Bentonite

The bentonite is non metallic mineral montmorillonite as the main mineral composition of montmorillonite structure is composed of two Silicon oxygen tetrahedron 2:1 type crystal structure sandwiching a layer of alumina eight body. Because of montmorillonite, Cell The formation of lamellar structures of some cations, such as Cu, Mg, Na, K, and the cation with montmorillonite crystal cell function is not stable, easy to be other Yang Ion exchange And so it has good ion exchange property. Has been in the industry and agriculture production in 24 areas of the more than and 100 departments in the application, there are more than and 300 products, so called "universal soil".
Bentonite
Bentonite is also called K-bentonites Bentonite and bentonite rock. The history of China's development of the use of bentonite is long, the original is just as a Detergent . (Sichuan elderly and virtuous In hundreds of years ago there was a pit, the locals bentonite clay powder). What is widely used but only a few hundred years of history. The United States is the earliest found in Wyoming The ancient stratum, a green and yellow clay , after adding water into a paste, then people who have this kind of clay, called bentonite. In fact, the main mineral composition of bentonite is montmorillonite, content of 85-90%, some properties of bentonite are also determined by the montmorillonite. Montmorillonite can show various colors such as yellow green, yellow white, gray, white and so on. Can a dense block, but also for the soil bulk, by hand grinding with smooth feel, small body water volume swell after several times to 20-30 times, is suspended in the water, the water when a paste. The properties of the montmorillonite and the chemical composition and its internal structure.

Bentonite classification

The interlayer cation for Na+ said Sodium bentonite ; interlayer cation for Ca2+ said bentonite ; the interlayer cation of H+ bentonite (called hydrogen Atlapulgite Natural soil, bleaching clay acid); interlayer cation for organic cation said Organic bentonite .
Atlapulgite
Activated clay is clay (mainly bentonite) as raw material, the inorganic acid treatment by adsorbent water rinsing and drying is made, the appearance of white powder, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, strong adsorption properties, adsorption, organic matter colored substance. Easy to absorb moisture in the air, place too long will reduce the adsorption performance. However, heated to 300 degrees Celsius above began to lose water of crystallization, the structure changes, effects of fading effect. Activated clay is insoluble in water, organic solvents and oils, almost completely soluble in hot caustic soda and hydrochloric acid, the relative density of 2.3 to 2.5, in water and oil swelling minimum.
Natural bleaching clay
That is the natural output itself has the bleaching properties of clay, is to montmorillonite Sodium feldspar and quartz as the main component of white, white and gray clay That is a kind of bentonite.
The main product is glass after the decomposition of the volcano rock, it does not swell after absorbing water, the pH value of the suspension is weakly acidic and alkaline Bentonite The phase difference; Bleach Performance ratio Atlapulgite Poor. Color are generally pale yellow, green and white, gray, brown, olive color, a milk white, pink, blue etc.. A few pure white. The density of 2.7-2.9g/cm. Apparent density The porous relationship is often low. The chemical composition and the ordinary clay Almost, the main chemical composition of two aluminum oxide is three, Silicon dioxide Water, and a small amount of iron, magnesium and calcium etc.. nothing Plasticity Have a higher adsorption. Because of containing a large amount of water Silicate For, Lacmus Acidic. The water is easy to cracking, high water content. The general rules for decolorization of the higher degree of fineness is.
stay prospecting The quality evaluation of the stage, to determine the bleaching properties, acidity And filtration performance, Oil absorption Project
Organic bentonite
Organic bentonite is a kind of inorganic / organic ammonium compound with bentonite as raw material, the lamellar structure of montmorillonite and swelling in water or organic solvent dispersed into clay colloid properties, through ion exchange technology and made into organic covering agent. Organic bentonite can form a gel in various organic solvents, oils, liquid resin, has good thickening, thixotropy, suspension stability, high temperature stability, lubricating and film-forming properties, water resistance and chemical stability, and has important application value in the coatings industry. They are widely used in paint and ink, aviation, metallurgy, chemical, petroleum and other industries.
Bentonite ore
Bentonite is a kind of multi-purpose mineral, its quality and application mainly depends on the content of montmorillonite and property type and crystal chemical characteristics. Thus, its development and utilization must be different according to the different mine, because. Such as production Atlapulgite Coxotrochanteral, calcium sodium base, drilling grouting for oil drilling, instead of starch pastes for spinning, printing and dyeing, building materials for exterior wall paint, preparation of organic bentonite, bentonite for synthesis of 4A zeolite, silica production etc..
Calcium and sodium based difference
The bentonite interlayer cations are determined bentonite type, interlayer cation is Na+ called sodium bentonite; interlayer cation for Ca+ said calcium bentonite. Sodium montmorillonite (or sodium bentonite) properties than calcium good. But the distribution of the world is far broader than calcareous soil sodic soil, so in addition to strengthen the search for sodic soil is to calcareous soil was modified to make it become sodic soil.

Bentonite Nature

Bentonite Sketch

Bentonite is a kind of clay rock, also known as montmorillonite clay rock, often
 Bentonite Bentonite
Containing a small amount of Illite , kaolinite , Halloysite , Chlorite And zeolite, quartz Feldspar, calcite, etc.; usually white, pale yellow, because of iron content change was light gray, light green, pink, brown red, brick red and black grey; with a waxy, earthy or oily luster; bentonite and some loose soil, there are dense and hard. The main chemical composition is three silica, two aluminum oxide and water, also contains iron, magnesium, calcium, sodium, potassium and other elements, Na2O and CaO in the performance of physical and chemical properties of bentonite and technology has a great influence. Montmorillonite is monoclinic, usually in the shape of soil block, white, sometimes reddish, greenish, yellowish color. Dim. The hardness of 1 ~ 2, density of 2 ~ 3g/cm3. The types and content of montmorillonite and the interlayer charge according to the size of the exchangeable cations, bentonite can be divided into sodium bentonite (alkaline soil), calcium bentonite (alkali soil), natural soil (soil or acid bleaching Emathlite ), the calcium bentonite and sodium base including calcium and calcium magnesium base etc.. Bentonite has strong hygroscopicity and expansion, water adsorption can be 8 to 15 times their size, volume expansion of up to several times to 30 times; can be dispersed into gelatinous and suspended in water medium, the medium solution with viscosity, thixotropy and lubricity of the strong; the cation exchange capacity; for a variety of gases, liquids, organic matter has certain adsorption capacity, the maximum adsorption capacity of up to 5 times its own weight; and it blends water, mud or sand has plasticity and cohesiveness; acid bleaching soil with surface activity (active white soil, acidic soil natural bleaching clay can adsorb colored ion).

Bentonite Adsorption

Adsorption is a natural phenomenon existed in all solid material. We will gather some molecules on the surface of bentonite, called adsorption for bentonite. This interaction has been widely applied in industry. Mud parameters such as adsorption characteristics of drilling mud often using bentonite minerals to adjust for different purposes, such as adding filtration reducing agent, is through the end of polymer adsorbed on the surface of bentonite particles, the other end is soluble in water between the bentonite particles and water molecules to produce a kind of indirect contact. The formation of a bridging effect, reduce the free water in the mud, changing the performance parameters of the slurry, reduce the filtration rate of the.
Bentonite can be divided into three types of adsorption and ion exchange adsorption, chemical adsorption.
L) physical adsorption. By physical adsorption of adsorbent and adsorbate molecules between the gravity, we often say that van Edward force. Physical adsorption is a reversible adsorption process, the adsorption rate and desorption rate under certain conditions in a dynamic balance. The main reason is the physical adsorption of bentonite surface molecules the surface energy. The bentonite is highly dispersed in the water, the physical adsorption phenomenon is very obvious.
2) chemical adsorption. The chemical adsorption between the adsorbent and the adsorbate on the chemical bond force caused by the irreversible chemical adsorption. The application of chemical treatment agent is a typical example of chemical adsorption in drilling mud, such as ferrochrome lignosulfonate added to bentonite mud is the use of chromium ions adsorbed on the integration of bentonite crystal on the edge. The effect of chemical adsorption than physical adsorption to stability. The bentonite slurry with ferrochrome lignosulfonate treated with high temperature resistance, can be used as high temperature geothermal and ultra deep mud system.
3) ion exchange adsorption. Bentonite mineral crystals with negative charge, so the cations in the opposite charge of bentonite particles to the surface adsorption of equivalent. The adsorption of cations in solution and cation exchange, this effect is called ion exchange adsorption. The characteristics of the ion exchange adsorption is the same number of ion exchange, energy exchange etc.. The ion exchange adsorption reaction is reversible, affecting the adsorption and desorption speed by ion concentration, this effect conforms to the law of mass action.
The influence factors of bentonite mineral adsorption is:
1) effect of bentonite type. The adsorption capacity of sodium bentonite than bentonite mineral adsorption capacity of calcium and other types of strong.
2) effect of bentonite particle crushing particle size. According to the theory of solid adsorption, adsorption capacity of bentonite mineral crushing obviously increased, crushed minerals finer, more strong adsorption.
3) effects of solution media. According to the theory of electric double layer, bentonite mineral crystal is negatively charged, in the form of electric double layer when ion exchange. If the solution ion concentration is too high will compress the bentonite particles electric double layer, dispersion and diffusion inhibition of bentonite, bentonite and even the condensation and coalescence.

Bentonite Expansion

Bentonite expands with water, the main reason for this phenomenon is the natural bentonite mineral crystal layer spacing increased, water molecules into the crystal layers of minerals, also caused by cationic bentonite expansion causes bentonite mineral exchange. The relationship between expansion properties and content of montmorillonite and bentonite, sodium bentonite swelling significantly better than calcium bentonite in high purity and high content of montmorillonite bentonite expansion. Therefore, in practical application, if we want to use the main expansion of bentonite minerals, so we consider the types of bentonite minerals first to choose sodium bentonite ore, the next step is to consider the high content of montmorillonite sodium bentonite. In the mechanical casting and iron ore pellets in the expansion of higher requirements. A lot of calcium bentonite, are not up to the requirements, so before use of calcium bentonite modification.
Sodium bentonite dispersion is calcium bentonite, sodium bentonite water absorption rate and high expansion ratio. Sodium bentonite and calcium bentonite swelling are the reasons for different results:
1) cationic bentonite particles can be connected in, restrict the dispersion of bentonite particle. The charge density of multivalent ions than monovalent ions, produced strong electrostatic attraction between particles, the ability of bentonite particle joint is strong, so the dispersion ability of calcium bentonite than sodium bentonite to weak.
2) the negative charge of montmorillonite to produce replacement adsorption ion opposite to the electrical balance solution. These ions of opposite is present in the solution to form ion hydration, Montmorillonite Granules adsorption of hydrated cation with negative charge to form electric double layer. Two times the thickness of electric double layer and counter ion valence cation is inversely proportional to price is high, the water film is thin, low expansion ratio and low price; cation effect, water film thickness, high expansion ratio.
3) sodium bentonite adsorption layer thickness of crystal water is three, calcium bentonite crystal thickness is four layers of adsorbed water. The polar water molecules, due to electrostatic attraction is small, have larger interlayer spacing between sodium bentonite crystal layer, and calcium bentonite due to electrostatic attraction between the Pu crystal layer is large, the polar water molecules into the crystal layer is not easy to, therefore, produce calcium bentonite crystal the distance between the layers is more obvious than sodium bentonite, in calcareous bentonite sodium bentonite is dispersed in water, low expansion ratio. In fact, the expansion of montmorillonite by its chemical composition control, containing montmorillonite sodium ion can be continued more than continuous expansion, until it becomes a gel state. The calcium montmorillonite only from the drying state to the moisture state there is a limit to the expansion. In our understanding of the effect of Bentonite on the expansion of the deep-seated reasons, can effectively control the expansion properties of artificial bentonite minerals, so as to achieve the best effect.

Bentonite Mud making

Mudmaking rate is bentonite particles dispersed in water to form a suspension, and the suspension of the apparent viscosity of 15*10-3Ps cubic number - s per ton of bentonite slurry is an important indicator to measure the quality of bentonite, sodium bentonite is generally better than the pulp properties of calcium bentonite soil. The selection of slurry ratio formula is:
Making oars ratio (m3/t) = (mL) / water volume of soil quality (g) +1/ soil density in testing the apparent viscosity and apparent viscosity in the preparation of 10~25 (*10-3 Pa s) in the range of three cups of mud, after stirring still placed 16h, stirring, test viscosity, and then in a single log paper marked three points of attachment in the coordinate calculate the apparent viscosity of 15*10-3 Pa s and the amount of soil.

Bentonite application

Have a great relationship and the properties of the montmorillonite interlayer cation species. According to the type of the main interlayer exchangeable cations, usually divided into calcium montmorillonite and montmorillonite sodium montmorillonite.
Montmorillonite adsorption and cation exchange properties, which can be used to remove Cooking oil The toxin, gasoline and kerosene purification, wastewater treatment; water absorption due to good swelling properties and dispersion and suspension and mud, so for Drilling mud Flame retardant (suspended fire); also in papermaking industry do filler That can be optimized coating Properties such as adhesion, covering power, water resistance and washing resistance; because it has good cohesive force, can be used instead of starch textile industry In both grain and yarn sizing, non pilling, smell is not a propeller, it is one a double.
In general, sodium montmorillonite (or sodium bentonite) properties than calcium good.
Bentonite (Meng Tuoshi) due to the good physical and chemical properties, purifying and decoloring agent and binder, Thixotropic agent , suspending agent, stabilizer, filler, feed The catalyst, etc., are widely used Agriculture Light industry and Cosmetics , medicine and other fields, so montmorillonite is a widely used Natural mineral Material Science。
Bentonite can be used as a waterproof material, such as bentonite, bentonite waterproof board and supporting materials, laying by mechanical fixing method. Applied to the pH value of 4 to 10 of the underground environment, the high salinity environment should be used after modification of bentonite, and shall be qualified after use.

Bentonite Form

In 1898 the United States Geological scholar Knighl in Wyoming Rocky Mountains and rivers near found a green yellow water swelling clay material, because of its origin: "Fort Beton", thus the name of bentonite (Betonite). Bentonite is also called bentonite and bentonite rock, the main effect of bentonite mineral component is montmorillonite content, high grade in 85-90%, some properties of bentonite are also determined by the montmorillonite.
Montmorillonite can show various colors such as yellow green, yellow white, gray, white and so on. Can a dense block, but also for the soil bulk, by hand grinding with smooth feel, small body of water after volume expansion is suspended in the water, the water when a paste. Montmorillonite adsorption and cation exchange properties, which can be used to remove oil, gasoline and kerosene toxin purification, wastewater treatment.

Bentonite The development of the status quo

Exploration research shows that China's Bentonite reserves in the world first, full range, wide distribution in over 26 provinces and cities, production and exports are among the best in the world. According to incomplete statistics, at present our country bentonite annual output has exceeded 3 million 500 thousand tons, while the total reserves accounted for 60% of the total world. So far proven total reserves 50.87 tons, reserves of more than 70 tons.
Has been proven more than and 100 bentonite minerals are mainly concentrated in Xinjiang, Guangxi, and Inner Mongolia The three provinces in Northeast China Among them, Xinjiang Hoboksar Mongol Autonomous County Bentonite ore reserves of China has exceeded 23 tons, is the largest country of bentonite has proven reserves mining area . It is confirmed that the Xinjiang Department of Geology and mineral resources, Hoboksar Mongol Autonomous County There are 7 bentonite deposits, of which there are 4 large deposits ( Ulan Eng, sun Lei, Tak Lun Lun Shan de Shannan and southwest). Ulam eng in bentonite mine geological reserves of 5.728 tons, of which form C - D grade bentonite ore reserves of 229 million 480 thousand tons, table D reserves 2 million 480 thousand tons, accounting for the same level of bentonite reserves 13.74%. The mine mining bentonite mine geological reserves of 8 tons, and Shanxi de Lun Lun de south south bentonite ore geological reserves were 2.1 tons and 0.8 tons.
Experts estimate that Ulam England bentonite mineral reserves is expected to exceed 50 tons. Guangxi origin Ningming , Tiandong , Chongzuo , Guiping , Hengxian So, is Ningming's largest reserves of 6.4 tons, is the second, Tiandong, amounted to 40 million tons, the total reserves of more than 11 tons. Inner Mongolia The Nanjing , Xinghe , Horine , Guyang Other places have bentonite ore is very rich, is the largest reserve Chifeng Ningcheng, up to 10 tons. The rest of the distribution in Jiangsu, Sichuan ( Nao ) Hebei Hubei, Shandong Anhui, Zhejiang Jiangxi, Henan , Shaanxi and Gansu Province (area). Visible, highly concentrated bentonite resources, which is conducive to the formation of large enterprise groups, the establishment of large-scale production base, to the development of specialization, scale, intensive.
It is predicted that the bentonite ore resources in China has exceeded 80 tons, for the new product research and development, market development, enhancing competitive ability has laid a foundation of resources. But in our country the bentonite utilization rate is very low, the cumulative amount of insufficient mining has proven reserves of 1%. In the international market is a "low into" situation, namely low export products (ore, casting, drilling and low-grade activated clay), imports of advanced products (washing powder softener, high-grade organic soil etc.).
According to incomplete statistics, China Bentonite products annual sales of about 6 million tons. The characteristics of the industry is small scale enterprises (thousand tons more than a handful of enterprises), low level of technology, because it is a resource-based industries and the competition is not very intense, production and sales and prices are rising year by year.

Bentonite Preparation and application of

Methods and techniques
1, the production of activated clay and semi wet method
2, the catalytic process of acid treatment of sepiolite and bentonite
3 new methods, antifouling bentonite preparation method 4, comprehensive utilization of waste clay residue
Chinese herbal medicine feed additives, 4 bentonite compound
5, improve the method of anti fouling properties of montmorillonite clay
6, the modified bentonite and its application in 8, modified bentonite composition
7, dry production of organic bentonite
8, containing nitrogen removal agent and waste oil waste clay treatment method
The regeneration process of particulate clay 9, kerosene decolorization
10, the synthesis of 28 surface montmorillonite clay
Preparation method of activated clay, 11
12, active clay production method
13, active clay production method 2
14, active clay production method 3
With the process of zeolite 15, alkali activated bentonite production of P type washing
16, the grafting of bentonite superabsorbent material and its manufacturing method
17, manufacturing method of lithium bentonite suspension
Production method of lithium bentonite, 18
(two) the selection of equipment
1, classify impact mill, the crushing size of bentonite can be adjusted, the advantages of high yield etc.;
2, ring mill, the equipment suitable for intensive production line, crushing size of bentonite can be adjusted in a wide range of advantages, high yield etc..

Bentonite Technology introduction

Bentonite Foreign technology

The United States has been a leader in the world of bentonite, domestic bentonite product standards are also in the United States based on the standard. In some European countries, Japan South Korea also has advanced technology in some products. Compared to foreign countries, domestic products and market development is relatively slow, products with conventional products. With the domestic environment, policy and resource situation have a great relationship.

Bentonite Domestic technology

The early development of domestic bentonite mainly concentrated in Zhejiang, China is relatively high-end products also focus on the production enterprises in Zhejiang Walter Zhejiang, as the representative of Hong feng. In recent years, bentonite Institute many domestic universities and research institutes have also made great progress, with a series of deep processing of bentonite technology. More representative of a Wuhan University of Technology , China University of Mining and Technology China University of Geosciences, Suzhou Non ore, Zhengzhou Hospital.
China non metallic mining industry company for strategic mineral bentonite, in Xinjiang, Hubei, Beijing Both bentonite enterprises, products cover the fields of metallurgy, iron and steel, drilling, building waterproof etc.. The technical center to its business as the basis for new product development, a large number of scientific and technical achievements in environmental protection, waterproof, purification Independent intellectual property rights And, using the brand advantage and Beijing universities, research institutes and enterprises to form a good combination, with its unique advantages and strengths in technology North China area The formation of a new R & D base.

Bentonite How to identify

Visual identification, high quality bentonite was pure white, gray or pale yellow usually have white, often due to water or containing impurities are pale green, pale green, rose red color. After drying is pure white, gray or pale yellow white. With uneven cross-section hand after the break, while in jelly. Grease luster, touch with smooth feel. Can the water swelling, good can become colloid. If the long-term dry water loss, and can become loose. Bentonite due to strong ion exchange capacity, so can be adsorbed or absorbed in various colors. It can make the oil and oil mixed, more smooth. Suspension of fine powder of its water, dispersion (divergence) is very good, not easy to precipitate. The natural bentonite type, mainly by the relative content of montmorillonite cation species divided into calcium, sodium, hydrogen, Lithium Montmorillonite, the calcium montmorillonite is the main clay called calcium bentonite. Most of the bentonite ore in China in the production of calcium bentonite, calcium base bentonite sodium bentonite is cheap, and easily, so we in the broiler and layer test, are calcium base bentonite. With bentonite, feeding chickens, because good palatability, eat chicken.
But only by the above described visual sensory identification is not accurate enough. China is no uniform identification of bentonite national standards. The majority of mine executive department one of "casting bentonite and clay standard" (1997) and the enterprise standard. Determination of MB, moisture, glial medium, pass rate, wet strength, expansion coefficient, pH value, determination methods and standards here from just.

Bentonite Industrial index

General industrial requirements of bentonite ore quality in bentonite ore to measure the content of montmorillonite:
The boundary grade: 40%;
Industry: the average grade is greater than or equal to 50%o
The montmorillonite content is generally used methylene blue absorption conversion:
M=B/K '100
Type M - bentonite ore in the relative content of smectite,%:
B - methylene blue absorption, mequiv /100 grams of sample:
K - conversion coefficient, 150.
Thickness: 1-2m;
The rock eliminating thickness is not less than 1m.