Nutrient (nutrient) refers to the human body to provide energy, food and body composition Tissue repair
And with the chemical composition of physiological regulation. Who can maintain the health of human body and provide a variety of material growth, development and labor required called nutrients. The body of essential nutrients Protein
Lipids, carbohydrates, Vitamin
Water, and inorganic salt
), dietary fiber
7), also contains many non essential nutrients.
Known to have 40~45 kinds of essential nutrients, including carbohydrate, protein, human nutrition known as lipids, water, minerals and vitamins. The carbohydrate, fat and protein in food intake and in large amount, called macronutrients or macronutrients. The vitamins and minerals in a balanced diet in only a small amount, it is called micronutrients. The minerals and major and trace elements, relatively high contents of major elements in the human body, the content of trace elements in the human body rarely.
No synthesis in vivo, must be obtained from food, called "essential nutrients"; another part of the nutrients in the body from other food components to convert, need not be obtained directly by food, known as the "non essential nutrients".
People in eating food containing these nutrients, the body can further take advantage of them, and used for the manufacture of many other substances necessary for physical activities, such as enzymes and hormones. From the nutrition and food science or food processing perspective, should try to keep these nutrients are not destroyed.
Many scholars have also classified as dietary fiber and nutrients become the seventh nutrient.
Water is the source of life, people need to water after oxygen, water is necessary to maintain the body's physical life. Material metabolism
And the physiological activities are not involved in boiling water. human body Cells
The main ingredient is water, it
Adults often water is about 70%, about 80% of the weight of babies of the body is water, 55% of the elderly is water. Per kilogram of body weight per day to about 150 milliliters of water, the vast majority of milk is water, Breast-feeding
Feed water should be adjusted. You can take the weight with 150 ml kg of water demand, the amount of milk minus intake can be obtained, the amount of water should be fed.
The water comes from a variety of food and water. If you don't eat a certain Vitamin
Perhaps, can continue to live a few weeks or sick live for several years, but if there is no water, but can only live a few days. Water is conducive to chemical reactions in the body, also play a role in the transport of substances in living organisms. Water plays an important role in maintaining the stability of the temperature of organism.
Nutrient Protein Protein
Is an essential material for life. human body organization
And by the organ Cells
The main component of the structure Protein
. Body growth, organization
Repair, a variety of enzymes and hormones on biochemical reaction regulation, resist composition, maintain disease antibody osmotic pressure, transfer genetic information
No, not one Protein
In the role of. The rapid growth of infants, Protein
Demand higher than that of adults, the average per kilogram of body weight per day to more than 2 grams. Meat, eggs and milk, Peas and beans
Rich in quality Protein
That is a daily must provide. Be careful：
1, collocation principles such as animal and plant food collocation; collocation of many varieties of food.
2, do not provide the principle of excess. infancy Protein
The heat of the total calories from 12% to 14% is appropriate, too much will affect the normal function of the protein, resulting in protein consumption, the effects of in vivo nitrogen balance
3, the principle of not too little. Protein
Provide little effect Growth and development
The biochemical reaction speed, drop, drop resistance, and even lead to Innutrition
. The results not only cause growth retardation, but also because of influence brain cell
The development, cause of mental retardation.
Fat is the main nutrient storage and supply of energy in. Each gram of fat provided heat energy
For the same weight of carbohydrate or Protein
2 times. Organism Cells
Membrane, nerve organization
A hormone, cannot do without it. Fat also warm insulation; support the protection of organs, joints, various organization
Promote; The fat soluble vitamins
The role of absorption. The baby needs per kilogram of body weight per 4 grams of fat, Animal and plant
The source of fat for the human body needs, should provide collocation. Daily fat should be accounted for 20% to 25% of total calories.
Fat is a kind of great differences in chemical composition and structure, but have a common characteristic, that is insoluble in water and soluble in Ether
etc. Non polar solvent
In the matter. According to the different composition of lipids are usually divided into five categories, namely simple fat, fat, terpene and steroid compound and its derivatives, and the combination of lipid derived lipids.
Lipids have important biological functions, fat is the organism energy provider.
Is an important component of lipid composition of organisms, such as phospholipids is formed Biological membrane
An important component of, Grease
Is the metabolic fuel needed for storage and transportation forms. Lipids can also be dissolved in the animal body Essential fatty acids
and The fat soluble vitamins
. Some terpenoids and class Sterols
Substances such as Vitamin A
D, K, E, and cholic acid and steroids with nutrition, metabolism and regulating function. The surface of the organism to prevent lipids Mechanical damage
And prevent heat protection etc.. As the fat Cells
The surface of the material, and the cell recognition, species specificity and organization
There is a close relationship between immune.
Carbohydrates are the main nutrient providing energy for life activities, it exists widely in rice and flour, potato, Peas and beans
And a variety of grains, is the most important and most economical human food. This kind of food daily calories should be accounted for 60% to 65% of total calories. Any carbohydrate into the body by biochemical reactions were decomposed into sugar
Therefore, also known as Sugar
. In addition to energy supply, it also promotes the metabolism of other nutrients, and Protein
Fat, combination of glycoproteins and glycolipids, composition antibody
And hormone, Cells
Film, Nerve tissue
Ribose, nucleic acid
Other important functional material. It is self-evident importance of this kind of food, but also need to remind parents not to too much Gamich; too much food for children in sugar, which can lead to obesity, give the child health days after sowing the seeds. cellulose
Is not to be digested carbohydrate
However, its role can not be ignored. cellulose
Water soluble and insoluble two. Water insoluble cellulose
Not to be digested, just stay in the intestine, can stimulate the digestive fluid and promote intestinal peristalsis, absorb water to facilitate defecation, Intestinal flora
The building also plays a beneficial role; water-soluble cellulose can enter blood circulation, reduce Plasma cholesterol
Level, improve the glycemic response, affect nutrient absorption speed and position. Fruits and vegetables, Cereal crop
, Peas and beans
With more cellulose
Nutrient Vitamin Vitamin
To maintain the body Growth and development
The physiological function and play an important role, can promote the activity of coenzyme or. Vitamin
Can be divided into two categories, one for the fat soluble vitamins including Vit.A, D, E, K, they can be stored in the body, do not need to provide daily, but excessive lead poisoning; the other is water soluble vitamins include Vitamin B group
, Vitamin C
So, this kind of majority, they are not stored in the body, daily from the food supply, because the fast metabolism is not easy to poisoning. The other one is The fat soluble vitamins
That can be stored in the liver. Vitamin A
B, C, D, E, and K, folic acid
...... Carry out their duties, are indispensable, and can help the body against physical absorption plays a certain role. Therefore, for children to provide fresh vegetables, fruits, liver, Yolk
, appropriate to eat coarse grains, more than the sun, it is particularly necessary.
Nutrient Mineral Mineral
Is the main component of human body, carbon
About 96% of the total weight, calcium
The other is accounted for 3.95%. trace element
A total of 41 species, often mentioned in iron, zinc, copper
Etc.. Each element has its important, unique and irreplaceable role, and is closely related to the relationship between elements, in children Nutrition
A large proportion of this part of the study. Mineral
Although not for energy, but it has an important physiological function, consisting of: 1 bones
The main ingredients; 2, to maintain the normal physiological function of nerve and muscle; 3, an enzyme component; 4, to maintain the osmotic pressure, maintain acid-base balance. Mineral
The lack of correlation with disease, for example Calcium deficiency
With iron deficiency and rickets; anemia
With zinc deficiency; Growth and development
Backward; iodine deficiency and growth retardation, mental retardation and so on, should cause enough attention.
Nutrient dietary fiber
The definition of dietary fiber has two kinds, one is from the angle of physiology will be defined as dietary fiber in the digestive system of mammalian undigested plant Cells
The remnants, including cellulose
, hemicellulose, pectin, starch and lignin; the other one is from the perspective of the chemical definition of dietary fibre as non starch plants Polysaccharide
Dietary fiber can be divided into dietary fiber, soluble dietary fiber and non soluble. The former includes part of cellulose
, pectin and gum etc., including cellulose and lignin. The apple collagen is a kind of natural macromolecule water soluble dietary fiber, has Strong
Adsorption and exclusion of human "radiation (positive charge material)", is the nutrient balance of human body essential nutrients. It has a unique molecular structure, physiological characteristics of the human body is not directly digested, which can naturally absorbed "toxin"," Negative nutrition
"," heavy metal "," free radicals "in the human body to self metabolism of harmful substances excreted, so as to achieve the balance of nutrition. Often eat apple collagen can prevent and inhibit cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease
, respiratory disease
A variety of diseases, metabolic diseases and tumors of the human body.
Nutrient The relationship between food
The high content of certain nutrients in food, not necessarily its nutritional value is high, it depends on the overall nutritional elements and its proportion to determine the level of nutritional value. In spite of this, look at a variety of nutrient content of food, contribute to a variety of food and reasonable collocation of a specific nutrient supplement key.
Nutrient Nutritional composition
Animal food Protein
The content is relatively high, generally around 20%, plant food, Protein
The content of the highest number of soybean, hectogram containing 36 grams.
The food of animal fat content was highest in pork, containing about 60%, plant food is all kinds of oil crops, with sesame oil the most, up to 61%. Sugar
The highest content of various grains, in which rice was the highest, reached 77%, animal food containing Sugar
Is the highest in liver, up to 4%. Vitamin B1
The highest content of food is peanuts and peas, hectogram containing 1.07 mg and 1.02 mg respectively. Vitamin B2
The highest content of liver, liver and seaweed, hectogram containing 3.57 mg respectively, 2.11 mg and 2.07 mg. Niacin
Food is the highest in liver and bovine liver, hectogram containing 18.9 mg and 16.2 mg respectively. Vitamin C
The food was the highest content of fresh jujube and pepper, hectogram containing 540 mg and 185 mg respectively. Vitamin
A is the highest in all kinds of food animal liver and egg yolk, such as chicken liver hectogram containing 50900 international units, including 29900 international units of liver, egg yolk 3500 international units. Vitamin
The highest content of D food is Cod Liver Oil, hectogram containing 8500 international units. Vitamin E
The highest content of wheat germ oil, hectogram up to 149 mg.
Most of the food is shrimp calcium hectogram containing 991 mg.
Shrimp and whole milk powder is a food containing phosphorus element most, hectogram containing 1805 mg and 883 mg respectively.
Black fungus and kelp is the most food containing iron, hectogram containing 185 mg and 150 mg respectively. In addition, liver, kidney and kidney in bovine iron content is very high.
Kelp is the most iodine food, hectogram containing 2400 mg.
Oysters and oyster is the most food containing zinc, hectogram content reached 71 mg and 47 mg.
Nutrient The nutrition of vegetables
Yellow carrots nutritional value than the red carrots, which contain large amounts of carotene, also contains a strong tumor suppressor role of flavone, prevention cancer
The function of. The scientists also found that different parts of the same plant dish, because the color is not
At the same time, its nutritional value is also different. Green Chinese onion
The green part is much higher than the white part of the nutritional value, containing every 100 grams of onion Vitamin
The content of B1 and vitamin C are not part of the half green. In addition because each kind of vegetables contain nutrients of different type and quantity, and the human body Nutritional needs
There are many factors. In the selection of vegetables in addition to pay attention to the color of vegetables, but also should consider a variety of vegetables and vegetables and eat carnivorous mixed collocation.
Each kind of vegetables the nutrient content will have different nutritional value of vegetables with deep color than the color of light is high, their order is green, red, yellow, white and purple. Green vegetables are mustard, Rape
And vegetables, amaranth, spinach, celery and other vegetables are purple red and purple; Cabbage
Purple, red cabbage, lentils, eggplant and other vegetables; yellow tomatoes, carrots, sweet potato, Cabbage
Other vegetables include white; Wax gourd
, Bamboo shoots
Etc.. Green vegetables are rich in chlorophyll, Carotene
, Vitamin B1
Vitamin B2, Vitamin B12
Vitamin C and calcium, potassium and other vegetables containing mainly white; Sugar
Moisture and nutritional value, far less than the former. Yellow (including red) is somewhere between vegetables. Different colors in the same kinds of vegetables, and its nutrient content is also different. Such as purple eggplant high nutritional value than white, red and yellow high nutritional value than carrots.
Deep color often contain more vegetables Bioactive substances
Has a strong. antioxidant
Ability. The fruit is rich in organic acid
And a variety of digestive enzymes, can help digestion, promote appetite, enhance Stomach
Peristalsis, conducive to defecation, reduce Cholesterol
Nutrient Function of nutrients
Dynamic balance: the intake of nutrients, after digestion and absorption and a series of physiological processes in the blood and tissues and metabolism of metabolites by breath, urine and feces excretion. To promote the growth and nutrient metabolism by the synthesis of new cells and tissues, cells and tissues at the same time the original continuous separation, keep dynamic equilibrium. Including energy balance, balance of nutrients, water and salt balance.
Homeostasis: nutrients in vivo besides promoting growth, maintain metabolic balance, as well as a very important role is the regulation of physiological function, maintain the internal environment in steady state. Including the regulation of nervous system regulation, enzyme regulation, hormone.
Nutrient The lack of consequences
Nutrient A variety of symptoms
The lack of nutrition, it is of concern to many people is not easy to judge, in fact, the body will be issued to all kinds of nutrition signal naturally or half unconsciously we lack, reminding us to quickly identify countermeasures.
Signal: the hair is dry, thin, easy to break, Alopecia
May be the lack of nutrition: Protein
And energy, Essential fatty acids
Trace element zinc.
Nutrition countermeasures: daily intake of staple foods to ensure, in the most economical way for the body to provide adequate energy. Ensure daily 3 two meat, 1 egg, 250 ml of milk, to supplement the quality Protein
At the same time, can increase Essential fatty acids
Intake. The weekly intake of 2 ~ 3 times fish, and can eat oysters, to add trace elements of zinc.
Signal: night vision to reduce
May be the lack of nutrition: Vitamin
A. If not corrected, may for further development Night blindness
Disease, and Corneal
Nutritional measures: increased food intake such as carrots and liver. Both in plant and animal form Vitamin
A, the absorption efficiency is higher. It should be noted that, Vitamin
A is dissolved in Grease
Without water soluble vitamins, so use vegetable oil fried carrot than raw carrots, vitamin A absorption efficiency can be greatly improved.
May be the lack of nutrition: group B Vitamin
Nutrition countermeasures: wash the rice, steamed rice can cause B Vitamin
The loss of a large number of. The long-term consumption of fine rice, long-term vegetarian, while no other supplement, it is easy to cause B Vitamin
The lack of. Therefore, it should be the staple food, meat collocation thick collocation. If a vegetarian habits, daily should be added a certain amount of composite Vitamin
The B family of drug preparation.
Signal: Gingival bleeding
May be the lack of nutrition: Vitamin C
Nutrition countermeasures: Vitamin C
Is most likely a lack of vitamin, because the requirements of its living conditions are harsh, light, temperature, storage and cooking methods of vitamin C can cause damage or loss. Therefore, the daily should be eating lots of fresh fruits and vegetables, the best intake of about 1 kg of vegetables and 2 to 3 fruits, vegetables, cooking methods combined with stir fried and cold as well.
May be the lack of nutrition: zinc.
Nutrition countermeasures: increase the amount of shellfish, such as oysters, Scallop in Shell, is an effective means to add trace elements zinc. In addition, to ensure that the daily 1 egg, red meat and 1 two 3 two Peas and beans
Is the necessary supplement of trace element zinc.
Signal: dry mouth
May be the lack of nutrition: riboflavin
B2) and nicotinic acid
Nutrition countermeasures: (riboflavin Vitamin
B2) great differences in the content of different foods. Animal liver, egg yolk, milk is more abundant. To this end, a week should be added 1 times (2 ~ 3 two) liver, the day should be added 250 ml of milk and an egg. Should be noted that the cereal processing can cause Vitamin
A large number of loss of B2, such as rice vitamin B2 baocunlv only 11%, wheat standard powder vitamin B2 baocunlv only 35%, therefore should pay attention to the thickness of the staple food collocation. and nicotinic acid
Mainly from animal food, especially the liver, chicken liver etc..
Pei Jian tea vegetable is composed of a variety of organic vegetables by vacuum dry ice technology dehydration
Ground and condensed, keep the original color, natural flavor, and nutritional ingredients, is added a variety of Vitamin
, detoxification, regulation Acid-base balance of human body
Natural green drinks.
The main ingredients:
Burdock is rich in carotene, Protein
Calcium and plant fiber, burdock phenol its unique anti-cancer substances a wide effect; its unique inulin (for Diabetes
), is a kind of human consumption can promote Hormone
That helps the body muscles developed, enhance physical strength and virility.
Broccoli: rich in carotene, vitamin C, selenium, long-term consumption of cauliflower can enhance immunity, reduce the risk of breast cancer, rectal cancer
and gastric cancer
The probability of.
Carrot: rich in carotene is effective anti-cancer substances; the folic acid has anti-cancer effect; carrot Liver eyesight, blood pressure and lipid, blood sugar lowering function.
Letinous edodes: letinous edodes contains calcium, phosphorus, iron rich, Vitamin
B1, vitamin B2, Niacin
Vitamin D, letinous edodes, letinous edodes, too polysaccharide, double stranded RNA, is rare. Health Food
One of。 Therapeutic indications constipation
, Abnormal sweating
And the adjustment of acid constitution, Hypertension
Urine is not smooth, tumor etc.
Tomatoes: tomatoes with Chinese medicine Liangxue liver, Clearing away heat and toxic material
And drop Hypotension
The effect of nutrition; research shows that tomatoes are rich Vitamin
And lycopene can significantly reduce the risk of prostate
The probability of cancer.
Wheat germ: rich in vitamin E, B, Protein
Fresh, coconut oil, and linolenic acid, linoleic acid
Many Saturated fatty acid
, known as skin vitamin. With the elimination of Black
, wrinkles, scars and softening blood vessel Diet tyerapy
Nutrient Hidden hunger Hidden hunger
Is a nutritional imbalance or a lack of Vitamin
And essential Mineral
The result, while other components of excessive intake, the body produces hidden needs of nutrition hunger symptoms. Nutrient elements allow the human body to normal growth, and to ensure that the body is able to complete an important physiological function. Once the body is not balanced, showing part of the composition of excess, lack, but it reflects the nutritional problems of hunger symptoms. The people need to pay attention to hidden hunger.
Nutrient Selection method
How to choose their own nutrients? In fact, when the choice of nutrients, the most important is based on individual circumstances and needs.
Therefore, in the nutrient supplement before, must first determine whether they really lack of certain nutrients, the best way is to go to a hospital and a regular medical examination from a simple or detailed examination can.
If there is a certain lack of nutrients, can be appropriate to eat foods rich in the corresponding nutrients.
If the above methods can not solve the lack of body nutrition, it should be in the professional dietitian or nutrition consultant under the guidance of the appropriate use of nutritional supplements.
The choice of nutritional supplements should pay attention to:
First: to choose through the authority of departments for approval, approval of the nutritional supplements.
Second: the value of products, not one-sided pursuit of high prices.
Third: what the body needs, do not blindly follow the trend, to choose their own body nutrients.
Nutrient Diet taboo
1, excessive intake Carbonated drinks
, coffee, cola, hamburgers, French fries, a large number of animal liver containing food, will lead to osteoporosis. A reasonable proportion of the body calcium and phosphorus is 2: 1, if P calcium intake exceeded more than 10 times, even the calcium and phosphorus ratio as high as 1 to 10 above, too much phosphorus in the diet will desperately to rush out of the body of the calcium in vitro, resulting in osteoporosis.
Drink more than a cup of cocktail 2, every day, will make the body of vitamin B1, vitamin B6 and folic acid consumed, alcoholics generally lack of vitamin B1.
3, some people prefer not to eat meat or rarely eat vegetables and fruits, in the course of time, they will suffer from iron deficiency anemia. Because of the intake of people in the diet of meat, animal offal eggyolk iron as ferric iron, are not easily absorbed, only in the presence of vitamin C and acid conditions into two valent iron can be the body to fully absorb and use. Vitamin C and acid substances in fruits and vegetables in most content. If you are used to only eat lean meat, animal offal, egg yolk and other foods, and do not eat or eat fruits and vegetables, these foods iron cannot be absorbed and utilized, resulting in a tremendous waste of nutrition, iron deficiency anemia.
4, long-term smoking will damage the body Vitamin C
The content of vitamin C, live in a smoke filled environment of the people in the body will be reduced.