Sometimes called the "old", to distinguish it from Protestant
. and The Orthodox Church
And called Christianity
Three factions. As Christianity has a long history, the largest number of factions.
A word in the Western Catholic means, from the Greek Katholikos ("the world", "universal"). Chinese "God", as the Jesus society into China, the original name of the letter Chinese by God, and often view taken from the "historical records Fengshan book" set: "man, God said, Si Qi", "the highest expression of Mo Ruo day, the statue of Mo Ruo" and "heaven and earth God, the LORD God will master all things", intended to dominate the paramount, and to Chinese traditional religious deities to distinguish, so that the teaching of catholicism.
The main repair can be divided into: the monastery will (Monastic Order), Mendicant orders
(Mendicant Order), The society of Jesus
(Society Jesus) three categories, including Benedict will
(Benedictine Order), Franciscan Order
(Franciscan Order), Dominican
(Dominican Order), Augustinian Order
(Augustinian Order) will repair etc.. Catholicism
Spread around the world, mainly distributed in Italy and France, Portugal, Hungary, than the west, and wave, beauty and Latin American countries.
The implementation of the clerical celibacy. The repair will form its monasticism, and teach a set of hierarchical order system. "According to the" church Statistics Yearbook "(two O 14 years December 31st Revision) show that in 2014 the world Catholic population of about 1 billion 272 million, accounting for 17.77% of the total population of the world."
China Catholic first appeared in the Tang dynasty, Nestorianism
Is Christianity with the Persian religious thought of hybrid product. The Catholic Church once again passed China. Ming Wanli ten years (1582) by Jesus who introduced again. Since twentieth Century "Chinese" and the new trend of independent self in Alex Hua Tian bishop.
Catholicism The doctrine of letter
Jesus and the twelve disciples
The Catholic belief in God and Jesus Christ statue Maria
For Mary, his belief contents are included in the "apostles creed", "Twelve channel", mainly for basic tenets: God the father of heaven and earth, creating human being born; the son of God, salvation, and passion, resurrection, ascension, come again at the end of the world; God the Holy spirit (the Holy Spirit) holy man; church founded by Christ, and absolution right; human flesh will be the end of the world and accept resurrection Christ, people enjoy Yongfu, the wicked to be forever waiting.
Catholicism Three-in-one (Trinity)
The Catholic Church believes that three-in-one "mystery", this "mystery" of the enlightenment is not to understand by reason, only to accept by faith. The Catholic Church believes that the existence of a supernatural and super social power in the world and the universe, this is the power of god. He is the one and only, equal to anything, creating tangible and intangible things of god. Because he has three persons: The father
, The son of God
, the Holy Spirit
So, he said" Three-in-one
"God. Because of the father in heaven, called him father, is considered to be the supreme ruler of all forces. He is the first "three-in-one". Son of Jesus Christ, born of the father, and sent by the father to come to earth, their bloody sacrifice on the cross to save the world's suffering. He is "three-in-one" in second. The Holy Spirit from the father and the son of the total, the Holy Spirit to enlighten people's wisdom and faith, so good. He is "three-in-one" in third. Three of the three persons are not independent, but the same body, the whole three composition of god.
Catholicism Creation of God (Creation of God)
That everything in the universe is created by god. "The Bible Genesis" set: "in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth, the land is void, the face of the deep darkness. The spirit of God in the water." At that time has not yet confirmed, the creation of God before anything, but is chaotic and disorderly. After the godfather, especially by Augustin (Aurelius, Augustinus) and play since medieval theologians of the church, then determine the claim that God is completely from "nothing" to create everything (Latin: ex nihilo); the universe is created before, no matter, no time and space, and only God, and his "Tao" (Greek Logos) and his "spirit". He issued a "Discourse" (i.e. by "Tao"), create everything.
Catholics believe that God created the universe is human, certainly is also God's creation. "Old Testament Genesis:" God 5 days to create the nature of all things, sixth days and seventh days rest. It is precisely because God created everything, he was said to be supreme, omnipotent omniscient, omnipresent God, the Supreme Master of the universe.
Catholicism Original sin (Original Sin)
That human ancestors Adam and Eve after being created is placed in the garden of Eden, by the serpent tempted to disobey God commands, eating the forbidden fruit, which become the sin of mankind's original sin. That all descendants of this crime has been to Adam, to become the cause of all human evil and evil; even the newborn babies that died, although not guilty of any crime, but because it is inherent in the original sin, it is still a sinner, need salvation.
Catholicism Redemption (Redemption)
Because of human ancestor crime, resulting in all human beings are born with original sin and, and can not help themselves; crime, the need to pay the ransom to compensation, and people are able to compensate, so that the son of God the father of Jesus Christ for the sins of mankind by the generation of death, and blood to believe that the crime of redemption. A "ransom" what to whom? The godfather of different views. Augustin
(Aurelius, Augustinus) that crime, it is the devil's servant, the redemption for slavery from the devil, from the blood of Jesus as a ransom, paid to the redemption of the devil. "The New Testament" also known as "believers buy with a price". anselm
(Anselmus, 1033 - 1109) is that the person who commits a crime to God owed a debt, their inability to repay, Jesus's blood is to pay the ransom of god. Only believe and rely on the Savior Jesus for human sin, people can obtain eternal life after death.
Catholicism Purgatory (Purgatory)
Also known as purgatory, is Catholicism
and The Orthodox Church
Religious doctrine。 Charged with certain crimes, but not necessarily to hell after death, temporarily afflicted the purifying of sin. Catholics believe that after death, pure and undefiled soul can directly enter heaven blessed; a mortal sin soul into hell by eternal punishment; a small crime or crime have been forgiven, but have not yet done penance soul, neither heaven nor Hell immediately, but was placed in purgatory. Temporary suffering, after all the sin purged, penance done, you can enter heaven.
Catholicism The church books
The Catholic Church Bible
The two part is composed of "Old Testament" and "New Testament". A total of seventy-three volumes. Catholic Bibles (Protestant Christianity
The Bible) seven volumes, seven volumes in this "The Holy Bible"
The Old Testament, respectively Tobit, Judith, Magabo, Magabo, smart, Sirach, Baruch. The Old Testament
Completed in more than 1 thousand and 500 BC to four hundred years ago; the New Testament completed in AD thirty to ninety-six years. "The Bible" from the early book of Job (C. 1500 BC) to the end of a Book Book implied (AD 90-96 years), after about 1600. The author of the Bible for Jews, kings, prophets, priests, shepherd, fisherman, doctor who. Today, the Bible is still the world's most popular, the most influential book sales. According to the United Bible Society Statistics, since the publication of the Bible so far, circulation has more than four billion. At present, the number of sales in the world, is still more than thirty million above the average. According to statistics, in many ancient books, the Bible has the most different language versions of the books in the world.
The "Old Testament" in forty-six volumes, respectively:
Genesis, Exodus, Levi, Ji Ji hukou, Deuteronomy, Joshua books, people long Ji, Lourdes, Samuel, Samuel Ji Ji, kings, kings, age, age, Maher Sid La, Maher Sid La next, Tobit, Judith, Ace Del, Magabo, Magabo, Joe, cloth Psalter, proverbs, Ecclesiastes, song of Solomon, wisdom, Sirach, Isaiah, Jeremiah, lamentations, Baruch, Darnell, Yue, Hosea and Ezekiel shall Earl, Amos, North Asia, and sub bottom, Micaiah, Nahong, Habakkuk and Zephaniah, Haggai and Zechariah, Mara Kia.
"New Testament" records Jesus Christ
And his Disciple
Words and deeds and the early church. "New Testament" consists of twenty-seven volumes. "The New Testament". Canon
In the bibliography 397 years
At the Council of Carthage formally identified, including four parts: the four Gospels, including matthew, The Gospel of Mark
Luke, and John; the acts of the apostles; the Apostle Paul letters, including letters, letters, letters of John Peter; revelation.
"New Testament" consists of twenty-seven volumes, respectively:
Matthew, the gospel of Luke, Martha Valley, John, acts of the apostles, Rome book, 1 Corinthians, 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians Ecuador, Philip Bo, Luo Senshu, brother of Thessalonica book before the book, Thessalonica after book, book, brother Timothy before Mao de after the book, Titus, book fee book, Hebrews, rib Meng Jacob Buber book, Peter, Peter before the book after book, a Book of John, John, John III, two book of Jude and revelation. Catholicism
The widespread use of RSV, formally published in 1968.
Catholicism Church Architecture
Pope Benedict has sixteen Protestant and Anglican Archbishop Williams
The Pope ( The pontiff
For the Catholic Church, the supreme leader). Vatican
The heads of state, has lasted for 266 term, the first Pope Jesus's twelve disciples St Peter
. After the election tenure can not recall. The leadership of the Catholic Church is a religious sect in the world's largest congregation, from Imperium Romanum
Start, until today will affect the development of European and world civilization. Because of its resident in Rome, so it is also called the pope in Rome. The full title is: "the bishop of Rome, He
On behalf of Christ, the apostles of the eldest son, the universal Church of Italy, presiding bishop, Dean of the highest education in Rome Province Archbishop
and Metropolitan bishop
The city heads of state and the servant of the servants of god".
The Catholic church organization focused strictly. It attaches great importance to the teaching order and teaching order system is divided into teaching and teaching administration clergy order order. Teach: bishops, clergy order of priests and deacons. The right to rule the Pope, cardinal teach order, patriarch, archbishop, bishop, priest, the Pope has the highest authority, sacred and inviolable, composed of cardinal College of Cardinals elected, the main advisory body is the College of cardinals. The Catholic clergy provisions can not get married, have obvious boundaries with the laity. Repair by fellow believers, hair, poverty, chastity and obedience to God three wishes, and collective life. In addition to the Pope, the Council also has the highest authority. The meeting convened by the Pope, on behalf of all regions of the world, bishop, important congregations convent leaders and famous theologian, experts also often invited to participate in church law. Since twelfth Century, the Catholic Church has held 13 public meetings. The Catholic Church is the first complete act of mid twelfth Century "Gratian isou". Sixteenth Century, "church law Daquan" come out, at the beginning of twentieth Century and revised "code" compendium for the Catholic Church, on 1983, and promulgated the new "more concise" code of the Catholic church.
Catholicism Repair branch
Catholicism 1 monastery will (Monastic Order)
Repair will come from the development of hidden, then gradually developed into a collective hidden organized repair, to comply with the uniform regulations of the Christian church. Including Benedict will
(Benedictine Order), Cluniac Order
(Congregation of Cluny), Cistercians
(Cistercian Order), Carthusian
(Carthusian Order). Benedict will (Benedictine Order)
: 529 years, Benny Dick (a version of Benedict, Benedictus, 480 - 550) in central Italy Cassino built the first Benedictine convent. The main provisions include "three wishes" and the "big day course". The rules will become a model for Catholic religious system. Kruni (Congregation of Cluny) will repair
: a branch of the Benedictine, also known as the "reformed benedictine". The repair will require restoration of Benedictine monasticism group strict rules, cultivate the individual spiritual life. Known as the "Kruni convent reform movement". Cistercian (Cistercian Order)
in 1098 by the French Robert (Robert, 1027-1111) was founded in Dijon (Dijon) near the western wilderness, named. Robert into the 15 Benedictine convent. After the revised regulations abolished, with several monks to the Cistercian convent that separate wilderness; keep the Benedictine strict regulation, so also known as the "reformed benedictine". In addition to prayer, Shengong, and reclamation. When the start-up is not very famous, 1114 Bernard (Bernard de Clairvaux, 1090-1153) led 30 people to join after the rapid prosperity. After fifty or sixty years, branch to more than 500, after hundreds of years of more than 1000. Garr (Carthusian Order) will Tozai
: also known as penance will. Because Garr was founded in France in the name of xishan. In 1084 by the French San Bruno (St. Bruno, 1032 - 1101) founded. The Benedictine rules modeled but more strict discipline. The monks must live alone, bitter body, meditation, chanting, lifelong adherence to silence, only talk once every Saturday. The customs staff also subject to collective life, observant. During the year 40 days of fasting, only to eat bread and water. This will be 11 - twelfth Century the monastery reform movement has played an important role.
Catholicism 2 mendicant order (Mendicant Order)
Also known as the "begging repair", began in thirteenth Century. Shall not buy property, people will be living by begging. At the beginning, only including Franciscan Order
(Franciscan Order), Dominican
(Dominican Order), Garr R. Murrow will
(Carmelites Order), Augustinian Order
(Augustinian Order), after fifteenth Century, continued to increase. The Franciscans (Franciscan Order):
the Francis pie, little brothers. The meeting regulatory requirements will, must allegiance to the Pope, and advocated to live a poor life, a linen clothes barefoot, begging. People will be among the "little brother said". Dominican (Dominican Order):
the Dominic faction, preached brotherhood. This will be for the purpose of preaching, emphatically persuaded the pagans and exclusion of heresy, mainly in the city's upper middle class mission. Garr R. Murrow (Carmelites Order) will be
: one called "carmelites". Founded in the mid twelfth Century Palestinian Garr R. Murrow mountain, named. About 1156 the Italian burr knife (Bertold,? - 1195) led by several Western monk, while the Crusades of the occasion, to the Palestinian monasticism and Garr R. Murrow hill, according to the regulations will request Jerusalem patriarch Shoutu, begun to take shape will repair. To Bailaojia Road (Brocardo) president at the beginning will have a fixed. People will be required to keep "orders" and "poor in spirit" and "chastity", "Silence", "fast". Augustine will (Augustinian Order):
a translation of "Augustin". Where was all hidden according to Augustin's implicit fix will rule and the establishment of the general repair can repair. After in 1256 by Pope Alexander IV (Alexandre IV, 1256-1261 in the unified Augustine) coalition will.
Catholicism 3 Jesus (Society of Jesus)
The anti religious reform movement, follow the troops of the semi military organization, strict discipline, strict institutions. The official will need four to +, and the people will be long-term spiritual training and knowledge training, also encourage believers to defend Catholic interests in the world.
Catholicism Catholic history
Is the predecessor of Christianity was founded in the early in Latin Rome area of the Empire in the West and West, and Rome are the Greek Empire in the eastern region east sent relative. By taking Rome as the center, the formation of the Rome civil service. West Rome Empire 476 years before and after the demise of the bishop of Rome, becoming the leader of the churches, churches gradually formed the papacy. In eighth Century during the Carolingian Dynasty, the dwarf Pi Ping (Pepin ad 714 ~ 768 Le Bref) will win the land to the Pope from the hands of the Lombards, known as the "Pi Ping gift", which constitutes the second half of nineteenth Century continue to the papal states. In 1054 the formal division of factions, West group claiming to be Catholic (Catholic).
In the middle ages, the Catholic Church became occupied dominant position in Western Europe in the feudal society of religion, and put under the control of philosophy, politics and law in Catholic theology. The establishment of the official theology to the Thomas doctrine as the core, and achieve the prosperity of the scholastic philosophy. Once set the inquisition and the organization of the crusades. In sixteenth Century the religious reform movement, the emergence of new orders will Jesus (Society Jesus) and the Paris foreign missions (Societas Parisiensis Missionum ad exteras gentes), Milan foreign missions (Pontificium Institutum Pro Missionibus Exteris), lazarist (Congregatio Missionis) and other missionaries will spread throughout the world. Mainly distributed in Italy and France, Portugal, Hungary, than the west, and wave, beauty and Latin American countries.
The second half of nineteenth Century, the Catholic Church has held the First Vatican Council, "Pope chief position" and "the Pope infallible (Infallibility of the Pope)" the creed to maintain the theocracy, resistance to reform within the church requirements. Thomas Aquinas (St. Thomas Aquinas, announced in March 7th 1225 about 1274) for the Catholic theological system only true philosophy, development to modern new Thomas doctrine. 1929 "the Lateran Treaty" (Patti, Lateranensi) after the signing of the Church of Rome, officially named the Vatican City State resident. In 1960s the convening of the Second Vatican Council, began to "reform", "dialogue" and "keep pace with the times" of the modern development, gradually pay attention to the ecumenical movement, emphasizing theological renewal and diversification.
The history of the church is usually divided into four stages:
An ancient church: 1 - sixth Century BC
Two, the medieval church; by 590 years to 1517, the main content is the Germanic invasion; the spread of Christianity in Europe; the separation of church and state; in 1054 the Great Schism, and the Pope chief rights issues.
Three, the modern church: 16-20 century, the oath of anti Christianity, the reform of the church, and the church spread in Asia and Africa, america.
Four, the modern church has: after World War II
Catholicism The ancient church: 1 - sixth Century BC
This period includes the early church and grew up in Rome in the Empire, the emperor of Rome has repeatedly tried to destroy the church, but in the end, it is the whole empire to the church, declared the Catholic Church in Rome is the state religion of the empire. The ancient church several turning point
1, in the year 50, and Beijing church meeting, church from the Jewish tradition of the church, showing great public and universal;
2, in the year 70, the apostles began to turn right on the successor, the bishop; the apostles martyr church centre to Rome;
3, ad 130 - 200 years, with heresy struggle, produced literary apologetics, faith to spread among intellectuals in;
4, ad 250 - 305 years, the church and the pagan martyrs struggle to bring new converts to the church;
5, ad 313 - 476 years, Christianity replaced the status heresy in the public and private life;
6, in the year 330, Constantinople was completed, as the East Division of seeds, the rise and rapid development of monasticism;
7, ad 476 - 590 years, in the year 476, Western Rome are aware of their destruction, the church to preach the gospel to the barbarians vocation. In the year 590, the first Benedictine monk Peter boarded the throne, marking the beginning of the end of the ancient church and the medieval church.
About the early church development situation, we are in the acts of the apostles as recorded in the acts of the apostles according to the 15 section of the first chapter points out that a total of 120 people, Paul said that 500 people saw the resurrected Jesus, Peter first published public speech at Pentecost after, there are three thousand the number of people baptized in teaching, after members up to 5000 people. Therefore, in 35 to 37 years, the number of Catholics in Jerusalem about 5000 people. From the day of Pentecost, until the last apostles died during this period of time, the vigorous development of the church, religious an increasing number of people, but also very devout, the apostles themselves is what one sees and hears about Jesus's life story and his truth and spirit to teach people, thus forming a an oral tradition. The initial conversion, the Jews, their time into the temple to pray; in the diet, kept clean and unclean; still keep the Sabbath and circumcision, but there are also different Jewish gatherings, the most prominent is the "cake rally". The apostles faithfully follow Jesus commanded, for this ceremony, members also share the consecrated bread and wine, the main part of the Eucharist is the Holy mass. In the Jewish church, Li Ya Gary in Samaria and the development of sub provinces rib constantly, Petrus personally go to these places to visit Christian believers in contact with the newly baptized, and they live together, strengthen their faith. In the 41 year period, Hilli Akipathi (Herod Agrippa 1, 10 - 44) was the Palestinian King soon after the outbreak of the difficult teaching.
Christ the Savior has long predicted that "his disciples to suffer persecution", in the church at the beginning of this prophecy has been gradually realized. The first three hundred years of the history of the church, can be called the "church history of suffering", also called it "the martyrs in our history". The Rome Empire imposed on the church's bloody persecution, the times printed on the distinctive mark, so that a period of time, we call "hard times". The second century is more difficult to teach local, but is intermittent, the third century is difficult to teach, which initiated by the emperor, universal, almost across the country, the situation is tragic, but it was quite short, but also make the church breathing period. Early in the third century, the church is about to enjoy 15 years of peace, local authorities will take the policy of non-interference of the church, to the Christian extreme big, even the forced labor of the Christian amnesty. At that time the political chaos, the emperor did not have time and energy to the church launched stern struggle. But in the year 200, the emperor's attitude, suddenly changed, the church began by the unprecedented severe persecution.
The fourth century is the history of the church, was a turning point, Constantin not only gave the Church of peace, but also to the many church was to Theodor Si (Theodosius II 401 - 450) during the reign of the Empire of Rome, declared the Catholic "church". In the fourth century the church has freedom of religion and legal status, the church can open missionary, and by the emperor's privilege. The proportion of the population, the east than the western educational more developed, Egypt, Asia Minor church is flourishing, Italy, North Africa, Gaul, Spain times. In addition to the Rome Empire, the gospel also spread to Armenia, Persia and Arabia.
Catholicism The medieval church: 590 years 1517 years
From the fifth century to the fifteenth century, due in 5 and sixth Century, the invasion of Germanic, finally led to the Rome Empire fall apart, began to collapse the fate of extinction. The church also began to implement the education work to the barbarians in this period, resulting in a new culture, this period of the church, we called it the medieval church.
"1000 years of history between the Middle Ages" between ancient and modern. Exactly from the fifth century to sixteenth Century West Rome perish in ancient Greece and Rome renaissance. Some people think that from the year 590 Gregory I (Gregory the Great 1, 540 - 604) start. So in no accurate statement, from roughly 590 years, Eastern culture separately, the church began to spread the gospel. Until sixteenth Century the oath unteaching broke the European unity, as the medieval church history node. After the church began to spread to Europe from Asia, Africa and the United states. The middle ages is divided into three stages: The first stage of the medieval church: (AD 590 - 1048)
When the church missionary efforts in the west, the East has been seriously hit. The church launched a large-scale to Germanic, Slavic gospel. Due to the rise of Islam, the church in the Middle East, North Africa and persecution, the Pope to maintain the chief right position with the struggle of the patriarch of constantinople. In 1054, separated from the orthodox church. In 1050, Pope Leo nine world (St. Leo IX 1002 - 1054) called for the abolition of the encyclical has infiltrated the southern Italy Latin Church of the Greek rite. But the Archbishop of Constantinople (Michael Cerularius, cerularius? - 1058) and tit for tat, all the provisions of the use of Greek etiquette in the Latin Church of constantinople. In 1054, Pope cerularius (Michael Cerularius,? - 1058) sent cardinal Hubel (Humbert) led a mission to Constantinople, the two sides did not reach a compromise, but the intensification of conflicts, mutual accusations. Finally, Baer hung at Sophia Cathedral altar down to rehabilitate. Se Lou Larry U (Michael Cerularius,? - 1058) held a meeting in Rome and the envoys of the Pope announced to the church. This division, known as the "cerularius split". So far, the Christian thing factions split up, formally split into Catholic, orthodox. In Constantinople as the center of the Eastern Church claiming to be orthodox, also known as the Byzantine Empire in the Greek Orthodox Church, taught in the middle ages. In 1204, the Crusaders occupied Constantinople, war Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III, 1198 - 1216 in Venice) was canonized as the first Nigerian Mo Pelosi Latin bishops of Constantinople, the contradiction between the two sides reached the pole, split more irreparable. Many later reconciliation efforts, failed. The second stage: the medieval church (1048 - 1294)
From the beginning of the tenth century, the Western church was plunged into the dark ages, in urgent need of reform, to rectify the secular spirit and life of debauchery clergy, the church must be independent from the secular society, there will be standing in the leading position in European countries, to guide their life goal. The tide of reform by Pope Gregory nine world (Gregorius IX of about 1170 - 1241), to Innocent III (Innocent III, 1160 - 1216) reached a climax. In Fourteenth Century Pope right down again, the peoples of Europe "nationality" and "national idea" enhanced gradually split into many independent countries. Crusade：
At the end of Eleventh Century to the end of thirteenth Century, Rome city in conjunction with the Western European feudal lords and the businessman of the Mediterranean region to launch a war of aggression. From 1096 to 1291, a total of 8 times, which lasted for 200 years. (1) 1095 Claremont religious conference, launched the first crusade. From February 1096 onwards, the Crusaders 5 road to the East has. In July 15, 1099, the Crusaders captured Jerusalem, the inhabitants of a city, and in accordance with the feudal system of Western Europe was established in Jerusalem and the three vassal of the Latin kingdom. (2) in 1146, Pope Eugene III (Eugene III, 1145 - 1153 reign) sent Bernard (Ming Valley) (1090 - 1153 Bernard de Clairvaux (Louis) persuaded the French king Louis Sis VII, about 1120 - 1180 (Konrad) and the German Emperor Conrad Sans III 1093 - 1152) organized the Second Crusade (1147 - 1149), the participants are feudal lords and knights. The summer of 1147, the king of the command about 70 thousand knights to the east to enter, because of the contradictions between the two countries, the Byzantine Empire suspicion and cooperation and military misconduct, the Crusaders suffered heavy losses along the way, more than in the invasion of Damascus and defeated. (3) 1187 Salahuddin empire after the occupation of Jerusalem, Pope Clement Sans (Clement III, 1025 - 1100) organized the Third Crusade (1189 - 1192), respectively, by Germany, France and Britain sent three teams, in 1191 the Crusaders captured acre, but failed to recover Jerusalem. (4) in 1198, Pope Innocent III (Innocentius III, 1179 - 1180 reign) organized the Fourth Crusade (1202 - 1204). In 1202, France Italy Crusaders assembled in Venice, on the surface that recover the holy land attack on Egypt actually attack the Byzantine preparation. In April 1204, the Crusaders captured Constantinople, in the southern Balkans established the Latin empire". (5) the fifth Crusade (1217 - 1221) Crusaders from Germany, Britain, Holland and Hungary, the main attack on Egypt failed. (6) the sixth Crusade (1228 - 1229), Crusade by Germany and France, Britain, Italy, knight, Kaiser Frederick II (Frederich II, 1712 - 1786) personally led the attack, Syria. In 1229, Frederick and the Egyptian Sultan treaty, Jerusalem and other places by the provisions of the Kaiser rule, Frederick in Jerusalem for 15 years until 1244, king, master. (7) in 1248, Pope Innocent IV (Innocentius IV, 1243 - 1254 reign) launched the seventh Crusade (1248 - 1254), by King Louis Jiu S (Louis IX, 1215 - 1270) led the expedition to Egypt, without any success. (8) the 1270 eighth Crusade, by Louis nine (Louis IX, 1215 - 1270) led. The Crusaders in Tunisia after landing, due to the plague, Louis nine died due to illness, the remnants of withdrawal of europe. In 1271, Britain's Prince Edward (Edward the Confessor to teach; died 1066) went on Crusade war, no gain. Since then, the Pope again failed to organize a crusade, the Crusaders are the Muslim occupation in eastern territory. In 1291, the Jerusalem Latin kingdom last stronghold acre was captured, the demise of the Kingdom, the Crusaders were all out of Syria, the Crusades ended in failure.
Causes of failure: 1 Crusade and lack of strategy; 2, long 3, politics and economy; the lack of cooperation. 4, motives.
The significance of the Crusades: Although the Crusade did not regain the holy land, but also has its positive side. 1, to prevent further Turkish invasion of Europe, saved the Christian culture; 2, that Europeans are aware of their own is founded on faith rather than in the political establishment. 3, strengthen the East West Economic and cultural exchange; 4, caused the western missionary Church Missionary zeal. The Franciscans, Dominicans and the rise of the priory.
But it also has its negative aspects: 1, exacerbated by the East West schism (1204, the adverse consequences of the Fourth Crusade and looting of Constantin Bo; 2), heightened ethical degeneration, burning and looting, killing many Muslims; 3, the decline in the power, the Church of the east to east the failure to sign the pope. Think this is God to punish the church.
Because of the Crusades and the inquisition, the church realized by force is not the Christ of europe. The reason why the prevalence and heresy is so attractive because within the church clergy circles fall, too much involved in worldly affairs while ignoring the spirit of duty. It's clear that in stark contrast to the heresy of clergy and church clergy within the community. The society should be cured, the church itself should be cured, the church must be reformed from within. The church noticed a sign of the times, must carry on the reform, to meet the needs of the times. But the church reform tool is a mendicant order. There are four main religious mendicant: Franciscan Order
(Franciscan Order), Dominican
(Dominican Order), Garr R. Murrow will
(Carmelites Order), Augustinian Order
(Augustinian Order). The third stage: the medieval church (1274 - 1517)
In 1294, Germany after the end of the Johans Dynasty, the French forces in Europe is gradually strong, through the purchase of inheritance with the victory of the war, the French king's wealth increases, so in Europe has independent status in the political, economic and cultural aspects gradually occupy the dominant position. The Pope for the protection of the interests of the church, to resist the invasion of other European countries, has formed an alliance with France, to seek help and protection from Italy and Assisi Kaiser took over with France, France gradually replaced the German position in the church, the French ruled Italy, and were served by the French cardinal pope. In this way, the French play a leading role in Christian countries. This relationship has positive and negative effects to the church. When the king of France and the cooperation to promote the development of the church, this is a good news for the church. This phenomenon in the king Louis Jiu S (Louis IX, 1215 - 1270) who perfectly reflected. But this can also be a curse to blessing, especially when the king and his lust for worldly power to enslave the church as a slave, it will affect the development of the church. Philip IV (Philip IV the Fair, handsome man; 1268 - 1314) is such a. He claimed that he was the first European absolute king. The pope had successfully defeated the German Emperor and become the spiritual and secular supreme leader, but in his conflict and defeat, but again and again. In Rome legal help, Philip IV overturned medieval system. A king is not absolute, the Pope is the supreme judge of Rome between the state and the French leader. 1296 by Philip IV with the British war, ordered a tax on the French church without the consent of the Pope, church property, the clergy must pay taxes, breaking one thousand years of tradition, Pope Boniface VIII (Boniface VIII, 1294 - 1303 reign) to see the tax exemption right and the right to freedom from being hurt, but also hope that not just war will soon end, and to the king of France issued an encyclical pointed out that without the consent of the clergy not to pay any secular, excommunicates those without approval of the people to the church tax. For the king of France banned immediately to the donation, and banned foreigners into the French business, this is equal to cut the pope in France's economic sources, and announced that Boniface's election is not legitimate. The Pope was compelled to temporarily withdraw the encyclical, to obtain a temporary peace. Five years later, in 1301, the outbreak of the second conflict, because the French King Philip of France floors, including the clergy to take high handed policy. In order to make their own allegiance, asking them not to pay taxes, but not with the Pope and prohibited pilgrimage, strict control of the church. Without the king's consent provisions for the service. The Pope sent mediation, Philip hope to take orders, Philip can be immediately arrested and punished the messenger for treason, so Pope Boniface VIII (Boniface VIII, 1294 - 1303 reign) and published an encyclical "my son, listen to his" request unconditional release ambassador. The king and the Pope held a "tit for tat, France conference", including clergy, nobles and officials, they support the king of France, and sent to Rome's threat to the Pope, Pope helpless published the most famous medieval encyclical to a "holy", a statement: "theocracy" than "vulgar", certainly the Pope himself only by the trial of god. Philip refused to yield, and held another meeting, announced that the Pope made the absurd of the crime, including heresy and ethical degeneration. Called an ecumenical council trial Pope, and sent to Italy and the Pope's cronies colluded with the enemy. In 1303 the Pope is ready to fire Philip church, Philip to Pope Ananni into the palace suddenly and imprisoned the pope. Three days after the Pope died soon rescued by the masses. Pope Boniface VIII (Boniface VIII, 1294 - 1303 reign) died, known as the "Ananni incident". This event is the turning point of power, the status of selling sunset thousand Zhangs in the country, "vulgar theocracy above right thoughts disappear, the Christian Coalition disintegrated Europe, instead of the concept of independent countries. The Western Division (1378 - 1417)
The exile and church unity and split seriously affect the image of the church. Gregory Eleven World (Gregory IX, 1370 - 1378 reign) after the death of stress in the citizens of Rome, Italy and Milan have elected a cardinal bishop for the Pope, namely ur class VI (Urban VI, 1378 - 1389 reign). The Pope long settled in France, Rome is in a state of chaos. The 16 cardinal cardinals, 11 French nationality. They don't want to stay in Rome, Pope return to france. Urban VI attacked rejected them, the temperament burst dry, poor attitude, so that the gap between each other, resulting in the 11 Cardinals night back to France, "the pope in Naples declared the election invalid". Elected Pope Clement VII (Clement VII, 1523 ~ 1534 reign), and Spain, Scotland, France support. Germany, Britain, Italy Urban Las (Urban VI, 1378 - 1389, so the reign) of two popes, two cardinals, split this cause. Between the two Pope excommunicated each other, each with the cardinals, and each district will repair the bishop and Rikkyo Dean, which have a great influence on the development of the church. Therefore people requires that unity, Paris University and the University of Oxford professor called for the Council to resolve the matter, but many people were against, because the Pope is the supreme head of state, no one can judge him. So they can not solve the increasingly serious problem. The church has no other better way to deal with this problem, then the two sides of the Cardinals agreed to hold public meetings, hope can change the status of the division. The 1409 meeting in Pisa, and cited two popes to come to trial, two popes refused, saying that this meeting is invalid, and expel them by waste, and the election of the new Pope Alexander V (Alexander V, 1409 - 1410 reign), hope to restore the unified situation, the church can backfire, two Pope refused to give the "three cases of utmost situation", so there are three cardinals, three bishop in the diocese, repair there will be three president, produced a confusion within the church, seriously affected the image of the church. The church because of confusion, the German Emperor Sigismund (Sigismund, 1411 - 1437 reign) in order to solve the church split, held in 1414 in the Council of Constance Benedict thirteen world (Benedictus XIII) abolished, Rome Gregory twelve world (Gregorius XII, 1406 - 1415 reign) to resign, Congress re elected Martin V (Martin V, 1417 - 1431) for the new pope, Pope approved some of the provisions of the Council on faith, but he refused to accept the Council directly from God's power, so the pope in its power under the "point of view.
After 39 years in Martin V (Martin V, 1417 - 1431 in the church) under the leadership of restoring peace and unity. But after the split, the pope in Christian countries greatly affected the status of. Not only in the aspect of "theocracy above vulgar", and the pope in the church supreme power also doubt. What is the pope or the Council of high. In fact, only the Pope himself or on behalf of the host or participate in, the Council and the Pope personally endorsed or approved by the decision, it is the universal church, so higher than the conciliar pope. The Pope himself can not go through the Council, with absolute right and the Council was not recognized by the Pope cannot make the rules, so the Pope than the council.
Catholicism The modern church: sixteenth Century - mid twentieth Century
Pope Francis and former Pope Benedict sixteen world
About mid from sixteenth Century to twentieth Century, probably from the beginning of fifteenth Century, the western nation has undergone tremendous changes in thought. The modern nation-state form constantly, independence and freedom from all aspects, the ruling power in the church has always had a close relationship, but the religion and politics, but gradually separated. Common European belief in the Christian religion or Jesus due to the development of present differentiation; on the other hand, with the discovery of the new continent, missionary work won the new garden, the church was to Asia, America, Africa, Australia launched a missionary work.
An anti religion reform movement, the popular in Europe, the Church of academic research and warmly debilitating; adverse effects, the exile and western division of the Church of darkness; the influence of sports meeting; 4, sixteenth Century church ethics fall, members of the Church of secularization, the above four phenomena are universal especially in Germany. For example: the German bishops and abbots have 1/3 German possessions, and many people do not wear clothing to ignore the clergy, single system. All of this become a catalyst for the reformation. Martin Ruud (Martin Luther, 1483 - 1546) of the Bible only, namely any justification by faith, and the Bible instead of denying, denying the hierarchy, advocate free interpretation of the bible. That is the Pope's rights from the people is not from god. So the teaching of the church and the right to deny, deny the Rome Council, above all other churches claim.
Pope Benedict has sixteen and orthodox patriarch Bartholomew
In sixteenth Century the religious reform movement, the emergence of new orders will Jesus (Societas Jesu) and the Paris foreign missions (Societas Parisiensis Missionum ad exteras gentes), Milan foreign missions (Pontificium Institutum Pro Missionibus Exteris), lazarist (Congregatio Missionis) and other missionaries will.
In 1864 nine the asylum (Pius IX Pope 1792-1878) to the Cardinals announced to convene a meeting of the Council, in 1865 the establishment of the Preparatory Committee, after four years of preparation, in December 8, 1869 opened the First Vatican meeting at the Vatican Peter hall. 747 people attended the meeting, a cardinal, archbishop, bishop and abbess. The meeting is the first time to ambassadors, the king invited the meeting, the meeting made a 52 motion, but due to the environment at that time, the meeting opened a year after they stopped, so only completed two bills. The meeting identified the oath of faith at the same time, the meeting also describes the relationship between enlightenment, faith and reason, even if there is no god people meeting to announce the enlightenment, only by reason can also know the Creator - god. At the same time meeting statement: there are two kinds of knowledge sources: one is a belief, is the reason. Faith does not violate people's reason. The meeting once again condemned atheism, materialism, liberalism and pantheism.
Shelter nine world (Pius IX Pope 1792-1878) died in 1878 thirteen, Leo (Leo 131878 - 1903 in the world) as Pope, he was already 68 years old, poor health. It is generally believed that he is just a transitional Pope only, but he is beyond people's 25 years on the contrary to expectation, he is long, and many issued the encyclical, Pope is one of the most famous in history.
Although in 1870 the Vatican condemned liberalism, rationalism and naturalism, communism, socialism, atheism, but they did not disappear from the eyes of the people and society, and gradually become powerful in europe. Atheism advocates should give religion completely removed from the public and social life, the establishment of a non religious society. For this purpose, they are a series of blows to the church. Is divided into 4 steps: first (religious persecution) will be closed, repair the dissolution of monasteries, the expulsion of foreign missionaries, and gradually make the clergy economic depletion. The confiscation of all school of the church, the deprivation of church education. Prohibition of religious education, that the students accept atheism thoughts. Cancel all the lawful rights of the church to get married, to guarantee the right to divorce, deny the validity of the clergy presided over the wedding. The principle of secularism, the establishment of a secular non religious society.
In late nineteenth Century, a movement in the church. Within the church, part of the intellectuals in order to make the church's teachings and beliefs can be coordinated with the study of science, history, biblical and philosophical development, adopted a series of measures to re interpret the Bible, change the church doctrine etc.. The extreme modernist, they doubt the divinity of Christ, that church is a purely social organization, the Bible is just a literary works. The dogma of the church to meet the needs of the times, must be modified.
Modernism originated in the thirteen century Pope Leo (Leo 131878 - 1903 reign) academic Renaissance movement advocated, and is deeply influenced by the thoughts of Kant (Kant advocated that all knowledge comes from experience, that knowledge is subjective). One who advocates the modern religion is by individual and collective experience, faith comes from the heart, is a part of human nature. "Religious feeling and mind move". Emphasize the subjectivity of faith. The modernists deny revelation of the Bible and the church authority, emphasis on experience. Pope Leo thirteen world (Leo 131878 - 1903 in) the main contribution: 1, re arranging the church committee in 1904 to set up the code layout code was not complete until 1916, after 12 years of time. The first part is the history of the church written code. 2, to promote the "daily communion" movement, so he was called "the Holy Communion of the pope". 3, promulgated the "pastor encyclical" condemnation "of modernism". 4, reforming and re organization of Catholic Church music. The Bible Study Bible College was founded in 1909 in Rome.
Pope Benedict has fifteen (Benedictus XV, 1914 - 1922 reign) the outbreak of the first year was "First World War", he through newspapers, radio, the encyclical constantly calling for peace. In 1919, Pope Benedict has fifteen (Benedictus XV, 1914 - 1922 reign): "husband to" encyclical. In an effort to spread the gospel for missionaries established the parish at the same time, but also should pay attention to the training of local vocations, to when the time is ripe to give them the task of evangelization. In 1922, gang Heng Yi bishop (Costantini, Celso, 1876 - 1958) in China, 1924 in Shanghai held a meeting in the country set up 14 major seminaries, 1926 Gang Heng Yi China personally led the six priests to be ordained bishop of Rome by pope.
Pope Pius eleven (Pius - 1922), the 1939 reign, after obtaining a doctorate three teaching in Milan, later transferred to the Vatican Museum curator, July 1921 was promoted to cardinal, seven months later was elected pope, the motto "in Christ's kingdom in establishing peace of christ". In the 17 year, the main contributions: 1, establishment of Christ the King Festival; 2, Catholic action; 3, to promote the Church Missionary: Pope in October 28, 1926, six bishop of St. Peter's Basilica in public China consecrated, more than 200 cardinals and ambassadors to participate in ritual, promoted parish clergy status. (they are: Hubei, Puqi and Germany; Taizhou Zhejiang Jiangsu Haimen Zhu Kaimin Hu if mountain; Hebei Xuanhua; Zhao Huaiyi; Hebei Anguo Sun Dezhen; Shanxi Fenyang Chen Guodi) this is the first time since 1775 after Luo Wenzao bishop Saint China bishop. 4, "Latlan treaty"; 5, "the promised savior encyclical"; 6 ", forty", 7 "on the encyclical; Christian marriage" encyclical; 8, the establishment of Vatican Radio: in order to better spread the gospel message, announced to the world of the teaching of the church. The establishment of the radio station in February 12, 1931, the pope in Latin to the whole world 15 minutes doing propaganda. "God in the days of glory and love peace on earth" is the first sentence. In 1950 for the first time to the Chinese Chinese radio broadcast. The radio by Jesus management. 8, calls for communion and unity.
Shelter twelve world (Pius XII, 1939 -- 1958 reign), shortly after World War II he was fully erupted. His motto is "justice is peace", said he will struggle for world peace. (he took office in June 1939, Germany in September 1st to enter Poland, World War II broke out.) The main achievements: 1, calling for peace: September 1939 German war in Poland, the pope in October 20th published "Summi Pontificatus" encyclical. The Pope called for human to put God back his rightful position, the pope said at the time of the sorrow for sin, and the decline of the root of evil to faith. He opposed the unrestrained individualism, appeal to people through prayer and work to make the world to restore peace, but he also said all the efforts of human beings must be under the law of god. 2, the appointment of a new 3 cardinal;, denounced communism; 4, issued the "virgin Rong called heaven" creed; 5, etiquette reform.
Twenty-three world (Joannes Pope John XXIII, 1958 - 1963 reign). He was born in a peasant family in Italy, courteous and accessible, amiable and easy of approach, called the smiling pope. The main achievements: 1, Pope John twenty-three encyclical; 2, "peace" encyclical; establishment of Christian unity Secretariat; 3, two meeting held the Vatican, the Second Vatican Council is the twenty-first Ecumenical Council of the church's history, held in 1965 1962, is one of the church the most important meeting, has a far-reaching influence to the church. In May 16, 1959 twenty-three John was founded the Archduke meeting of the preparatory committee. After three and a half years of preparation, the meeting at the Vatican in October 11, 1962 finally kicked off, there were 2540 cardinals, bishops, abbess, repair Association attended the meeting, and representatives of the Eastern Orthodox Church and other religions attended the meeting. The meeting issued a total of 16 documents, including the Charter of four, nine and three act declaration. The two Vatican conference brings five major reforms to the church: Etiquette Innovation: the etiquette and mass language from Latin into the local language, to make easier to understand and participate in church etiquette. Etiquette in innovation at the same time, the church stressed that reform is the reform of etiquette of the heart. The Church of their own understanding. The church attitude and measures on the change of other Christian groups. Pay attention to history and faith and life of the Church Council began the meeting called on the public; the church and the modern world dialogue.
Catholicism The modern church: after World War II - so far
During this period, due to the development of world politics, economy, culture and so on, it has undergone great changes in thought and life, have a great impact on the original church dogma and philosophy. Christians around the world and the church are facing the crisis and challenges, all two public meetings of the Sanskrit literature, way of reform guiding the Church of modernization, and the diversity of the reform movement, continue to promote expansion.
Catholicism The development of the status quo catholic country
Refers to the most national Catholic or Catholic Church for the first big religious country. Widely distributed in Western Europe, Latin America, Pacific countries and South Africa. A large number of Catholic countries, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, Brazil, Seychelles and other countries are Catholic countries.
Catholic dominated countries: Italy, France, Belgium, Luxemburg, Austria, Ireland, Poland, Czech, Hungary, Slovakia, Lithuania, Croatia, Slovenia, Spain, Portugal, Liechtenstein, Monaco, San Marino, Malta, andorra. The influence of Czech and Hungary, the domestic new teaching is also great, the proportion of the Protestant population of Czech was 30%, Hungary is about 25%.
) dominated countries: Britain, America, Australia, New Zealand, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia. The influence of the Catholic Church in the United States and Australia is also a great proportion of Catholics in the United States 35%, Australia is about 28%. New Zealand (18%) and the UK (10%) has a higher proportion of.
The Catholic and Protestant forces a country: Germany, Holland, Switzerland, canada. The Orthodox Church
The dominant countries: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Romania, Moldova, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Greece, Armenia, georgia.
Among them, the western region in Ukraine Uniatism
(the basic doctrines and rituals, system are orthodox characteristics, but acknowledged that the Catholic pope
For the majority living in his church). The Macedonian and Bulgarian Muslims has a large population, accounted for 30% and 10% respectively. This is mainly due to the Osman rule of the Turkey for 500 years.
The Catholic Church in China has a long and complex history. The highest organization currently China Catholic Church on earth is open chinese patriotic catholic association
, Chinese Catholic Bishops
That is, Chinese Catholic "a group", in twenty-first Century 6 million people to accept Chinese believers for the State Bureau of religious affairs leadership. But there are nearly 9 million Chinese Catholic believers oath of allegiance to the Holy See, they are the Rome Catholic Church, China (mainland) is commonly known as the underground Church (some bishop of the Diocese of the Catholic bishops and is the result of Chinese Vatican
Double ordination or recognition, but also legitimate clergy, such as archbishop of Guangzhou).
Catholicism Chinese Catholic
China Catholic is one of the three factions of the Christian China. The earliest can be traced back to the Tang Dynasty to China Christian Nestorian, i.e. Nestorianism
(Nestorianism in China). Zhenguan nine years (635) by the Syrian people Aroben (Olopen), to Changan by the Persian priest China (now Xi'an) translated by missionary, after three years, the construction of the temple called Daqin temple. The inner teachings and external form reflect Christian and Persian religious thoughts. Wu Huichang five years (845) Xiazhao banned Buddhism, Nestorianism was affected, extinct Central Plains, popular in Mongolia and other places, the. The Mongolian Yuan in the Central Plains, and then again into the Central Plains of nestorianism. In thirteenth Century, the spread of Catholicism Chinese. In 1245, Rome sent the Franciscans Bai Lang (Giovanni de Piano will be the guest of Carpini, about 1180 - 1252) to the capital city of Mongolia and. "Three years (1253), the French Franciscan Missionaries of Luo Bolu (Guillaume de Rubrouck) had also met Monguhan, were received. Kublai Khan yuan thirty-one years (1294), Italy, the Franciscan Missionaries of John Montgovino (Giovani Da Montecorvi-no, 1247 - 1328) by the Vatican in Rome sent eight (Chinese name khan arrived in Dadu, now Beijing), a case interview in Beijing, to building for the Catholic missionary, was formally introduced into the beginning of China. At that time, the Catholic Church and the Nestorian called nestorianism". Dade eleven years (1307), the Church of Rome appointed John Montgovino (Giovani Da Montecorvi-no, 1247 - 1328) for eight in the total Khan bishop and patriarch of the east. The Jesuit to Chinese increased. Qing emperor two years (1313) in Fujian, Quanzhou additional 1 dioceses. In addition to Beijing and Quanzhou, both in Inner Mongolia Wuyuan, Catholic Xinjiang, Jiangsu Yili Yangzhou and Zhejiang Hangzhou and other places, believers up to 60 thousand people, mostly Mongols, Alan and semuren. Day calendar year (1328), John Montgovino (Giovani Da Montecorvi-no, 1247 - 1328) died, the Archbishop has no position to succeed, the Catholic development in decline. After the demise of the Yuan Dynasty, the Catholic Church in the Central Plains China nearly extinct. In sixteenth Century, the Catholic Church entering China. Since the mid Ming, Jesus, the Franciscan and Dominican missionaries have to Chinese missionary, which sent Jesus the most powerful in portugal. The first is to Chinese Francis Xavier (Francisco Javier 1506 - 1552), because the Ming Dynasty failed to enter the mainland in thirty-one years Jiajing (1552) died in Guangdong kawashima. Thirty-six years, Portugal was allowed to hire Macao, then Macao will become Jesus on the mainland China missionary base. Wanli ten years (1582), Jesus Jesuit Matteo Ricci (Matteo Ricci, 1552 - 1610) Feng Yuandong inspector Fan Lian of life Chinese learning in Macao. The following year, and Luo Mingjian (Michaele Ruggieri, 1543 - 1607) in Guangdong Zhaoqing, established the first missionary club. After arriving in Beijing in twenty-nine after several years. Ricci (Matteo Ricci, 1552 - 1610) to spread scientific knowledge to the media, to the Catholic doctrine and Confucian ethics combination of missionary policy, active in Chinese intellectuals. And Xu Guangqi translated the "geometry", the first 6 volumes, and according to the China Confucianism traditional culture and religion, to write "God" and other books. Xu Guangqi, Li Zhizao and other scholars in the same China of Western science to accept catholicism. The missionary strategy of Ricci laid the foundation for the spread of Catholicism in the Chinese. As of the end of Ming Dynasty, Jesus in Chinese established missionary clubs 13, about 150 thousand people nationwide. At the beginning of Qing Dynasty, with Jesus as the main body in the China missionary Ricci missionary policy inheritance. (Johann Adam Schall von Bell China 1592 - 1666), Nan Huairen (Ferdinard Verbiest, 1623 - 1688), the emperor's respect and trust, in charge of science. Kangxi twenty-eight years (1689), China and Russia signed the "Treaty of Nerchinsk", Xu Risheng and Zhang Cheng were appointed as an interpreter. Forty-seven years, Bai Jin (Joachim Bouvet, 1656 - 1730), Du Demei (Pierre Jartoux, 1668 - 1720), Lei Xiaosi (Jean-Baptiste Regis, 1663 - 1738) who presided over the national surveying and mapping map, which took 11 years to complete "the Emperor 's map". In thirty-one, Emperor Kangxi issued a decree, to the Catholic Church in China free communication. At that time, in addition to some people in the palace as missionaries, most go around preaching. According to incomplete statistics, from thirty-one to forty-six years (1692 - 1707), the 13 provinces a total of 117 missionaries, missionary church clubs 114, size 250, up to 300 thousand people.
From 17 to eighteenth Century, in the Chinese etiquette attitude on the issue of the dispute in China Catholic missionaries. Represented by Limado Jesus of Portugal will adapt to the situation that Chinese missionary policy quoted Confucian classics argumentation of Catholic doctrine, allowed to retain worship worship and other traditional etiquette and social customs. Later, the Spanish Dominicans and Franciscans in order to weaken the Portuguese missionary forces, against Limado's proposition. This "Chinese rites" finally lead to the conflict between Emperor Kangxi and the Church of Rome, angrily: "after the prohibition shall not prohibit foreigners in China teaching, but so much." The first year of Yong Zheng (1723), the Ministry of rites in the country petitioned the prohibition allowed, except for a few missionaries at the court, the other were expelled from Chinese. Since then, the Catholic missionary China lost in the legitimate political conditions, only to sneak into the local secret missionary missionary. Twelve years of Qianlong (1747), the Qing government crackdown on illegal raids into mainland missionaries. According to statistics, before the Opium War, the Catholics dropped to about 200 thousand people, mainly by the 80 China educational missionary church presided over by the grassroots upper followers secret management, foreign missionaries entered the mainland only 30. After the Opium War, the Qing government was forced to sign a series of unequal treaties with Western powers. 1844 (Dao Guang twenty-four years), China and France signed the "Treaty of Whampoa ", the construction of 5 ports to the French church in Chinese, local officials have the obligation to protect. Emperor Daoguang was forced to return Kangxi's Catholic Church announced in 1846, years to build a church. 1858 (Xianfeng eight years) signed the "Treaty of Tianjin" and "Beijing treaty" and 1860 are listed for protection, production and teaching in terms of his mission. Since then, the Catholic missionaries came to China. According to statistics, from 1844 to 1894, the number increased 50 times. In 1846, the establishment of three dioceses in Macao, Nanjing, Beijing. 1879 (Guangxu five years), the Church of Rome to Chinese divided into five regions: the first mission for the province, Liaodong, Mongolia, Shandong, Shaanxi, the second area of Henan, Gansu, Hunan, Hubei, the third area of Zhejiang, Jiangxi, south of the Yangtze River, fourth areas of Yunnan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Tibet, the Fifth District Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Hongkong. With the rapid development of the National Catholic Church, until the end of nineteenth Century, the 37 generation of pastoral areas, 740 thousand. By 1946, the country is divided in 20 under the jurisdiction of the archdiocese, Diocese of nearly 140. In the meantime, because some missionaries teach people against illegal asylum, Chinese people, Chinese local administrative intervention of judicial power, making a number of political, economic and social contradictions, cause people's struggle against foreign religion China. According to incomplete statistics, since the Opium War to the end of nineteenth Century, the size of more than 400 cases. People from all over the country against foreign aggression and revolt finally developed into the Boxer Movement, the Catholic Church would be a serious blow. Since then, the Catholic schools, through the use of compensation practice, newspapers and books, founded the charity has expanded, founded in 1903, Aurora University opened in 1921 Tianjin Commercial College in Tianjin in Shanghai (later renamed as Tianjin University), opened in 1925, Fu Jen Catholic University in Beijing, and do a "social welfare" and "holy" and other newspapers and magazines publications. To 1918, the number has reached 1 million 960 thousand. After the revolution of 1911, Chinese Catholic Patriotic and nationalistic consciousness to further improve, actively carry out the anti imperialist patriotic movement, proposed to change the China to the colonial system requirements. In this regard, China take "Chinese Catholic" measures. In 1919, Pope Benedict has fifteen (Benedictus XV, 1914 - 1922 reign) ordered in China Catholic all will try to use Chinese clergymen. In 1922, Pope Pius (Pius Xi, eleven world 1922 - 1939 reign) for sending Gang Heng Yi (Costantini, Celso, 1876 - 1958) for the church in China envoy. In 1924, the national public Bishops Conference, making "801" Chinese Catholic current rule, decided to establish the National Educational Committee in China, directly under the apostolic delegate office. In 1927, the first named 6 bishops Chinese. In 1946, the Vatican announced the establishment of the hierarchy in China, national parish in 137, belong to 20 under the jurisdiction of the Archdiocese of more than 300. In 1947, the Catholic educational association was established in Shanghai, replacing the national affairs committee. After the establishment of People's Republic of China, carry out China Catholic anti imperialist patriotic movement of Catholic Patriotic, the China church to get rid of the foreign forces control, independent Church office. In 1957, China Catholic long and pagan patriotic mass organizations -- Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association was founded. During the period of 1966 to 1976 of the "Cultural Revolution", all religious activities were stopped. In 1978 the third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, gradually carry out the policy of freedom of religious belief. In 1980, the Senate and the Chinese Catholic bishops was established as a national educational institutions. According to 1996 statistics, there are about 4 million people Chinese Catholic believers, built a monastery and Seminary, do have "China Catholic magazine".
Catholicism Chinese, Catholic Church
The number of Catholics, Chinese, estimated about 15 million people. Rome Catholic Church of the Chinese world is the Latin rite catholic. In Chinese, is managed by the parish forms, each parish is a parish and bishop, some assistant bishop. Often need about 10 years to develop a member of the clergy, they tend to be in a special convent for learning life, such as the famous Sheshan Monastery (monastery and Diocese of Beijing), the largest number of Hebei Catholic monastery etc.. The general need to learn two years of philosophy, four years of theology, the term after the full stay in the parish service. Through the investigation stage, they will be promoted as a deacon (popularly called six products), and then become a priest (is seven).
For seven strains of Catholicism, and seven is the most successful, that is to say bishops and priests are seven.
Catholicism Hongkong and Macao Catholic Church
The Hongkong and Macao areas of the church, because experienced foreign rule, so the development of Chinese, with a different style. The Catholic Diocese of Hongkong in the Church of Rome is still under the one country two systems, leadership, and non patriotic association. The current bishop for the Catholic Diocese of Hongkong Tang Han
Cardinal (Tong Hon, Tong Hon Peter). The Catholic Diocese of Macao
And the Catholic Diocese of Hongkong as in the case of no change, but in the Archdiocese of Portugal before the return of ownership. The current bishop for the Catholic Diocese of Macao Lihongsheng
OMB (D. Jos Lai, February 14, 1946) and Bishop emeritus Lin Jiajun GLM (D. Domingos Lam, April 9, 1928 2009
Catholicism Taiwan Catholic Church
The spread of Catholicism in Taiwan, with the Spanish colonial North Taiwan, to the Zheng Chenggong family ruled Taiwan interrupted after the mid nineteenth Century again into Taiwan. During the Japanese occupation, the Church of Taiwan gradually complete system. The Republic of China in 1949 the government moved to Taiwan after, bring a large number of Catholic believers and clergy from China mainland, in 1952 by the mission for the restructuring of the Holy Church of Rome belongs to the traditional system.
The Catholic Church in Taiwan is divided into seven parishes, seventeen bishops, and is provided with a main mission. In addition to the nearly seven hundred people, one thousand and two hundred sisters of about 100, distributed in eight hundred churches and other religious institutions.
About Taiwan Catholic population of about 300 thousand people, although Taiwan accounted for only one percent of the total population, but the Catholic community in Taiwan, medical and social services and educational contributions, has a very high impact.
Catholicism The Catholic missionaries
Catholicism 1, Limado Ricci
(Matteo Ricci) (October 6, 1552 -1610 May 11th), No. Xi Tai, also Qing Tai, xijiang. Italy was born in Macerata (Macerata), is a devout Catholic missionary and scholar Jesus. The Ming Dynasty Wanli ten years (1582) to study Chinese in Macao in support of the Portuguese colonial forces, and Luo Mingjian arrived in Guangdong in Zhaoqing as a missionary, and founded a hospital in Zhaoqing. The original Chinese translation for Matio Ricci, his name is Chinese ricci.
Limado is a Catholic missionary in Chinese as early as one of the pioneers, is also the first reading of literature and Chinese Chinese classics study of Western scholars. He passed the "Western learning" (the Buddha Lang machine monk, refers to Portugal forces under the foreign missionaries) the identity of "Chinese writing" dissemination of the teachings of the Catholic Church, and make Chinese officials and celebrities, dissemination of Western astronomy, mathematics, geography, science and technology knowledge. Ming Wanli seventeen years (1589), to follow Taisu xaucea Qu learning Latin paraphrase and annotations for The Four Books and the Five Classics, at the same time, to Taisu Qu to teach western mathematics, geometry, mechanics etc.. 1594 a hair, the robes to wear for Confucian clothes, while claiming to be the western scholars". In 1596 of the Jesuits in China during his tenure, made great contributions to the spread of the church thought. In 1598 with the Nanjing libushangshu Wang Zhongming to Beijing to face Chenggong, Emperor Li, did not succeed. On the way to complete with the Latin alphabet Pinyin vocabulary Chinese characters. 1599 to Nanjing, and advocated the doctrine of Confucius and Mencius Chinese and thought combine with the teachings of the Catholic Church, declared China books on the "day" or "God" or "God worship western". And the knowledge of the west to Li Zhizao, Xu Guangqi and other scholars. In 1601, Xiang Ming again went to Beijing, Zhu Yijun Xian, Shenzong Ben serinette, three prism, God like etc.. To live in Beijing and missionary, and met many government officials and scholars, eventually died in Beijing.
Ricci many works in his life, the more famous are "great universal geographic map", "school days" (also known as the true meaning of God), "Catholicism China history", CO authored with Xu Guangqi "geometry", etc..
Catholicism 2, Li Zhizao Li algae
(1565 - 1630). Vibration of the word, the word I, um, cool and cool lay, an Yi, Zhejiang Renhe (now Hangzhou), the Ming Dynasty scientist, knowledgeable, well versed in astronomy and mathematics. "Know the art of war, in the west of the study" along with Xu Guangqi, Yang Tingyun. Wanli twenty-six years (1598) Jinshi, follow the Ricci to study western science, accept the teachings of the Catholic Church, a Catholic baptized in thirty-eight years. The next year his father ran home, invited Guo Jujing, two priests to Hangzhou trigault. Forty-one years, Nanjing Taipusi Ren Shaoqing, played on the western calendar. The first year of the Apocalypse (1621) Shenyang fall, the Ming Dynasty was eager to keep war gunnery, recommended by Xu Guangqi, Ren Guanglu Temple Shaoqing, and municipal officials have clear division of doctor. Chongzhen two years (1629) opened the court calendar Bureau, Xu Guangqi and the same for supervision, and Nicolas longobardl
(Niccolo Longobardi, 1559 - 1654), who translated the book doing Schall etc..