In order to maintain life
And health, in addition to the sun and air, must be food intake. The food composition mainly six categories: carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamins, inorganic salt, water
. In addition to dietary fiber is the seventh kinds of nutrients. They enter the body through breathing and oxygen together, through the process of transformation The new supersedes the old. constitute the human body, the material and energy of life sustaining activities. Therefore, it is essential to maintain the material composition and physiological function of the human body is indispensable, but also the material basis of life activities. Normal demand and uptake for us.
Nutrients brief introduction
Carbohydrate, fat and protein are natural organic compound
Is widely distributed in nature. They except for human consumption, can also be used as industrial raw materials for manufacturing, textile, daily necessities, medicine and some chemical products etc.. The following is to learn about their knowledge.
Photosynthesis is the world involving chemical reactions, the material number is estimated annually by photosynthesis of sugars (mainly starch and cellulose) of about two billion and five hundred million tons.
We emphasize that the sugars mentioned here by no means limited to that of sucrose daily, a group but a wide range of.
Sugar is a carbohydrate, their Chemical formula
Most (CH Two
O) n. Where C is carbon, H Two
O is the chemical formula for water, which is also known as the carbohydrates they cause. Sugar can be divided into four categories: Monosaccharide
(such as glucose, oligosaccharides (sucrose), lactose
, Malt dust
Etc.), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose) and sugar compounds (glycoprotein etc.).
We can see that the carbohydrate including not only sucrose, as one of the staple starch (flour, Steamed Rice
The main nutrients also belong to carbohydrate).
Many people of carbohydrate nutrition misunderstanding, such as more sugar will have diabetes. There is no denying the fact that patients with diabetes because the metabolic system in the body can not be normal glucose metabolism, therefore, should not eat high sugar foods. But the cause of diabetes mellitus is not really from sugar, or more because of genetic or other factors cause defects in human metabolic system to lead to normal metabolism resulting in high blood sugar.
On the contrary, for normal people, sugar is an essential nutrient. Nutrition muscle tissue is the main source of sugar instead of fatty substance. For the weak and the monosaccharide disease is the most efficient source of nutrition, which is why the hospital patients are unable to consume glucose transport. Carbohydrate foods can improve the body's blood sugar level, and to muscle energy supply. The middle movement degree of polysaccharide food to pulse rate per minute 120 ~ 150 times of the athletes to provide direct energy. Sugar can also make the body more effective use of the protein, and helps to maintain proper acid-base balance in vivo.
Fat is an important part of the human body, and is the highest nutritional substances containing calories, fat is composed of carbon and hydrogen, Oxygen element
Consisting of a compound is very important. Some fat also contains phosphorus and nitrogen, is the body cell formation, substance transformation and growth essential. The average fat content of China's adult male body is about 13.3%, slightly higher in female. The body fat content for nutrition and activity changes, hungry because of energy consumption can reduce body fat.
Fat is the reserve of human energy, lipids more nutritional value is that it is the body's metabolic energy storage required for the main means of transportation, and sugar provided nutrition difference is mainly reflected in the speed of the used. Obviously, no one will have a lot of carbohydrates as energy storage body, but if the blood sugar concentration is too high or a sick - Diabetes
However, almost all people will have excess fat tissue, when needed, these fats can be used to "burn" energy needed by the body.
But eating too much high-fat foods tend to cause various diseases, such as Fatty liver
Wait。 The Western diet is relatively simple, high fat food (meat, hamburger, milk and so on), so the relative Obesity
People more than Chinese, so all the so-called "rich man's disease" incidence rate is often higher than the Chinese.
In general, more edible vegetable oil (such as oil) than edible animal oil is more beneficial to the human body.
The protein is a kind of healthy essential nutrients, is the material basis of life, our skin, muscles, organs, blood, hair, ligament are the main components of protein in the form of. The food protein function mainly has two aspects: one is to maintain growth, renewal and repair of human tissue, in order to achieve its various physiological functions; two is the supply of energy.
Protein by Amino acid
Which is another important material for per gram of protein, providing 4 calories. But the main effect is more protein Growth and development
And The new supersedes the old. Excessive protein intake will increase the burden on the kidneys. Therefore, the intake of protein according to the nutritional status, growth and development required to achieve the balance of supply and demand. Usually about the protein intake of heat generated by accounting for about 20% of the total energy.
Nutrients animal protein
Is the main source of protein, such as meat and poultry etc., these foods in protein but also give us food into saturated negative elements to the body fat and cholesterol etc.. So choose lean meat, fish, chicken and egg white is the best, they are called "high quality protein".
Nutrients Vegetable protein
Is another source of protein, mainly in legumes, plant protein containing saturated fat
And the cholesterol is very low, and rich in dietary fiber, but also suitable for the high quality and inexpensive. Diabetes
Also called hemoglobin hemoglobin is the main components of red blood cells.
The main role: the main physiological function of the hemoglobin is the oxygen in the body, can Oxygen delivery
To the body, to the oxidation of sugar and fat in energy using oxygen release energy for exercise. Oxygen transport, movement when the oxygen supply is much, so the number and exercise ability of hemoglobin related.
Hemoglobin (Hb) is a human and other vertebrates of red blood cell components, the main function is to transport O2 and CO2. Hb can rapidly combine with oxygen Oxyhemoglobin
(HbO2), can be quickly separated. The level of integration and separation depends on the partial pressure of oxygen in the blood, when the blood passes through the lungs, oxygen partial pressure, making the most of the Hb and O2 combined with HbO2, the blood red color, arterial blood; blood flows through the organization, the oxygen partial pressure decreased, part of the HbO2 dissociation, releasing O2, for use the blood for blood, the dark red color. In addition, Hb can also combine with CO and CO Affinity
About 200 times higher than that with O2 affinity, so the air as long as there is a little CO, you can have a lot of Carbonmonoxyhemoglobin
(HbCO red) generation, but the combination is not easy to separate, so that Hb will lose O2 combined with the opportunity to cause tissue hypoxia, CO poisoning.
With the development of food science and human understanding of the enzyme gradually. The enzyme is produced by living cells of organisms Catalytic effect
The special protein is extremely important active substances. There are people, animals and plants and microorganisms in cells and tissues, all kinds of food are enzymes. The enzyme is controlled and can accelerate the food Material metabolism
The reaction itself does not change, and. If the enzyme is not controlled, the surrounding environment suitable conditions, will make the material Catabolism
Food, nutrition and sensory quality will decline sharply. The food is frozen storage, one of the most important principle, is the inhibition of food enzyme activity, control organisms Chemical changes
Thus, to maintain the freshness and quality of food during a certain period of time.
People rely on the digestion and absorption of food enzymes completed.
Vitamin (Vitamin), also known as vitamin, is another kind of important nutrients. With sugars and lipids of different is that it is not the direct supply of energy and nutrients, protein is different is that it is not the basic unit of life, and the most crucial point is that it is not through the body's own synthesis.
The point of view of chemistry vitamin is an organic compound, rarely content in natural food, but the tiny amount of the human body is a must. When the body lacks vitamin, there will be a variety of Vitamin deficiency
. Such as scurvy, beriberi (not commonly known as fungal infections caused by "beriberi") and so on. These organic compounds play an important role in the life activities.
The vitamin is mainly a variety of metabolic processes and biochemical pathways involved in vivo plays an important role in life, participate in and promote the synthesis of protein, fat and sugar utilization. An important component of many vitamins or coenzyme of many enzymes, called vitamin deficiency because vitamin deficiency, the enzyme synthesis would be blocked, so that the body metabolism disorder, causing the body disease. Mild symptoms are not obvious, but it will reduce the body's resistance and efficiency, serious cases will be typical symptoms of bleeding, beriberi, night blindness, and even lead to death. The importance of the vitamin is allow all doubt of human life. Vitamin A
To prevent night blindness and visual impairment, contribute to the treatment of various diseases of the eye (vitamin A can promote the formation of ocular photopigment) has the effect of anti infection; respiratory system; help the immune system is normal; promote development, strong bones, maintain skin, hair and teeth, gums contribute to health; emphysema, Hyperthyroidism
Vitamin B1: to promote the growth of digestion.
Vitamin B2: promote the development and regeneration of cells; improve eyesight.
Vitamin B5 helps wound healing; can produce antibodies against infectious disease. Vitamin B6
Can proper digestion and absorption of protein and fat.
Vitamin C: treatment of injuries, burns, bleeding gums; anticancer effect; can cure the common cold prevention of scurvy.
Vitamin D: improving the body's calcium and phosphorus absorption; promote growth and bone calcification. Vitamin E
Effectively prevent food and fatty acids in the digestive tract Rancid
That is great Free radical scavenger
, effective anti-aging nutrients; improve body immunity; prevention of cardiovascular disease.
Nutrients dietary fiber
Dietary fiber is seventh kinds of nutrients. A word in the dietary fiber nutrition before 1970 is not appeared, is generally not easy to digest food and nutrition elements, mainly comes from the plant cell, including cellulose, hemicellulose, pectin and lignin resin, etc.. Fiber can slow the digestion rate and rapid excretion of cholesterol, so it can make the blood glucose and cholesterol control in the ideal level. Dietary fiber is a carbohydrate that can not be digested, the dissolved in water can be divided into two basic types: water soluble fiber The non water soluble fiber
. Cellulose, Hemicellulose
Are 3 kinds of non water soluble fiber, found in Plant cell wall
In a while; pectin
Belong to the water soluble fiber, non fibrous material exists in the nature. Common food in barley, beans, carrots, citrus
and oat bran
Such foods are rich in soluble fiber, soluble fiber can slow the digestion rate and rapid excretion of cholesterol, Helps to regulate the immune system function, promote the excretion of toxic heavy metals in vivo. So let the blood blood sugar
On the basis of the ideal control and cholesterol levels, can also help Diabetes
To improve the patients Insulin
The level and Triglyceride
The non water soluble fiber include cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose and some food from the Wheat
Bran, jade rice bran
Peel and root vegetables. The non water soluble fiber can lower the risk of colon cancer, but also through the absorption of toxic substances in food to prevent constipation and diverticulitis, and reduce the bacteria from the digestive tract of toxin. Most of the plants containing water-soluble and non water-soluble dietary fiber, so balanced intake of water soluble and water insoluble fiber can obtain different benefits.
What made it into seventh kinds of nutrients? Chikangyancai, homely fare, is not the lack of dietary fiber. With the improvement of living standards, some people do not pay attention to Reasonable nutrition
And preference high protein
High fat diet, intake of dietary fiber is too small, it appears the health problems. Cellulose and other dietary fiber can promote gastrointestinal motility and emptying. So, eat foods rich in dietary fiber, but also can reduce high blood lipids in the human body and blood sugar
So, it is beneficial to the maintenance of Cardiovascular
The health, is conducive to the prevention of Diabetes
That is conducive to maintaining the normal weight. The dietary fiber has such an important role in health care, therefore, some scientists say that it is the body's "seventh Nutrient
Nutrients inorganic salt
In addition there are elements of carbon and hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen in organic form in the human body, the rest are collectively referred to as inorganic salt. Inorganic salt for major and trace elements, a total of 20 kinds, which contains large amount of (>0.01% weight). everyday Diet
Demand is above 100mg, called Major elements
A, calcium and magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus and chlorine were six.
Nutrients physiological function
The physiological function of inorganic salt is mainly constitute an important body tissue group, such as bones and teeth of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, phosphorus and other protein; intracellular and extracellular fluid components, such as potassium, sodium, chlorine and protein together, maintain appropriate intracellular and extracellular fluid osmotic pressure
The organization, can retain a certain amount of moisture; maintain body acid-base balance, such as buffer potassium, sodium and chloride, and protein; participate in the composition of functional substances, such as hemoglobin in armour gland hormone in iodine, superoxide dismutase in zinc, glutathione Peroxidase
The selenium; maintenance of nerve and muscle and normal Excitability
And the permeability of the cell.
Nutrients Mutual transformation
The three major nutrients, carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins in certain conditions can be transformed into each other. Sugar (or sugar) after radical
The three major nutrient transformation diagram
Group transformation can be transformed into amino acids into protein synthesis, but also can be transformed into lipid and blood glucose. The lipid Decomposition
After a series of transformation can be formed of sugar. The formation of protein decomposition Amino acid
After transformation can deaminate sugar and lipid formation. To sum up, carbohydrate and lipid, carbohydrate and protein can be transformed into each other, but only one-way conversion of lipid and protein, only the protein into lipid.