(West cowboy), refers to the 18 to nineteenth Century in the United States, the vast land in the west, a group of enthusiastic and fearless pioneer. In the history of the United States, they are the pioneers in the development of the west, they are full of adventure and the spirit of hard work, so the Americans called "horseback hero".
west cowboy Background
The American cowboy,
The cattle are inseparable, Americans are descendants of European immigrants, the United States is the offspring of European cattle. The United States is the first by cattle Columbus
Take. At that time, he took the cattle to Spain West Indies
And, in the coastal area of South america.
The cowboy is a brief historical phenomenon, is a kind of service industry in the western United States from 1866 to 1886 this period of workers. This occupation produced depends on the refrigeration equipment of the train of the invention. But another invention of barbed wire and the occupation soon disappeared.
In 1525, Spanish cattle began to introduce the North American continent from the West indies.
In 1540, the Spanish explorer Coronado across the Atlantic to North America looking for the legendary "Sebola Qibao town", he also brought 500 cattle, the cattle were shipped to northern Mexico and the United States today today Arizona
Area. Thereafter， herd of cattle
The continuous reproduction throughout northern Mexico and gradually this Jalisco
In 1611, the British and the number of cattle shipped to Virginia
The city of James, from the British kind of cattle in the North American continent wide reproduction, there appeared a lot of farming. At the beginning of the seventeenth Century, the Jalisco cattle has reached more than 100 thousand. In short, the cattle entering from the East and south of the two directions, gradually spread throughout the country.
At the beginning of eighteenth Century, cattle in the United States The state of Ohio
and The state of Kentucky
In the Indian language like grass, also called grass. And adjacent to Kentucky Illinois
It is Indian
Known as the "prairie country", here is the paradise of cattle.
By the middle of nineteenth Century, where cattle bull taming technology has been very clever. After the civil war, and westwards to cattle The Mississippi River
West of the vast grasslands, which had become a "cattle kingdom". From the south of Mexico in Spain is also a large number of cattle breeding.
Late nineteenth Century, The state of Texas
Has 50 million cows, is the nation's most cattle state. From the beginning of 1860s, Texas
People will put a lot of cattle driven to the North Kansas
The railway side, then turn the pin across the United states. There was a special "cattle" and "cow town", "cow" is "cattle" walk the road of "cow town" is a way of stopping station.
In 1860s, followed by the United States The Civil War
After the invention of the train carriages refrigeration, which can haul and keep fresh beef. The results, in the eastern part of the city's market to open up the Western rancher, and ranchers immediately to expand herd breeding scale to adapt to the ever-increasing demand. In Texas Texas
The state and the southwestern states of feeding cattle ranch are concentrated on the western United States was rushed to the train station, which is located in Kansas Abilene
The train station. From there, with a boxcar cow to Chicago
After slaughtering, cutting and frozen, and then transported to the east. Cattle in the journey, across the States, of course, need to lead the charge, thousands of young people stampede in, to look for jobs in the ranch. They are the Midwestern farm boy, seeking adventure in the British East to separate from the parents of young people, before defecting soldiers, a few slaves, some Indians, and from the Mexican border. They, the first group is Cowboy source. After being called a "horseback hero".
By the middle of the 1880s, the cowboy way of life came to an end. When the United States forty percent of the land is used for livestock. The beef market greatly and the price fell, pile up in excess of requirement, many ranchers bankruptcy.
A major winter storm in 1886 destroyed millions of cattle, many ranchers and herd desperate. When the ranchers began to recover from this double whammy, they installed barbed wire fence in order to more easily control the management and under the conditions of feeding cattle. Since then, no longer in the open pasture grazing. But around the barbed wire fences and crops grazing, is to make the cowboy downhearted thing, they will disappear soon.
At the end of nineteenth Century, the U. S. transportation increasingly developed, gradually lowering the status of jeans. They have to switch to other jobs, fewer people to see their vigorous figure. Although in 1920s, some places still maintains a Western Cowboy lifestyle, but cowboy heyday has gone for ever. But they forge ahead, pioneering spirit has always inspired americans.
west cowboy Life style
For most Americans, and even for many people in the world, the United States is a cowboy heroism and mysterious character. In literature, film and television works, the cowboy is usually wearing a Mexico type width along the top Hat
The colt revolver revolver, waist arm or shoulder, wrapped with a Winchester rifle bullet, wearing jeans, leather coat and beam tight jeans, sleeve bag feet decorated with a pair of high boots spurs the nail barrel skin and neck circumference of a printing color dazzlingly beautiful big square, riding horse image and go by like the wind, the mighty clear, is a typical external garb of individualism and the spirit of freedom. Because after another poor western movies and various paperback novels and TV shows the rendering, kind, capable, brave cowboy welcome. However, the real cowboy is often influenced by romanticism than the rendering of the descendants of more complex characters.
In the long arduous journey, cowboys must be hardworking, but also witty, brave, calm, calm, able to cope with the way all kinds of unexpected accidents and dangers. The first bundle of semi tame cattle, especially the Spanish temperament fierce wild cowboy with cattle, the cattle side, firmly stick to them, not a moment to relax. Along the way, we must pay attention to the wolves and other wild animals and poisonous snakes, poisonous insect attacks against Indians Lengjian, javelin. Sometimes encountered A thunderstorm
That Lightning flashes and thunder rumbles. often lead to shock group, Niu Ben rampant chaos, cowboy will calm Douzhuan them round in a circle, eliminate panic.
The cowboy trail driving cattle as large-scale march. Large cattle escort cowboys to strict division of labor, carry out their duties. Often there are two of the most experienced people served as commander in chief, a correspondent for the message, around. In addition to the "Ranger", around the flexible wing patrol, riding on the road on both sides of the team," Ride the tail
"Rear, in charge of dallas, The cow
And the lazy cow. Cowboy, some players but the majority is itself, cattle merchants hired, they played an important role in the process of westward migration of the population in the eastern United states. Cowboy long grazing, itself a pioneering, they directly opened the road west.
Some photos of the existing display,
Their life is hard and dirty, but not as expected risk. They face dirt, wearing baggy wool shirt and trousers, and the screen in high spirit and literary works. In addition, the cowboy image are quite different; they are not often with guns. However, their life is not so easy. At dawn, the cowboy must lasso his horse. This horse is not on Bridle
Just keep my feet, had spent the night in the grazing area. The cowboys have to tame it, then began rounding up the cattle, ready to haul northward. Herd to go northward often have to go through the territory of the indians. Inadequate nutrition cowboys and monotonous, mainly dry beans, pork and coffee, but also suffering from cold, dysentery and mosquito bites suffering.
west cowboy Work equipment
The lasso, cowboy towel, The cowboy hat
, jeans, cowboy boots. Not much difference between the modern cowboy costume and movies. Because of these costumes of cowboy, each one has its existence value, and not just decoration.
west cowboy Lasso
The Lasso is a classic essential equipment in every cowboy,
Divided into simple straw lasso and more elaborate leather or other animal skins to lasso two. As a real cowboy, can skillfully use the lasso, and measure whether he has superb technology ma, Pierce a willow leaf with an arrow from the distance of a hundred paces
Marksmanship is often equally important, they can be hired key. The Lasso is usually cowboy coilup hanging in the saddle on the head or tied in the thigh before the cowboy side of the saddle, ready to be taken to use. The lasso usage is usually a head in the saddle head strong, the other end is a live set, used to set in the chase of cattle or other livestock neck or leg. In addition, the lasso and many unique features, such as it will pull the wagon on steep slopes, shipping logs, cattle horn or foot caught it from falling into the mire or cave pulled. When the "sheep", the cowboy must be to the fastest speed riding after leading cattle, accurate throw snare its neck or leg, be pulled to the ground to be uniform, so as to stop the madness of the cattle continue to rush.
west cowboy Cowboy towel
The cowboy collar usually brightly colored shawl round stamp. Printing towel mostly with cotton or silk production, the background is relatively simple, there are mainly red, blue and black, emblazoned with a variety of small patterns, the cowboys loved colorful pattern beautiful silk printing towel. Printing towel almost become the symbol of cowboy life, dubbed "Western Pastoral banner", its use is very extensive, wipe, wash, wound dressing, block dust, signal transmission, at the same time, it is also the bright colors, personalized decoration. The Cowboys for their big towel all cherish every place where there is water, cowboy to the big towel carefully cleaned, and then rode on top or grip in the hands of the head, let the wind dry. The cowboy died, my companions are in the face of cover a piece of his favourite clean printing towel, make him lonely journey in another world is still among the most loyal partner.
west cowboy The cowboy hat
American The cowboy hat
From the Mexico Cowboys often wear a called "Stetson" the wide brimmed felt hat high.
The cowboy hat
The top of the hat down to depression, and both sides are slightly to the upturned brim. In addition to its people wearing a cowboy hat is smart capable, has many practical functions, can not only block the sun or hail, various difficulties and hardships, ready-made bailer, bowls, pillows. Western movies can be seen in the evolution of cowboy hat and diversity. 1920s Western
The star love extends to the brim fold; from 50s to 60s as a star. James Stuart
And Stephen Maqueen, their hats made exaggerated and curly; Clint Eastwood
Every time in western movies, always accompanied by his peculiar flat straight edge black cowboy hat, the most vivid is he in the "Twilight three in the bad and the ugly" classic style -- a face buried behind the slanting hat, a corner exposed half smoked cigar, mysterious and legendary.
west cowboy Jeans
Early American cowboy
Generally wear light Leather pants
Instead of jeans.
Take the ear of the chaps in cowboy Field work
We must not only protect the legs hurt from thorns, winter can also be cold, also can match in the above! Cowboys rarely wear short sleeved, a sunscreen, and to prevent scratches. General wear tight Sleeveless
The leather jacket, wearing different colors, the sleeve of the beam, which is made of flannel shirt Scotland square. A denim shirt over the shoulder and chest pocket design, can be decorated with a tie and lapel. This dress is not only wear off easily, work is convenient and agile full of spirit. The cowboy coat with many pockets, the Cowboys can carry various necessities will need to be arranged in his pocket. In the western, cowboy shirts are beautified, some in front of increased or decorated with lace decoration Tassels
Also, some wearing making very fancy leather shirt.
west cowboy Cowboy boots Riding boots
In the western United States is almost the same as common and daily necessities,
Whether it is a cowboy or the general residents are put, made of leather, ostrich, crocodile, snake and so on, after Embossing
Color, high heel boots tied at the end of thin, strong, not only Juegan good, still very beautiful. A good pair of western boots can be worn for twenty or thirty years without deformation. High leather boots are cylinder cowboys zounanchuangbei essential. In the middle of this high boots and calf, Cuba and shape, line line, most of the two tone, with a beautiful leather or leather carved decorative motifs, both waterproof and durable wear-resistant, warm, bright and charming, set it acts swiftly, very suitable for all their cattle and grass by the water in the cowboy required. General Assembly on the back of cowboy boots The Spurs
. Some still boots Hanging up
A kind of impact will be issued when the all clear and melodious sound of the decorations, when they ride or walk will be heard tinkling sound, showing "no its people first heard the sound" very inspiring.
west cowboy The main document
west cowboy Western Novels
If the Western Cowboy embodied the spirit of The spirit of the United States
The prototype of the words, the cowboy image in Western fiction, the spirit to shape the United States, has become the The symbol of the American spirit
. Western novels show the hardships of western frontier life, Publicity
A pioneer in the struggle for survival of the spirit, the unique circumstances of exercising the national spirit, it is the core of the spirit of the United states.
The American Western novels can be traced back to 1784, John Felson published "Kentucky found, settlement and status". Through this book, Americans first learned of the earliest migration to the west of the hero Daniel Boone
. His courage, fortitude, wisdom, his spirit never yield in spite of reverses into a model, in people's minds, also became synonymous with "western spirit". From the understanding of the mystery of the West has undergone a qualitative change. One of the greatest achievements in the development of American Western novels, is the Western hero into a more specific characteristics of the western cowboy. Owen West's masterpiece " Virginia
"Be regarded as The history of American Literature
The starting point of cowboy novels, known as the first true western novels. The cowboy image has since become the eternal classic. The "Virginia" and immediately caused a born writer and imitated countless worship. A cowboy myth novels and short stories emerge in an endless stream to create many different looks, the cowboy image: Gray grace "jungle Knight" and Ernest Haycocks's "the road" in the lordsburg Winters
And "the golden youth" so selflessly protect the helpless women chivalrous Jack Schaef "; Sean
"Shane as moral and dignity" baodabuping "cowboy; Brett Hart Tennessee" friends ", Jack London
The "full" Jingu Bill as Buweijianxian gold...... Fresh Cowboy figure left a deep impression on the reader: in the desert edge about the sinking of a red backdrop, wearing a hat, neck scarf, boots, wear a pistol wielding cowboy. The rope
The hundreds of thousands of Longhorn gather, then in the dust in cattle wade Cemayangbian, swept across the Prairie night campfire, singing Cowboys depression melancholy diffuse in the sky. Canyon, wonderful day heights wide, rugged integrity, full of go Cowboys ahead fearlessly.
west cowboy Western movies
Western novels LED With the development of Hollywood Westerns the same age so tough cowboy image became the collective myth of the heroic image, cowboy spirit eventually become The symbol of the American spirit
. Taken in the 1903 film " The Great Train Robbery
"Is the origin of American Western movies. Thug Blanco Billy in this film. Anderson
Became the first Hollywood Westerns male star. 1939, John Ford
Directed by the sound " Stagecoach
"Because they gathered all the western classical elements and is recognized as the milepost of Westerns as its style, character set and the narrative rhythm have laid Westerns basic mode. The film describes a stagecoach across the western United States The state of New Mexico
The land of breathtaking wilderness journey, showing a clear visual map of the West: the unique Karst scenery
And steep valleys, filled the yellow sand of the desert, monumental rock, remote town and the pubs, galloping horses and wagons. People are quite typed, John Wayne
The fruit is in the image of a typical cowboy, his handsome, Dior uninhibited, wearing a wide brimmed hat and carrying a revolver, to revenge the war.
The "time in the west" film stills
In 1952 the "noon" is to create a psychological Westerns of the ground, the 4/5 of the time in the bedding, the final shot only at the moment. The film depicts a small town sheriff can not find a helper in the case, alone against the four came to avenge the villain. The movie "Do Not For Sake Me episode" music Oscar award, a cowboy song sung by 1:00. 1969, " Once upon a time in the West
"In 60s the waning occasion, created the" spaghetti Westerns "of a miracle, it is like a magnificent and beautiful, soothing atmosphere of the" western poetry ", recalling all the characteristics of the West: the railway exciting era, boundless yellow sand of the desert. An entanglement of a wandering nameless harmonica cowboy, a wanted criminals, a treacherous Henla the conspirators, in three among the glamorous girl.
1990, Kevin Costner
The first directed by " Dances with Wolves
"At a time when western has been fading across the game, when Oscar, shocked the world cinema to Hollywood Westerns revival. The film lasted for 3 hours, at a cost of $18 million, using a 3500 Buffalo, 300 horses, more than 130 technicians and 400 extras. This large-scale epic western film a counter in the past will be written in the Indian savages, bold subversion of the white supremacy of the Western movie tradition, refresh the western look. In 2000, a " Space Cowboy
"Turned out by the Eastwood
As the "space Dartagnan
"Led his three" space Musketeers "were with unknown space a struggle, to get back and defend their honor. The spirit of the West re distillation of the spirit of the United states. 2006 " Brokeback Mountain
"Has long since become the type of dramas, the more a new breakthrough. Ang Lee Puncture a fallacy with one remark
The United States: "the west is a masculine world, only man and animal, all the western movies never to go to the soft side."
west cowboy social influence
At the end of nineteenth Century, east railway runs through, cowboys have to switch, and they see the less vigorous figure. With the traffic developed, at the beginning of the twentieth Century, a complete end to the era of cowboy. But the end of cowboy era but led to Western Cowboy spirit fully established. With the spread of the American culture, cowboy culture gradually with the cowboy image in literature and movies. The cowboy clothing, unique language, Ballad
After the entertainment, the world has become a symbol of cowboy culture interpretation. The Cowboys ahead, pioneering history and legend of unofficial history has become an important part of American culture, inspired generations of americans. The legend continues.
west cowboy The other meaning
Twentieth Century appeared in succession" The lost generation
"," The beat generation
"That is nothing but the cowboy air different manifestations of cultural character. From the beginning as "Runaways" to the travelers from east to west, the Americans never seem to grow up, their youth blooming. In the digital era, it is not the old Also children
. Just as the discovery of the new world and to open the west, the digital world in this new world is found in the United States, they become the latest area of the extension of xinjiang. The computer was born in the United States is not accidental. The emergence and development of computer technology the American national character was confirmed. Continuously update themselves, is a manifestation of the so-called "American spirit".
Perhaps the cowboy spirit and the connection between the computer revolution is unbelievable. just like Bill Gate
At the Harvard University, majoring in law, and his favorite magazine is "American social science" and " Economist
"That can lead the United States computer" experts "and the regular army is with Gates Negroponte
Nonprofessional such "lay" and "technology cowboy". Technical Cowboys seem to have a common characteristic, Gates, the founder of Facebook, Google and brin Paige
In order to dream have decided to drop out of school. They all will own territory into a "cowboy field". When the talented and independent spirit of college students and Sergiu Brin Larry Paige
Founded Google 10 years ago, they created a two person company's own characteristics reflect. They encourage employees to work 20% of discretionary time, with the staff they think is the best way to benefit local companies. Google engineers can arrange their own working hours, they usually come to the office at noon, enjoy the famous chefs cooking lunch and dinner in the company cafeteria, and work late into the night; every week in the company's parking lot has also arranged the two wheeled Hockey
Game; staff dress casual fresh daily, favors T-shirts instead In western dress and leather shoes
. The famous "Gates style" is nothing but a wear white jeans and a casual T-shirt, a pair of feet through the dust of old moccasins and mongolia.