Pine needles

pine leaf Pine kossen genus Needle Has. Dispelling wind and dampness , Insecticidal Relieve itching、 Blood circulation The nerves The effect of. This kind of Huashan pine The difference is: the pine needles in bunches of 2 7-10CM long, coarse, micro, margin serrulate, resin canal in students. cone Ovate or ovate, length 3-5cm, diameter 3-4cm, brown or dark brown when ripe, nearly sessile, persistent Cunshu, do not fall for many years; Scale Shield Flat diamond, Transverse ridge Significant, Umbo With short spines. Florescence 4-5 month, mature cones in October.
Pine needles

Pine needles Morphological character

1, trees, up to 35cm, bust up to 1m. Tree bark gray green light gray, smooth, gray tree. annual Branches green or gray green, glabrous. Winter buds Nearly cylindrical, brown, slightly resin. 5 needle, 8-5cm long, margin serrulate, only.
Both sides have 4-8 white stomatal lines; Cross section Triangle, Resin canal Usually 3 or 2 students, in the back edge, 1 middle ventral, 1 central vascular bundle. Male flowers yellow, ovate cylindric, ca. 1.4cm, base around the 10 egg shaped spoon scales. Cone conical long oval, length 10-22cm, diameter 5-9cm, green when young, when ripe yellow or brown yellow, fruit stalk length 2-3cm, when ripe Seed scales Open, seed shedding; middle scales rhombic obovate, long 3-4cm, Scale Shield Nearly rhomboid or wide triangular inclined square, Umbo Is not obvious. Seed obovate, brown, dark brown or black, long 1-1.5cm, unwinged ribbed; cotyledon 10-15 pieces, needle shaped, triangular cross section. Florescence 4-5 month, 9-10 month in cones.
2, trees, up to 45cm. The bark is reddish brown, with irregular long block crack. Branchlets often Verticillate No, fawn, white, glabrous; Winter buds Egg shaped cylindrical, brown, apex, Bud scales The edge of filiform, apex acuminate or long. Needle shaped leaves. 2 needle, 12-30cm long, slender and soft, leaf margin serrulate, resin about 4-8, on the back side, or have 2 edge; Leaf sheath At the beginning of a brown, after gradually into the black, persistent. Male flowers Reddish brown, terete, bent, 1-1.5cm long, crowded on lower branches in bract axils, spike; Female flowers 2-4 was born in a single or poly shoots top, purple red. cone Ovoid or conical ovate, length 4-7cm, diameter 2.5-4cm, short stem, pendulous, cooked chestnut brown; Central Seed scales Nearly oblong obovate, ca. 3cm; Scale Shield Diamond, slightly raised or flat, Umbo Slightly concave, no thorns. Seeds ovoid, long winged 4-6mm, even 2-2.7cm. Florescence 4-5 month, fruit ripening in 10-12 months.
3, trees, up to 30m, bust up to 2m. Young skin dark grey, old black, thick, irregular block. Annual branches pale brown, glabrous; Winter buds Silver white, cylindrical, oval or cylindrical top, Bud scales Lanceolate, margin white filamentous. Conifer needles in bunches of 2, dark green, glossy, thick and hard, 6-12cm long, margin serrulate, two sides of the cross section of a hole line. Resin canal 6-11, born in. Male flowers Reddish brown. A cylindrical, long 1.5-2CM; female flowers solitary or aggregated 2-3 branches near the top, straight, oval, purple red. cone When cooked brown, conical ovoid or ovoid, 5-7cm long, even the winged 1.5-1.8cm, fin brown. Florescence 4-5 month, fructescence tomorrow The year of October.
4, trees, up to 25m, bust up to more than 1m. Bark brown, irregular scutes crack, crack red brown. Whorled branches, branchlets stout, pale yellow or yellow orange; Winter buds Broadly elliptic, apex acuminate, reddish brown, leaf needle, needles in bunches of 2, dark green, coarse, length 10-15cm, diameter of about 1.5mm, margin serrulate, both sides of stomatal lines; leaf sheath initially pale brown, becoming dark grey. The male cone cylindrical, long 1.2-1.8cm, poly generation spikes in the new branches; female ball inflorescences broadly ovate, 7mm long, purple, was born in the year on new growth. cone Ovate or ovate, 4-9cm long, have short stem, pendulous, pale yellow or brown yellow when ripe, persistent for several years; Central Seed scales Nearly oblong obovate, long 1.6-2cm, Scale Shield Hypertrophy, uplift or micro uplift, flat diamond or diamond shaped polygonal cross ridge significantly, Umbo Protruding spikes. Seeds oval or long oval, pale brown, striped, even winged 1.5-1.8cm. Florescence 4-5 month, fruit ripening in October.
5, trees, up to 30cm, bust 1m. Bark brown, irregular scaly 3-parted, easy to fall off. Annual branches stout, reddish brown branchlets, bractlike scales shedding two or three years, exposing the brown endothelium; Winter buds Conical ovoid, red brown, Bud scales Lanceolate, apex powder shaped, white silky hairs. Conifer needles in bunches of 3, thin needles in bunches of 2, length 10-30cm, diameter of about 1.2mm, soft, slightly pendulous, fan-shaped cross-section triangle, 4-5 resin, life and edge coexist, leaf sheaths persistent. Cone conical ovoid, 5-11cm long, pedicels ca. 5mm, cooked chestnut brown; Scale Shield Hypertrophy uplift, transverse ridge; Umbo Slightly concave or slightly raised, with short spines. Seeds oval obovate, long edge fin 1.6-1.9cm. Florescence 4-5 month, fruit ripening in 10-11 months.
6, trees, high 50m, bust 1m. Young skin brown, Tree bark Grey brown or grey irregular flake off the crack, exposing the red brown endothelial. Annual branches dense branches densely yellow brown puberulent; Winter buds Reddish brown, oblong ovoid, apex acuminate. Conifer needles in bunches of 5, 6-12cm long, coarse, straight, margin serrate, abaxially usually have no stomatal lines, 6-8 stomatal lines each ventral transverse, subtriangular, see 3 resin duct, born, caducous sheath. Male flowers The oval shaped, yellow line, 7-10mm long, dense branches and lower panicle shape; female flowers greenish brown, ovoid terete, erect, solitary or several sets of students. Cone conical ovoid, conical long ovate or ovate oblong, length 9-14cm, diameter 6-8cm, peduncle length 1.5cm, cooked Seed scales Open; scales rhombic apex obtuse, reflexed outwards, Scale Shield Brown, triangular or trapezoid shaped triangle, there are wrinkles outside, Umbo No significant. Seeds large, dark purple brown or brown, obovate triangular, small flat, 1.2-1.6cm. long florescence in June, fruit ripening in 9-10 months.

Pine needles Growth habit

Born in 1 in 1000-3300m altitude broadleaf Mixed forest In.
He was born in an altitude of 600-2800m mountain, often Chengchun forest or mixed forest.
3 was born in an altitude below 1500 mountain.
Born in the eastern coastal mountain.
The mountain was born in an altitude of 100-2600.
1000-2800m was born in the montane forest.
Father was born in an altitude of 150-1800m Coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest In.

Pine needles Distribution range

The 1 Distribution in the southwest and Shaanxi, Gansu, Henan, Hubei, Tibet and other places.
The distribution in Anhui, Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian, Taiwan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan and other places.
3 Distribution in Shaanxi, Jiangsu, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Taiwan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan and other places.
Be located in Liaoning, Shandong, Jiangsu, Wuhan, Nanjing, Shanghai; and Hangzhou, many are cultivated.
The distribution in the northeast, North and northwest and Henan, Shandong, Jiangsu and other places.
The distribution in the southwest region and Guangxi.
The distribution in the northeast area of China

Pine needles chemical composition

Pine needle water: agathic acid methyl ester -19- (a-gathic acid-19-monomethyl ester) imbricate paclitaxel (imbricatolic acid) in South America, imbricate South America (imbricataloic acid), fir acid alcohol resin application left (massonivestinol), glutamate (glutamic acid), alanine (alanine) and other 17 kinds of amino acids. The main content of volatile oil Pinene (alpha -pinene) Pinene The drug, 3- CARENE (3-carene), beta phellandrene (beta -phellandrene), Limonene (limonene), Myrcene (myrene), Bornyl acetate Alpha, and Beta carotene , (3R, 5R) -3- hydroxy -3- (4- hydroxy -3- methoxy benzyl (-5-) 4- hydroxy -3 methoxy phenyl) -3, 4, 5, four 6- hydrogen -2H- pyran -2- ketone [(3R, 5R) -3-hydroxy-3- (4-hydroxy-3-methoxydro-2H-pyran-2-one) polyisopentenol containing black pine (polyprenol). Chinese pine The needles containing chlorophyll, vitamin, protein, lipid. The main volatile oil containing needles Pinene , Pinene , Bornyl acetate Etc.. Yunnan pine needles containing volatile oil, mainly composed of alpha pinene, beta pinene composed of 26 components, also contains copper, chromium, iron, lead, etc..

Pine needles cultivation techniques

The biological characteristics of Huashan pine Hi cool, humid and sunny climate, slightly cold resistant, avoid high temperature drying. The annual average temperature distribution at 15 Deg. C, rainfall 600-1500mm, relative humidity is greater than 70%. Can adapt to a variety of soil, deep in the soil, Wen Run, loose, slightly acidic forest Brown earth In the best growth.
The cultivation technique of seedling transplanting and direct seeding afforestation. Seedling transplanting seedling: seeds collected from healthy trees 4-5 month age, sowing, seedbed preparation, shizujifei, a dip or sand and primed with warm water drilling, a distance of about 20cm, covering 2-3cm, each 1hm seed 750-1125kg. Sowing grass cover and often watered to maintain soil moisture. After the emergence of promptly remove the cover of grass, weeding, and early seedling growth in fertilizer. Can biennial seedlings planting, plant spacing, 1.5m * 1.5m, survival year after weeding 1-2 times, and timely pruning and thinning. Direct seeding afforestation: shady slope and semi shady slope, soil moist slopes. Buckwheat seed or mixed sowing, sowing seed planting 3 37.5-60kg. per 1hm

Pine needles The recovery storage

Can be taken throughout the year, in the twelfth lunar month is best. After harvest, dry, dry place, avoid moisture.

Pine needles Medicinal value

On 1. central nervous system The role of
(1) sedation Korean pine The volatile oil from the leaves of 0.217ml/kg and 0.109ml/kg respectively by intraperitoneal injection, can significantly reduce the number of clothing collaborative autonomic activities of mice subthreshold dose of sodium pentobarbital sleep.
(2) the effect of temperature on mice by intraperitoneal injection of pine leaf oil, the normal temperature decreased with time prolonging, the cooling effect gradually weakened. Intraperitoneal injection of pine leaf oil 0.109ml/kg on dry beer yeast powder caused by the temperature of febrile rats have very significant antipyretic effect.
(3) the pain reaction time and analgesic effects of pine leaf oil by intraperitoneal injection of 0.217ml/kg could significantly prolong the mice (hot plate method), intraperitoneal injection of 0.217ml/kg and 4.34ml/kg by gavage, inhibit the writhing response induced by acetic acid were obvious.
The anti-inflammatory effect Korean pine The leaf oil 0.217ml/kg and intraperitoneal injection of 0.109ml/kg, 4.34ml/kg by gavage, inhibition of carrageenan induced rat paw swelling and xylene induced ear swelling in mice significantly.
3 hypolipidemic effect Pine needles Effect of hyperlipemia rats were in the water extract of 5g/kg and 10g/kg by gavage on egg yolk in mice induced by hyperlipidemia and high fat diet induced significant decrease blood lipid, total cholesterol, relative increase High density lipoprotein cholesterol .
The anti-aging effect of the Drosophila survival test, the extract at the concentration range of 1.0%-4.0% from water, can make the life of the adult flies significantly prolonged, and anti mutation and anti DNA damage effect, and can improve the red blood cells of mice Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, can inhibit B mice brain monoamine oxidase (MAO-B) activity, these effects are related to aging. In addition, pine has dissolved the body aging, adjust and promote the body, organization function, promote human health effects.
The antiviral effect of use The technique of tissue culture Observation of water and ethanol extracts of Pinus massoniana (containing crude drug 10g/ml) with anti type I herpes simplex virus The effect of water extract of Pinus massoniana (300 g/50 L) with anti hepatitis B virus The effect of surface antigen.
The other. Korean pine And higher in Pinus pumila pinene, limonene and myrcene content, but also has obvious antitussive and expectorant effects, also has strong antibacterial effect. Pine needles Decoction and extraction of amino acid in mice, the daily 5.34g crude drug /10g, for 1 consecutive weeks, the results show that the appetite of rats increased significantly, increased activity, and hair color.
The pine leaf oil toxicity in mice by intraperitoneal injection of LD 2.17 + 0.028ml/kg.

Pine needles The commonly used prescription

1, the twelve foot weak wind, not for Bi: the pine sixty pounds, fritters, with water four stone, cooked four bucket nine liters, to brew wudoumi, as usual; don't boil juice stains and fed to pine rice rice, mashed stuffed head, seven hair. Take clear drink drunk. (" prescriptions worth a thousand ounces of gold "Pine wine)
2, treatment of lower back pain: Pinus massoniana leaf one or two, water frying slag, add sugar transfer service one or two. ("Jiangxi folk herbal remedies")
3, calendar section of the wind: Matsuba Mika, two stone Wudou wine stains, 37, take one, five or six degrees. ("Qian")
4, treatment of traumatic swelling: mountain pine should be soaked in wine; the residue with a clam, hammer dressing. (" Chinese herbal medicine preparation to ")
5, treating traumatic injury: the pine branches leaves, drying, and research into very fine. Two times a day, every time a money, send warm wine. ("Jiangxi folk herbal remedies")
6, treatment of bruises, sprains, skin pruritus, paint sores, eczema: fresh pine Decoction fumigation, even wash several times. ("Zhejiang common folk herbs")
7, cure rheumatism tinea: Soma (fried black) one or two, light powder, camphor Each module. Wet dry mixing, drying oil paint transfer, such as very urticant, with vinegar dressing. And chilblain. ("surgical authentic")
8, gale Leprosy , and calendar section of the wind pain, weak legs paralysis: Phyllodoce birth the new baked dry mash, each with 22 phyllodoce, Fruit of Chinese wolfberry 22, soaked in wine, not drunk, always wear, long service. ("surgical authentic")
9, treat headache; 42 fresh pine, mashed, baked dry, soaked in wine, always drink; the slag removal, with dingmen cloth wrapped head three. ("authentic" pulse)
10, to treat stroke face an opening remote, tooth car urgent, tongue can not be transferred to the pine leaf juice to a pound, pound, or a bucket of stains two places near the fire, one night, take first half a litre, gradually to a litre, stop sweating head. ("Qian")
11, cure insomnia, lack of vitamin C, nutritional edema: a fresh pine to 22, shuijianbi. ("Zhejiang common folk herbs")
12, treat wind tooth swelling: Pine grip, salt, two liters of wine. Jian shu. ("San Hui Fang")
13, treatment of scrotum wet itching: Phyllodoce Decoction wash frequency. ("simple unilateral")
14, the prevention of hookworm disease: Pine needles The amount of water, fried into thick juice, barefoot in the field before wiping the foot and leg at. ( Xuzhou "Selected" new party inspection unilateral therapy)

Pine needles The discussion

The "materia medica words": pine, rheumatism, the drug also set inside heal tinea. Dry matter, good fried black to rheumatism, tinea wet impregnation rotten, not dry, with winter frostbite. Take students as mash up pills, can cure the disease of wind, or arthritis pain, or Beriberi Paralysis, or headache syndrome. The above number of disease, all closed rheumatism patients induced by appropriate, if the disabled caused by blood deficiency and wind dryness. "2": the main Mingyi bielu rheumatism sore, hairy, five ANN .
C. "Hua Zi Materia Medica": frostbite, rheumatism sore.
The "Compendium of Materia Medica": to wind pain foot paralysis, kill cadelle.
The "herbal preparation" to "kill this, dry water, itching, buried in the mouth (a wound), wash chancre Hereby, treatment of scabies.
The "about the medical mirror": the provision of the plague gas.
The Guangzhou army " Handbook of common Chinese herbal medicines "Treatment of neurasthenia, lack of vitamin C, nutritional edema; prevention of influenza epidemic.