per second), ranking eighth in the world. A wide range of the Mississippi River, many tributaries, associated with more than half of U.S. Regional economy . The Mississippi River flows through the states of a total of 10: The state of Minnesota , Wisconsin , Iowa , Illinois , The state of Missouri , The state of Kentucky , The state of Tennessee , The state of Arkansas , Mississippi , louisiana . The river flows through 31 states in 48 states, two states canada. The Wisconsin River flows through the lake in the last half Wisconsin In half, Michigan .

The Mississippi River Divising

The Mississippi River itself originated in northern Minnesota near Lake Itasca, South to the Gulf of Mexico, a total length of 3950 km. This is the main stream of the upstream development in the ancient rock surface, and there after a strong Bingshi, so the soil is thin, riparian Kennedy is often rock
 Mississippi River Basin Mississippi River Basin
The dew, beautiful scenery. Dotted with lakes, there are tens of thousands in Minnesota. These lakes like natural Reservoir As for the Mississippi River water supply plays an important regulatory role. Which is the most representative of the Missouri river.
Missouri River mainstream originate in the northwestern region of the United States of the Rocky Mountains Yellowstone National Park Nearby. The other tributaries originate in Canada and the United States border area, small river water, sediment, water level change year. Missouri River, the average annual flow of about 2000 cubic meters per second, but the summer flood period, maximum flow rate of up to 22640 cubic meters per second, and in the winter dry season when, Minimum flow Only 120 cubic meters per second. Especially after the heavy rain, muddy the water like mud, poured into the Mississippi River, even in the more than and 100 km Missouri estuary in the Missouri River and the following, clear the opacity of the Mississippi River, but can also distinguish. Therefore, for living in the Missouri River, the river is not drinking, can not work, for the local Agricultural irrigation Have a certain influence and shipping.
Upper reaches
The source of Lake Itasca to Minneapolis and St Paul For the Mississippi River Upper reaches . The upper part of the Mississippi River above the estuary also including the largest tributary of the Missouri river of the Mississippi River, is actually including the upstream basin of the Missouri River Basin and the Mississippi River itself, a total length of more than 4 thousand and 300 km. It flows through the first Rocky Mountain, the mountain rivers divided, complex water systems, such as braided tributaries, the formation of many scenic canyons. flow through Grand Rapids A nearby, only 16 kilometers long in the process, the gap reached 187 meters, forming the famous St. Anthony falls. From the mouth to the milk Sioux City Through Missouri, the hills of the plateau, still deep narrow valley. Entered in Sioux City on the river Plain area The river has become, bending, the two sides formed the vast swamp. The soil erosion is more serious in this area, the water supply mainly depends on the alpine snow. The sediment content in the Mississippi River Basin and tributaries in the premier, annual average sediment concentration of 3.1 hundred million tons, accounting for the entire Mississippi River sediment input in the ocean in 75% year. So the Missouri river past the United States called for "the big raging muddy river".
 The Mississippi River Delta The Mississippi River Delta
From the Itasca Lake Tanganyika to the mouth of the Missouri River, the Mississippi River is in the upper reaches of. The river flows from the Itasca Lake Tanganyika, winding Yusenlin And the marshes, where water flow is slow, and the general flow of rivers upstream fast scenario is completely different. In the vicinity of Heyuan, is dotted with small lakes. In this river, located in the young city of north central United States - "Twin Cities", also known as "1000 Lake city". Because of the city at the junction of spring wheat and cheese belt is located, with rich water resources on the Mississippi River to cooperate, become one of the most important American light industrial center, is the north central United States, large commercial, financial, electronics, agricultural machinery and transportation machinery manufacturing center. It is also the important origin of maple. Maple both green earth, beautify the environment, but also from maple syrup, furniture or wood can be used for construction. Hongye annual picking season, many people come here and watch collection, has now developed into a The tour area .
Middle reaches
The middle reaches of the Mississippi River is short, generally from the Missouri River and the Mississippi River at the confluence of the date, to the Ohio River Estuary
Only, a total length of 320 km. Including if with the two sides has to import Chippewa river, Wisconsin , The Des Moines River , The Illinois River , The Missouri and Ohio River The length of the total length can reach 1373 kilometers. North of the Saint Louis River, the river slope, many rapids; near Saint Louis and south of the lot, river than decreases, gradually wide valley. From the angle of the Cape Girardeau, river bend of the open valley, the river increased significantly, up to 2.4 km wide at the mouth of the Ohio river. In the state of Missouri and The state of Illinois In some areas, is warm and rainy, good crop growth, water
Flow stability, channel Deep, great value for shipping, the annual cargo flow, the transportation is very busy. The United States economy Compared with developed areas. There are many important economic center And as a transportation hub, known as the "west gate" of Saint Louis and Indianapolis So, it is located in the river in the middle of the Mississippi river.
The most distinctive is St. Louis , built in the great Mississippi River steel arch of the beautiful touch the sky, like a jade belt from the Mississippi River to the majestic Saarinen arch of the foot of the flow, add colorful scenery to the city. 192 meters high arch Saarinen, is to start in 1964, built in 2 years. Take the elevator to the top, from the heights overlooking the panoramic view of the Mississippi river.
stay Geographer It seems that the lower Mississippi River is a long meandering river sediment deposition of typical; the river floodplains, forming numerous bends, left many Meandering Remains, bow lake, Oxbow lake Swamp and backwater. The lower reach of the Mississippi River from the mouth of the Ohio river has been to The Mississippi River Delta The part of the estuary, a total length of 1570 km. The main tributary White River , Arkansas River , Red Etc.. This relatively flat River downstream, the bend of the river is not here a mild climate, abundant rainfall, belong to Subtropical Humid area.
Most of the Mississippi River Plain, Ohio estuary, 25 km wide, a total of 6 channel at the mouth of the river, about 30 km long, shaped like a bird's foot. The 80% rivers into the sea water through the southwest waterway, south channel and channel and Arlo 3 main channel. The river average annual sediment amount of 4.95 tons, piled up at the river mouth area of 26 thousand Km - Great Birdfoot Delta Continue to extend to the Gulf of Mexico, at an average annual rate of 96 meters.
Along the river river valley gradually widened, has a width of more than and 100 km. Most of the bottom of the swamp has, Heshen abnormal bending, there are many old river bed and Hequ . This fertile soil, has been highly used, is the United States Corn The largest producing area.
In the lower Mississippi River is the largest port city Memphis. A large collection of American agricultural products, especially in the production of cotton, cottonseed oil and other famous hardwood. Now the formation of farm machinery manufacturing, automobile, pharmaceutical, wood and agricultural products processing base.
The Mississippi River in the city of Baton Rouge, began to enter Delta Area. Delta low-lying, marshy River cross-strait, Depression The distribution of the mouth with three minutes into the claws of a bird to extend overseas. various A river Near every year a large number alluvial deposition, thus the delta area of 129 square kilometers increased in the past 150 years. Delta is still at an average annual rate of 75 meters to the Mexico Bay extension.
 The Mississippi River Delta The Mississippi River Delta
The largest port of New Orleans is located in the Mississippi River Delta. It is mainly responsible for bulk goods and transit to Around the world The material. There are deep water coastline of 380 kilometers, there are hundreds of ships from all over the world ships every day. Become the second Netherlands The world's second largest seaport of Rotterdam port.
In New Orleans, 120 km to the northwest of Baton Rouge, the river water depth, shipping is very convenient, at the same time, the southern United States is also important Industrial City . The production of petrochemical products, both in quantity and quality, after all Houston In the United States, second. The center and the Museum of Natural Science Anglo - the American Art Museum, is the most attractive place, this year to visit more than 4 million domestic and foreign tourists.

The Mississippi River The main tributaries

The Mississippi River tributaries include the Mississippi River tributary of the Ohio River, Eastern and Western tributaries of the Missouri River, Arkansas River, White River and the red river.
Ni A Boris above the Mississippi river called on the Mississippi River, full length 827km. Adjacent to the five Great Lakes tributaries of the Mississippi River system of Michigan lake and the Lake Superior region, there are many small lakes, the water supply and regulation play a significant role.
   Ohio River Full length, 1578km, watershed area of 528 thousand km, the average annual runoff is 230 billion 200 million M. The Pittsburgh River Estuary to the total drop of 127m. The Tennessee river is the main tributary of the Ohio River, a total length of 1050km, flows through 7 states in the southeastern United States, watershed area is 105 thousand and 900 KMZ, the annual runoff of 25 billion 400 million M. The total drop of 157m.
The other is a tributary Cumberland The river basin area of 47 thousand km, 1158km long river estuary, multi-year average runoff of 24 billion M. The Missouri river is the largest tributary of the Mississippi river. The length of 4126km, watershed area of 1 million 372 thousand km, the main source for the southwest Montana Jefferson River, Madison River and the Latin River, the 3 River confluence of Missouri River, the confluence at the elevation of about 1220m, north through steep. The narrow canyon to Grand Rapids, above the upstream Missouri missouri. This is a section of the river gorge river, a typical river rapids, the average slope of up to 11.36 per thousand, as in a local river near the city of 16km River Falls, the water drop 122m, formed a series of waterfalls. The following bends to the East, into the mountains and high plains, to Sioux City for the middle reaches of the river. For the Sioux City on the lower reaches of the river, in the river alluvial riverbed frequent swinging, river windingly branching and 2008, at Missouri's St. Lewis city in the north of 16km Department of the Mississippi river. Flat slope gradient in the lower reaches is generally 1.9 per thousand. For many years the Missouri river runoff is 70 billion 300 million M, maximum flow rate of 25500m/s estuary. Tributaries in high plain areas, serious soil erosion. Such as the Huangshi River, Potter River and Baihe River, sediment content by weight of up to 30. Missouri River total average annual sediment load was 218 million T, the average sediment concentration is 3.1kg/m, the United States is sandy river, also known as the big muddy river.
   The Missouri , the main tributary of the Huangshi River, milk River, James River, Kansas River and river tilade.
Milk River 1170km. long, the valley area of 58 thousand km, the average flow rate 20m/s, runoff of 630 million M. Huangshi river basin area of 178 thousand 1080km, km, the average flow of 370m/s. The James river is 1142km long, the valley area of 57 thousand km.
Once, 1593km long river, watershed area of 219 thousand and 900 km, the average flow rate of 169m/s. The Kansas river is 1140km, watershed area of 159 thousand km, the annual average flow of 186m/s, runoff of 5 billion 870 million M.
Arkansas (Arkansas), the river originated in the Rocky Mountains, from west to East, into the Mississippi River in the state of Arkansas Desha county. The length of 2333km, watershed area of 416 thousand km. Under natural conditions, the short Hill Station annual average flow rate is 1700m/s and the annual sediment yield of 95 million T, the maximum peak flow rate is 19800m/s. The main tributaries of the Arkansas River in Canada long river basin area of 121 thousand and 500 1458km, km, the tributary of the North Canadian river basin area of 36 thousand 1223km long, km.
White River That originated in Madison County, Arkansas, a total length of 1102km, watershed area of 72 thousand and 500 km, the average flow rate of 909m/s.
Red (the Red River), is close to a right bank tributary of the Mississippi River, rises in New Mexico Dilabu blue Saxi, full-length 2075km, watershed area of 241 thousand km, the average flow rate of 1585m/s. Which is the largest tributary of the Ouachita River, a total length of 1010km, watershed area of 21 thousand km, the average flow rate of 44m/s.

The Mississippi River The natural characteristics of Watershed

The Mississippi River Landforms

The United States is composed of 3 columns with terrain. The first column is in the western mountains and plateaus, Rocky Mountain has more than and 40 peaks above 4200m; the second column zone is the Appalachian Mountain of the eastern sea peak pull 2038m third; tandem belt is the Central Plains, including the Great Plains and the Central Plains lowlands, the general elevation of 600 - 1500m. Between the Mississippi River System in the west by 80 ~ 118 and 29 ~ 49 latitude, it is
 The Mississippi River View The Mississippi River View
The central plains.
On the Mississippi River, the terrain is low, lakes, contact the mainland and the Northeast channel. Although the Missouri river originates in the rocky mountain heights, but the basin mostly flat or slightly undulating. Ohio River in the Central lowlands, elevation below 150m, the East and the Appalachian Mountain. The Mississippi River flows through the Central lowlands, the middle reaches of the river. The broad river tortuous, river width of 2500 ~ 3000m, smooth water potential. Because of the sediment in estuarine deposit, since 1898, the average annual River Delta to the sea extension 30m, formed about 300km in width, the delta area of 37 thousand km. Delta low-lying, marshy depressions, the embankment on both sides, the estuary is divided into 6 Chinese outward, shaped like a bird, "bird foot delta".

The Mississippi River Precipitation

The Mississippi River in winter months the average temperature in the Louisiana The southern subtropical area is 13 degrees (55 degrees Fahrenheit), in northern Minnesota, sub polar regions for -12 C (10 degrees F). In the summer months the average temperature in Louisiana is 28 degrees Celsius (82 degrees Fahrenheit), in Minnesota is 21 degrees (70 degrees Fahrenheit).
Precipitation source for low moisture from the Gulf of Mexico and from The Pacific Ocean Some of the low altitude and high altitude. Winter and spring precipitation in the West often moves eastward through the cyclone storm when near the front. In winter the average monthly precipitation in the south of 127 mm or more, a large part of Ohio basin is more than 76 mm, the western and northern Great Plains, less than 25 mm. The summer and early autumn rainfall for showers and thunderstorms, and weak storm fronts. monthly average rainfall In southern Louisiana and Tennessee, and North Carolina The mountain is 152 mm, the Great Plains is only 51 ~ 76 mm.
In the eastern half of climate Wet, winter and spring in Tennessee River Basin, Ohio River and the Mississippi River Basin in southern flow. From central Texas to North Dakota The East has a north-south extension of the subtropical humid climate zone, neither completely wet, and semi arid. West of the Great Plains semi-arid climate, along the ridge to the Rocky Mountains Alpine climate Mainly, the winter snow melt in spring and early summer.

The Mississippi River River nickname

The magnificent vastness of the Mississippi River and its historical significance, there are a lot of Mississippi
* (The Father of Waters father River)
* water (The Gathering of from Waters)
* The Big Muddy the great mire (more commonly associated with the Missouri River)
* River (Big River)
The old man river (Old Man * River)
* great river (The Great River)
* national body (Body of a Nation)
* powerful Missy Siby (The Mighty Mississippi)
* great comic El Grande (de Soto)
* the muddy river (The Muddy Mississippi)
* the old blue (Old Blue)
* River (Moon River)

The Mississippi River hydrographic features

The vast Valley, climate condition, and river sections hydrographic features Have certain differences.

The Mississippi River The runoff

The upper reaches slightly higher latitude, with the spring snowmelt and rainwater recharge, the highest in April water level In June, due to precipitation The occurrence of high water increased, The flood period 3 ~ July, December The dry season . The average annual flow of 2900 cubic meters / sec. The winter freeze, Sediment concentration Less.
The middle reaches of the average annual flow of 5800 cubic meters per second, from 3 to August for the flood period, the highest level in June, December for the dry season. Due to the west through the tributaries of the semi arid area, river sediment concentration Enlarge。
Downstream from Ohio River after water increase, the average annual runoff of 13 thousand and 400 cubic meters / sec, 1 ~ June for flood period, April October to the highest level, the dry season, large sediment. On the right bank of river river in Missouri led by length, small quantity and obvious seasonal change; on the left bank of river in Ohio led by climate change, water, seasonal small length. Most of the basin plain That provides for the south central United States rich Irrigation water And industrial and living water. But in the lower reach than the small drop, River flat The vast past, whenever the spring and summer, the river rose, the middle reaches of river lowlands easily following a disaster caused by flooding water. America The Nile said.

The Mississippi River Flood characteristics

 The Mississippi River scenery The Mississippi River scenery
The Mississippi River hydrology Has been vigorously research object, in fact, to 1920s it is widely believed that on the river hydrological conditions have enough understanding and control facilities have been built have been enough to subdue the river. However, in 1927 at the Mississippi floods the largest in history, more than 59570 square kilometers of land flooded highway, Railway And telephone lines and other transportation at the interruption, farmland, factories and even the whole town was once the bubble into the water. A large number of property destroyed, at least 250 people were killed. The river engineers began to redefine the Mississippi River hydrological problems.
Since 1927 the abnormal situation, the main tributary of the Mississippi River downstream of the average flow injection by careful monitoring. The main river flows through the Mississippi Fort Vickers (Vicksburg) the average flow Determination of 16131 cubic meters / sec. In general, the West Branch is the most unstable. In the spring and early summer peak, equivalent to 3 of the water into the main river in winter to 4 times. The upper Mississippi River and its tributaries at approximately the same time (3 ~ June) reached the highest level after this time is early summer rainfall and snowmelt. However, this area is also very impressive winter flow. The Ohio river flow occurred earlier, it is not far away in front of the river into the Mississippi Illinois Metro biggest Indianapolis monthly average Flow usually occurs in March, at the Ohio River to provide traffic accounted for the lower Mississippi River to Fort Vickers to measure the flow rate of 3/5. So, the Ohio river is the main cause of the lower Mississippi River flood. The flood can be exacerbated by the following conditions: Great Plains early spring rain, suddenly hot Angel northern snow melt, downstream heavy rain etc.. This occurs, the lower reaches of the river overflowed its banks, the threat of levee. Tributary turned back, in the far side of a lake levee. Usually no more than 2 ~ 3.5 (2.5 to 4 miles per hour) of the flow can be increased by 1 times in the main channel narrow. For example, the fort Vickers stations in the low winter flow recorded in 1936 only 2655 cubic meters per second, the high water level period measured by the flow of 58298 cubic meters / sec.

The Mississippi River River ecology

The Mississippi River and its floodplain feeding a total of more than 400 different kinds of wild animal resources in North America, 40% of the birds are migratory path along the Mississippi river. Although the natural vegetation of the Mississippi valley itself is not a product of climate and soil of the river, marsh and backwater area in Mississippi ecology It is worth noting. From the beginning to the Minnesota wild swamp Delta Coast The moor, animals and plants flourish in the small area of It is often seen. along the river. In these areas, natural vegetation and luxuriant relatively independent of the natural environment as well as provided by the pool of grass and sedge, millet etc. plants, provides good habitat for waterfowl. These birds with the season along the path of migration, known as the Mississippi flight path. Use this term to refer to the vast from The River Delta Until the northern Canada summer nesting aerial highway, is one of the most exact but. It is estimated that only the downstream part of a total of 8 million ducks, geese and swans flying in winter agglomeration Road, there are other birds more this road to Latin America . The most typical migratory birds for the flight of the road canada goose And small Wavey A large number of. Mallard And teal, and Black duck , Wigeon , Pintail , Ring necked duck as well as coot .
The most important fish there are several catfish (several in the downstream area Catfish Can be quite large, according to the local commercial fishing); a walleye and sub mouth fish (upstream in these fish, they are Minnesota and Wisconsin Provide the basis for fishing); and carp and European needle fish . Alligator Has very little, only in the most lonely back waters I will see. The salt water area of shrimp, crab fishing is also in decline.

The Mississippi River Threats and disasters

In the United States is facing tenth ten endangered rivers of the Mississippi River a threat: navigation infrastructure, flood control and pollution

The Mississippi River Failure management

The Mississippi River is responsible for the management of the U.S. Army Corps of flood control strategy mistakes, focus
In the service management of the Mississippi River for shipping and flood control, therefore, to the depth of the river flow, flood plain and Wild animal and plant resources Other aspects of cause changed or damaged. Many of the losses include: basin flood plain area was more than half of the levees cut off millions of acres; Wetland resources And countless edge channel and shoals destruction and damage; river is located at the bottom of the food chain of the most basic Wetland plants The number of significant reductions in the sand; and erosion have continued to increase, fish Living habits and mussels biological destruction etc..

The Mississippi River "The dead sea"

In September 2010, tens of thousands of dead fish found only in the western United States of Louisiana, Mississippi, where there is a whale. In addition to crabs, eels, stingrays, speckled trout and trout.
The United States Luis Ann
A piece of the state near the Mexico bay water is the "Dead Sea" be struck dumb: too many to count various dead fish, crab and eel's body surface will cover tightly. Local television reporter even found a head of whale's body in this piece is located in the Mississippi River in Haikou waters. The parties therefore urged the local government investigation.
Local residents said that although every summer, the water will be because of climate change caused by the sudden hypoxia phenomenon caused by a large number of water animal deaths, but this often will only make a fish death, without causing such a large-scale "multi species collective phenomenon of victims". There are doubts, British Petroleum Company Spill oil platform may occur in the true cause of the dead sea appeared.

The Mississippi River Natural disaster

 The Mississippi River (Figure) The Mississippi River (Figure)
The Mississippi River has a history of 1543 years of flood records, 1785, 1844, 1850, 1882, 1903, 19121913, twentieth Century 1897; 1927, 1945, 1950, 1973, 1974, 1975, 19791983 and 1993. For hundreds of years, the Mississippi River had major floods 37 times, an average of 3 years there are 1 flood.
The 1927 flood, the lower Mississippi River levee break 200, covered an area of about 60000 or 70000 square kilometers, on both sides of urban and rural areas has been severely damaged. Memphis City, surrounded by the flood of 107 days, more than 100 people dead, 800 thousand people homeless, calculate the losses of $2 billion 550 million in currency by 1973.
The flood in 1973, at the dike burst, flooding area more than 6.8 square kilometers, 11 people dead, 69000 people homeless.
In 1993, the United States on the west the Mississippi and Missouri rivers, the worst happened in twentieth Century Flood . Saint Louis station peak flow of 30560 cubic meters per second, the maximum flow rate is measured in more than 130 years, more than the previous record of 27% flood, the water level exceeds previous record level of nearly 2 meters in the flood season, flood duration is 104d.
Saint Louis station flood is equivalent to 150 - 200 year flood, some tributary stations for the 500 year flood. The flood caused an estimated loss of $15 billion, at least 4A deaths, 54000 people homeless. In addition, the branch also occurred in local flood. As of July 1996 the Northern Illinois sudden rainstorm flood, 24h rainfall of 425 mm, the largest since the spring news in Ohio River Basin in 1997 1936. The two floods also caused heavy losses, the Mississippi River caused by Hurricane storm flood loss is quite serious.
The Gulf of Mexico tropical storm from September 19, 1559 to record the first date, about 166 times more than the hurricane or threaten the coastal areas of Louisiana, including the Mississippi River Delta.
In 1909, hurricane hit the Mexico area of New Orleans, the storm surge floods that killed 700 people.
1915, 1919 and 1965 are the occurrence of similar disasters.

The Mississippi River Economy and culture

The Mississippi River is a treasure trove of national culture and entertainment. Every year, only tourism, fishing and leisure entertainment industry output value will reach $21 billion 400 million, providing 351 thousand jobs across the river. The Mississippi River and also supports the $12 billion 600 million shipping industry, providing 35300 jobs. Half of the country's grain and soybean Through the upper Mississippi River.

The Mississippi River entertainment

Water skiing was invented between Wisconsin and Minnesota PI in Pinghu area. Along the Mississippi River in 7 by the U.S. National Park Service area. The Mississippi National River and recreation area (Mississippi National River and Recreation Area) is to protect itself and show the Mississippi river. The other 6 areas (according to the arrangement from north to South):
The statue of the barrow national conservation area (Effigy Mounds National Monument)
Jefferson (Jefferson National Expansion land expansion Monument (abbreviation: Memorial) arch)
Fort Vickers National Military Park (Vicksburg National Military Park)
Natchez National Historical Park (Natchez National Historical Park)
The New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park (New Orleans Jazz National Historical Park)
Jean Laffitte National Historical Park and reserve (Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve)

The Mississippi River literature

William Faulkner Most of the works are set in his hometown of the Mississippi River Basin and the Delta region, and the fictional Yoknapatawpha County York a Mississippi River basin.
   Mark Twin Many of the works in the background is the Mississippi River, for example " Life on The Mississippi (Life on the Mississippi) "," The adventures of Tom Soya "," The adventures of Hakbely Finn ".

The Mississippi River The historical position

 The Mississippi River The Mississippi River
South America Amazon In Africa, the Nile And the Chinese The Yangtze River The same is called the four longest river in the world. The beautiful and fertile Mississippi River rises in the north of the western United States The Rocky Mountains The northern part of the mountains, winding winding Trinidad, winding, from north to south through the Great Plains of the United States, into the Gulf of Mexico, a total length of 3950 km. However, it is the largest tributary of the Missouri river is 418 km shorter. according to Heyuan Only from the principle, the length of the Missouri River, and the Missouri River into the Mississippi River below the length of the Mississippi River is 6262 kilometers long, is the process of the North American continent is the most extensive drainage area, the largest water drainage system.
The river water like milk off the reel like raising the Mississippi River Basin wide people. Long time that the American people has a long history of the Mississippi River as "old man river". It originated in the name of living in the United States in northern Wisconsin (al Jin Jin Indian A), they put the upper part of the river called "mississippi". "West of" meaning "large", "West" means River, "Mississippi" or "River" or "father of the river".

The Mississippi River Back value

The Mississippi River flows in its long, Mississippi moistens the continental United States 41% of the land, water must be more than any other river in the United states. The Mississippi River is millions of Americans Drinking water The source of. River basin includes two provinces in 31 states and Canada all or part of the. The Mississippi River is also as many state borders. The Mississippi River, from the beginning of reclamation, is the North-South shipping artery. But the history of the Mississippi River disasters more frequent. In early twentieth Century, the river constantly flooding downstream location in urban and rural areas, most of the buildings were destroyed, the destruction of farmland and orchards, industrial and traffic almost paralyzed. Many people leave the hometown, displaced, and very serious economic losses.
In 1928 the United States government has formulated a comprehensive renovation of the Mississippi River and tributaries flood control project bill, downstream in the river are in flood control dam. After 60 years of efforts, has received the basin Control flood , shipping Water and electricity, irrigation And the comprehensive economic benefits of fish. Today, through the development and construction of the American people, has undergone profound changes since half a century in the Mississippi River, the flood has been controlled, water has been fully utilized. Now everywhere is green river, dotted industrial town full of vitality, a busy fleet of yachts and light the United States this long river has come, the beautiful and fertile Mississippi River made the earth with color, more charming.

The Mississippi River Shipping value

The Mississippi River is U.S.A The major north-south shipping artery . From the mouth of sailing to the Minneapolis River waterway, 3400 km long. In addition to the main stream, there are about more than and 50 tributaries navigable. The water depth of 2.7 meters above the 9700 km long channel. Navigable tributaries total mileage of 2.59 km, and a number of Canal Connected with the five Great Lakes and other waterways, constitute a huge network of. In addition to the main stream and tributaries upstream Illinois From 1 to February, the Missouri river ice, navigable all year round, Helen through 395 kilometers from the mouth of Baton Rouge, shipping high value. Freight transport Turnover accounted for about 60% of the inland freight transport, mainly oil, flour, cotton, coal, metals and machinery products. The main ports along the coast have St. Louis , Memphis , Baton Rouge and New Orleans Among them, Luis Weil Is in the Ohio river. The basin water reserves of 26 million 300 thousand kilowatts, mainly distributed in the Ohio River and its tributaries, the higher the degree of development. As a branch of the Mississippi River connected directly to the The five Great Lakes Plus, many people give their repair Dam So, in one experiment, namely through the river ships to the smooth running of the five great lakes.
The First World War The river trade has great recovery. The other route is very crowded, so the river became a value increasing channel. stay Federal government Under the initiative, a new route opened up to 193 barges.
 The Mississippi River lock The Mississippi River lock
1 years, along the Mississippi River freight volume special purchases for the Spring Festival than any year in the last century more than 1 times the amount of.
The commercial use of stable growth of Mississippi waterways. The main cargo volume for petroleum and petroleum products, coal and coke, iron and steel, chemicals, sand and sulfur. Bulk handling daily will mean a few key port city beat rapidly.
The 1879 act of Parliament established under the supervision of the Mississippi River Commission for the implementation of a large-scale river project, the Mississippi River has produced profound change. The shipping plan includes the main steps of improvement in Illinois in 1896 approved by the state of Louisiana to Cairo Barton Rouge (Baton Rouge) of the shallow section of a mining depth of 3 meters (9 feet), 76 meters wide (250 feet) channel; 1928 approved the channel widened to 91 metres (300 feet); enhance to 3.7 meters (12 feet) of the project started in 1944 is still in progress. In addition, since Barton rouge to Mexico The bay is 14 meters (45 feet) deep waterway since 1945 since the approval of Congress is still under construction. Outstanding achievement in the upper reaches of the construction is to renovate 29 sluices and dams to 3 meters deep in the river back to Minneapolis - St Paul. A wide and complex waterway and the Mississippi River is one of the South The state of Florida And the border between Mexico coast landlocked Ohio River waterway, will introduce its tributary waterways and the waterway to the Illinois five Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway.

The Mississippi River Management and development

The Mississippi River Standard channel

The Mississippi River shipping began in the early eighteenth Century. To nineteenth Century, began remediation of the river downstream, on the Mississippi River and the Ohio River downstream channel. In addition to the general measures of dredging, including a lock beside the canal, to bypass the rapids. At the beginning of the twentieth Century, at the start of construction on the river navigable dam, to canalized waterway. From 1911 to 1940, the Ohio river was built on the 46 level of activity lock, first channel. Then, on the Mississippi River, the Tennessee River and the Arkansas river has been channelized. Built a total of more than and 100 seat lock. At this point, the river formed a unified channel.
The Mississippi River tributaries and river lake connected, forming waterway network extending in all directions, is an important reason for the sustainable development of river shipping industry. The water system in the waterway, ship and ship, adopt uniform standard, so that each channel to communicate with each other. Shipping is not restricted, is another reason for the development of shipping industry. The minimum depth of the Mississippi River system channel is 2.74M, only the main stream (Cairo to Baton Rouge) for the 3.65m estuary is 9 ~ 12m. The minimum channel width 91.4m. The main lock has two dimensions, namely 33.5m * l83m and 33.5m * 366M, sill depth of 3.96 ~ 4.66m. The ship has been standardized. For example, the open barge lengths of 53.34m and 59.44m and 88.39m three; width were 7.92, 10.67m and 15.24m; capacity were 1000, 1500t and 3000t; eat depth is 2.74m. The main tributary of the Mississippi River dry fleet sailing on the ship is composed of 8 10.6m wide and 59.4m long barge, the width of 32m, length 178m, draft 2.59M, weight 11152t, composed of 15 ship of the same barge fleet, the size of 32m * 343m, load 20910t. The two fleet can be through the effective length of 183m and 366M of the lock chamber, but the long fleet through the 183m to lock the disintegration, two times through.

The Mississippi River Flood control measures

With the downstream areas of economic development and a large industrial and commercial city, flood control is more and more important role.
Since 30s, in the lower Mississippi River carried out large-scale flood control project construction, heightening the crest elevation generally. A total length of 2590km 3540km the dike, dike, the average height of 7.5m, the individual sections reaching a height of 12m. The construction of the 4 seat floodway, total flood diversion capacity of 56600m/s. Straightening a total of 16, the 740km of 274km is shortened, the Arkansas city level is reduced by about 3.6m, Fort Vickers, water level is reduced by about 1.8m. in addition, also combine shipping built a large number of dikes and revetment.
Along with the economic development of the region, the comprehensive development branch of the mentioned schedule. In 1936, Congress passed a bill to the total flood control, flood control regulations tributary reservoir flood, flood diversion and river embankment, supplemented by. But shortly after that, the reservoir in the Missouri River and the Arkansas River, and can not solve the problem of flood control of the lower Mississippi river. Therefore, then emphasize the comprehensive flood control measures, such as the change of land use of flood area, the implementation of non engineering measures for flood insurance etc..
The Mississippi River flood control, although after a long struggle, built a lot of flood control projects, but not completely control flood. With the development of economy of flood area, flood disaster is more and more serious, the flood in 1973 and 1993 of 1996 and 1997 summer flood and local flood, suffered heavy losses. In 1993 after the flood, the flood is summarized, the flood control measures were re evaluated. The Mississippi River that may occur more than the 1993 flood, agriculture and industry accounted for 50% of flood losses, agricultural losses in 80% is excessive rainfall, soil moisture due to the large reservoir flood; reduce the loss of $11 billion, reduce the loss on the embankment. Billion dollars, but only 10% residents of the flooded area in the flood to buy flood insurance, there are 68% dikes (mainly non federal dike damaged). In the congressional authorization, flood control strategy of Missouri Army Corps of engineers on the Mississippi River - twenty-first Century in 1995 presented a special assessment report of flood management of the area (The Floodplain Management Assessment - FPMA Re - port), clearly must have comprehensive (including many non engineering measures) to achieve flood control, such as: flood risk scientific planning of land utilization, strengthen flood forecasting and warning, the establishment of emergency response and rescue mechanisms, promotion of flood insurance etc.. And the overall environment from natural protection to consider the river flood control.

The Mississippi River Control measures

According to the experts, the Mississippi River comprehensive management experience can be summarized as follows:
First, the government's attention, issued by the legal and orderly development. Is a special attention to the legislation of the country, through legislation, proactive planning for the future construction plan. The construction of water conservancy and hydropower engineering water transport law.
Two, commissioned by the Corps of engineers carried out scientific planning and construction from three aspects of water conservancy and Hydropower water.
Three, channel, lock, unified, fleet scale standard of good performance, do series and standardization, not only improve shipping efficiency and easy maintenance.
Four, the importance of scientific research in river management and construction effect. Every year there are a lot of government funding to Fort Vickers Waterways Experiment Station, related research achievements, mathematical model, physical model and mathematical model of ecological experiment, optimization scheme selection, to provide protection for the engineering design, construction and maintenance etc..
Five, advocate public participation, enhance the awareness of the river. In the tunica of the lower Mississippi County established the Mississippi River Museum, the river changes, river, river, along with the ecological environment, to rivers and other knowledge, or illustrations, or by physical model visually to the public.