Spruce (Latin name: Picea asperata Mast.) and Maoxian spruce, fir and other Maoxian alias. For the trees. Up to 45 meters, diameter of 1 meters; bark grayish brown or brownish gray, split into pieces of irregular scales or slightly thick off.
Spruce is the endemic species China, southwestern Shaanxi (Fengxian), Eastern Gansu (two) and white Longjiang basin and other places, a little shade, can dry and cold environment conditions, growth at an altitude of 2400-3600 meters area, spruce is tall and straight, few material slightly soft, straight texture, uniform structure. Detailed, easy processing, has the good performance of the resonance. For the construction, aircraft, musical instruments (piano, violin), zhouche, furniture, appliances, boxes, plywood and veneer and planing wood fiber raw materials such as timber industry.
In February 2014, Swedish scientists found a 9500 year old spruce on a mountain, is called "the world's oldest tree", and it continues to grow.
Spruce Morphological character
Branchlets with sparsely or densely pubescent or glabrous, pale brown yellow, when the annual, brown yellow, yellowish brown or reddish brown, leaf Zhenyou white, or white is not obvious, the two or three year old brown, brown or brownish gray; winter buds conical, resin, base dilated, apex of upper buds the micro scale recurve or recurved, apex of branchlets basally persistent bud scales the number of anti roll out.
The main branch leaves above the leaves of collateral radiation stretch, stretch upward, and both sides of the leaf below upward bending extension, four prismatic bar, 1-2 cm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, slightly curved, apex slightly acuminate or acute, cross section of four prism, four hole line, each side above 4-8, the following each side of 4-6.
Cone cylindrical rectangular round or cylindrical, is gradually narrow, mature before green when ripe, light brown or brown, 5-16 cm long, 2.5-3.5 cm in diameter; middle scales obovate, ca. 2 cm long, 1.5 cm wide, the upper section is round or circular arranged closely, or upper obtuse triangle are arranged loosely, apex entire, apex or cone base or lower scales of two lobed or slightly concave; bracts triangular spatulate, ca. 5 mm; seeds obovoid, ca. 4 mm, with wings ca. 1.5 cm, fin pale brown, obovate oblong; cotyledon 6-7 strip, conical, 1.4-2 cm long, primary leaf four prismatic bar, 0.5-1.2 cm long, apex acuminate, four stomatal lines, upper midrib entire or toothed hair bulge. Florescence 4-5 month, 9-10 month.
Spruce Growth habit
Spruce Yin, cold, love a cool and humid climate and fertile, deep well drained acidic sandy soils, slow growth, shallow root of tree species. 2400-3600 meters above sea level areas, often with Picea purpurea, Minjiang fir, red fir mixed or pure forest.
Department of spruce shallow rooted trees, a little shade, can dry and cold conditions in cold moist climate, soil deep, well drained acid brown forest land with rapid growth, good growth. In all, the natural regeneration of forest growth.
Spruce is the endemic species in the mountain areas of North China for China, wide distribution, northeast Xingan mountains and other places also have distribution. Southwestern Shaanxi (Fengxian), Eastern Gansu (two) and Bai Longjiang Valley, Taohe River Basin, Sichuan basin and the upper reaches of Minjiang River basin the size of Jinchuan,
Spruce cultivation techniques
Spruce Breeding method
By seeding or Metasequoia seedlings, seedlings on their 1 year full branches as cuttings best in 1~5, the highest survival rate. Hardwood cuttings in 2~3 months after defoliation data, sand binding, winter, spring into bed, spray moisturizing, 30~40 natural root. Softwood cuttings in 5~6 months, selection of semi lignified branches, 12~15 cm long, after inserting 20~25 natural root.
A small grain of Metasequoia, avoid drought and waterlogging, should choose the flat terrain, convenient irrigation and drainage, fertile and loose sandy loam for nursery. Sowing to soil temperature in 12 degrees is appropriate, in late March to early April. In the seed germination and seedling stage should pay attention to regular watering, keep the soil moist, and the appropriate shade.
The seedling transplantation seedlings to take old territory, seedlings to soil with the ball. To apply sufficient base fertilizer before planting, water drenched after transplanting. Keep the soil moist growth period. 2 years after planting, before the spring bud fertilizer 1 times, 1 times the early summer and autumn fertilization. At the seedling stage and proper pruning, with fine bamboo straight.
The 30 year old plant can be strong, 40 ~ 60 years old plant into strong mature phase. In March spring is appropriate, optimum temperature of germination is 12 to 20 DEG C, 10 ~ 15 days after sowing, germination, germination rate was 8% ~ 10%. When the height of up to 40 cm.
Spruce Pest control
A variety of conifers : pine beetle
infestation. The larvae of xylem, adult bite leaves, caused the plants to die, but also spread the pine nematode, causing wilt disease outbreak, death of a large number of plants.
In the adult emergence within 1 weeks, the emergihg stage within 1 weeks, the emergence period, three hours by spraying 1 times 200 times liquid 50% fenitrothion. Spraying to the thoughtful, do not leave blank.
The larvae hatch, spraying 25% of 3, 200 times or 40% Omethoate 1000 times liquid.
The larvae bore into the stems after application of zinc phosphide poisoning skewer inserted in the hole, kill the larvae. Dasychira plagiata:
aka Dasychira axutha, kill a variety of conifers. The larvae eat leaves, from the leaves of the central cause of blade fracture, feeding, serious, leaves light food.
Prevention methods: light trapping adult. The larvae hatching, spraying 3 mieyou urine 2000 times or 1000 times of dipterex liquid. Bag: moth
control methods: because the bag bundles were available, manual capture, chemical control should be used in early age, trichlorfon 800 times or 1000 times liquid spraying dichlorvos, spray to wet bag beam. Aphid
control methods: by manual capture, contain control available 1000 times liquid spraying dimethoate. Coccoiol:
Cure: the plant moved to sunny, fresh air, and the artificial brushing out. The available drugs for prevention and treatment of 40% Omethoate 600 times liquid (disabled when the temperature is higher than 300C) 1605 or 600 times liquid spraying agent. Root rot
plants: no spirit, suddenly become yellow or coniferous coniferous coniferous long, blue and green, near to the surrounding coniferous fine dumping, grayish black, some leaf base and a small amount of common color, then began to take off the needle leaves.
Control method: firstly, water control treatment, accelerate the pot dry, and ventilation for recuperation, basin replanting when necessary. Leaf blight
: plant leaf tip and occurred in the middle of the beginning of a period of color after macular macular, color depth conversion, and deep brown spots grow on the black mold, when the temperature is about 250C, rainy, wet weather prone.
Methods: the incidence of spraying control Bordeaux
(i.e. 500g 500g 50kg copper sulfate and lime water prepared). Stem blight
prevention methods: 65% zineb WP 600 times liquid spray. Blight:
the onset of local macular needles, color from shallow to deep and continue to expand, finally died.
Control method: the annual spring 3~4 month continuous spray 10% ferrous sulfate 1~2. With the turning basin for soil, using formalin sterilizing container and pot. Found a blight to promptly remove diseased leaves, continuous spray 500~1000 times of thiophanate methyl solution. Helicobasidium mompa
Department of disease, the main harm roots appear purple plumes, the plant dies. The above diseases without early prevention, there will be devastating harm.
Control method: 1 of the performance of the poor growth of trees, autumn should dig out the root, and scraping the disease and medicine. The soil dug the root zone for sick parts: for Helicobasidium mompa damage, according to the fine rootlets shoot, first from the serious side dug up in more detail search sites.
2 find the sick parts, according to different circumstances, different treatment. Local cortical decay, with a knife scrape off the skin lesion, disease should focus on, don't throw; also available burning disease blowtorch, completely kill the bacteria. The whole root rot, from the base of the sawed apart and downward, search, until the root digging net. Most of the roots have onset, to eradicate the root cause, and not pay attention to the protection of the root cause, not easy to damage. After cleaning the diseased parts, to apply fungicides on the wound to prevent recurrence; for larger wounds, to paste mud or plastic coated cloth to be protected; for serious disease of tree, to fill medicine sterilization or another disease free new soil. The agent has 50% Amobam agent 100 ~ 150 times liquid. In addition, 40% Asomate WP 500 ~ 800 times liquid, 2 degrees, 40% LSSS quintozene powder 50 ~ 100 times of toxic soil can also be. The soil around the plants, with 0.2 kg per plant 70% PCNB powder, preparation of 1:50 ~ 100 medicine soil applicator evenly in soil around the plant. Or use topsin-m 70% or 50% carbendazim 500 times guangen. The sick tree excavation as soon as possible, collect sick root burn. 3 for as long as the light disease tree, curettage and apply medicine to protect the affected part, generally do not need special management can be restored. The eight tooth spruce beetle
: building pit to pine phloem and sapwood, tunnel is a complex vertical pit, but also directly against the health of wood, often with other beetles together caused many withering trees.
(1) agricultural control. Build mixed forest, with Tending Felling, enhance vigor; forest health, clear wood and wood pests wind break; in the premise of good health conditions, in mid April, cutting with wood, wood and then set the bait, with uniform peeling treatment.
(2) the protection of pedestrian insects, parasitic wasps, woodpeckers and other natural enemies.
(3) chemical control. At the end of May to early July, the adult fly invasion stage, spraying standing tree with 2.5% disashi ointment 200 times or 30% cypermethrin toxic ointment 500 times liquid, prevention and treatment of adult.
Spruce The main value
The wood is yellowish white, soft, straight texture, fine structure, the proportion of 0.55-0.66, elastic. For buildings, aircraft, railway sleepers, poles, zhouche, appliances, furniture and wood fiber raw materials such as timber industry. The trunk can be cut from turpentine. The volatile oil extracted from roots, branches and leaves can be wood. Can bark extract. Excellent quality, fast growth, strong adaptability, should be selected for distribution within the area of afforestation.
Spruce economic value
Wood straight, cutting easy, no hidden defects. For poles, buildings, bridges, timber sleepers Can also be used in making musical instruments, Glider
Etc., and is a raw material for paper-making. Spruce oil rate of about 0.1 ~ 0.5%, can be extracted Aromatic oil
. The bark contains Tannin
6.9 ~ 21.4% can be extracted.
Trees are dignified, strong adaptability, strong wind resistance, resistance to dust, fine wood texture, hard, resistant, for bridges, furniture wood; bark fibres and artificial cotton rope. Leaves are used as medicine. Excellent material, for aircraft, instruments and paper, rayon material; trunk desirable resin.
Spruce Ornamental value
The pot can be used as indoor ornamental tree species, in the solemn occasion, Winter Christmas, many placed in restaurants and hotels and some family in christmas tree
Spruce Plant culture
Baotou City, Baotou city as a spruce tree.