White bark pine
(scientific name: <i> Pinus bungeana</i> Zucc. of Pinus bungeana) evergreen trees, up to 30 meters. Bark gray green trees, tree bark grayish brown or grayish white, lobes shedding through endothelial pink. The leaf is 3 1 needle beam, 5-7 cm long. Cone length 5-7 cm. The seeds have short wings. If the next year 10-11 month.
White bark pine
The distribution in Southeast Shennongjia Xinhua and Luo song. Growth at an altitude of 800-1300 meters, rock ridge or hill. The mode of reproduction seed propagation. Made in Shanxi (China Lvliang mountain
, Taihang Mountain
), Western Henan, Shaanxi, Qinling Mountains, southern Gansu and Northern Sichuan Jiangyou, Tianshui Maijishan Guanwushan and Western Hubei and other places.
Wood easy processing, beautiful patterns, strong corrosion resistance, generally used for building furniture, stationery and etc.. Edible seeds or oil. A medicine, expectorant, cough, asthma, chronic indications Tracheitis
(Museum of natural Chinese specimen source: overview map reference)
White bark pine Morphological character
Trees, up to 30 meters, diameter up to 3 meters; there are obvious backbone, or from the trunk near base into a number of stem branches; more slender, inclined tower to show, forming a wide umbrella canopy; tree bark is smooth, grey green, thin pieces of bark grow up into irregular shedding, with yellowish skin green, old bark is brownish gray or gray white, split into pieces of irregular squamous off, after falling nearly smooth, exposing the endothelial white powder, white and brown spot squamous; annual branches gray green, glabrous; winter buds reddish brown, ovoid, no resin. Conifer needles in bunches of 3, coarse, 5-10 cm long, 1.5-2 mm in diameter, dorsal and ventral sides of stomata line, apex acuminate, margin serrulate; cross section fan-shaped triangular or broadly fusiform, single subcutaneous layer of cells at the back of the occasional 1-2 discontinuous distribution of second layers of cells, resin canal 6-7, edge, the back corner of 1-2 thin Chinese students; Leaf sheath
Fall off. The male cones ovoid or oblong, ca. l cm, most crowded on the base into a new ear shaped, 5-10 cm long.
Cones usually solitary, erect at the beginning, after hanging, before mature pale green when ripe, yellowish brown, ovoid or conical ovoid, 5-7 cm long, 4-6 cm in diameter, with short stems or sessile scales; moment round broadly cuneate, apex thick, scaly shield subrhombic, transverse ridges, scales born in the central umbilical scale shield, obviously, triangular, apex barbed spines, pointed downward inflection, thin tip is not obvious; seeds brown, nearly obovoid, ca. 1 cm, 5-6 mm in diameter, a short wings, red brown, the festival is easy to fall off, ca. 5 mm; cotyledon 9-11 a needle shaped, 3.1-3.7 cm long, about 1 mm wide, narrow strip of primary leaves, 1.8-4 cm long, width less than 1 mm, the stomata line, margin serrulate. Florescence 4-5 month, 10-11 month cone for second years.
White bark pine Distribution range
Is the endemic species of China, produced in Shanxi (Lv Liangshan, Zhongtiaoshan, Western Henan, Taihang Mountain), Shaanxi Qinling Mountains, southern Gansu and Northern Sichuan Jiangyou, Tianshui Maijishan Guanwushan and Western Hubei and other places. Suzhou, Hangzhou and Hengyang have cultivated.
White bark pine Growth habit
Born in 500-1800 meters above sea level. As the light tree species, barren soil and climate is dry and cold; in cool weather, deep soil, fatness of calcareous soil and loess on the growth of good.
White bark pine Breeding method
White bark pine Sow
It commonly used to sow breeding, seedling should choose good drainage, flat terrain, soil deep sandy loam as well. The spring thaw immediately after sowing, can reduce seedling blight of pinus. Because of fear of floods, should use the high bed planting, sowing before pouring foot of water, every 10 square meters with 1 kilograms of seeds, seedlings can produce 1000 to 2000 strains. After sowing soil 1 to 1.5 cm, covered with plastic film, can improve the germination rate. For seedlings of Qi, gradually increase the ventilation time, and get rid of all of the film. After sowing and seedling emergence with shells, about 20 days off on their own, this time to prevent bird damage. The seedling stage should shade, prevent sunburn, to bury before winter. The seedling root length, root scarce, so when transplanting should be less injury of lateral roots, otherwise easy to die.
White bark pine grafting
Such as the use of softwood grafting, should be grafted to the pine twigs of Pinus bungeana older rootstock. Pinus bungeana shoots grafting to 3 years to 4 year old Pinus tabulaeformis rootstock, survival rate of 85% to 95%, and the strong affinity, fast growth. Scion should be robust growth, the thickness of 0.5 cm for good.
To protect the root Luogen biennial seedlings transplant, avoid the dry root damage, should be dug with the plant, after every few years to turn a stack, in order to promote students to roots, planting survival. General green for more than 10 year old seedlings. In the early winter and early spring when transplanted dormancy thaw best with seedlings to soil ball transplant, plant height of 12 cm below the seedlings, to dig a 120 cm high, 150 cm diameter soil with soil ball, winding rope handling process to prevent soil ball broken, after planting to stake binding fixed.
White bark pine cultivation techniques
White bark pine The election
Select the nursery seedling of Pinus bungeana seedlings and waterlogging, should choose flat, irrigation and drainage conditions of the land. Clay soil, saline alkali land, low-lying water for breeding ground. Fine soil preparation, seedling to deep plowing leveling rake fine enough base fertilizer, such as manure, compost maturity. Can also be calcium superphosphate and cake or farmyard manure mixed use, the effect is better. Application of 10 kg per mu before preparation of ferrous sulfate powder, turn into soil sterilization. Land of good, made the north south border, the ridge furrow is 25 centimeters high, 1 meters wide, in preparation for sowing.
White bark pine Disinfection
The seed germination of Pinus bungeana seeds with Bordeaux treatment soaking disinfection, with warm water before sowing (50 to 60 DEG C) or mixed sand germinating seed germination, seed number reached the total number of seeds with the seed can be 50%. The emergence of strong and neat, in general can be 15 to 20 days from germination.
Seed sowing in unfrozen soil after 10 to 15 days (from late March to early April) for the best. Pre sowing soil surface water, every 10 square meters plant 1 to 1.5 kilograms, can produce about 1500 seedlings, with wide drill or broadcast. Sowing fine sand cover 1 to 1.5 cm, with per mu of prometryne 125 gram 25% WP herbicidal ether 250 grams of 25 kilograms of water, spray sprinkling weeding in the bed. The small arch shed temperature moisture on the soil surface, improve germination rate, seedling emergence before without watering.
Because the mice eat nuts, in a shed cover film, you want some medicine to check on the surface of the mouse.
Seedling management for seedlings of Qi, gradually increase the seedbed ventilation time, enhance its resistance by seedling. Pinus bungeana is fond of light, but more shade tolerant seedlings, remove the film should be immediately cover shade net, harm to prevent temperature sunburn and blight.
White bark pine Fertilizer
Drought or high temperatures in the summer to timely watering. Weeding must grasp the divide early, with the exception of a small, in addition to the net principle, strains of Weeding by hand, to prevent damage seedlings. Due to the soil after sowing seedling weeding, to prevent cracks. Sowing seedling weed and loosen the soil with thinning bumiao, and simultaneously. Then to drainage.
Pinus bungeana seedlings should be basal fertilizer, topdressing. The growth period from mid May to the end of July was 2 to 3 times topdressing with nitrogen fertilizer, topdressing decomposition of human waste or pig manure every mus of 3 water, 20 or so, rotten cake every mus 5 to 15 kg of cake fertilizer 15 or so, about 4 kilograms per urea. Stop at later growth stage of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizer increased, in order to promote the seedlings lignification, also available 0.3% to 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution spraying.
Pinus bungeana seedlings grow slowly, should close planting, to continue to foster large size seedlings, in before colonization after 2 to 3 times of transplanting. Two years in early spring bud seedling transplanting not before germinating soil, plant spacing of 20 to 60 cm, not to hurt the crown, even after planting water two times, 6 to 7 days after watering. 4 to 5 year old seedlings, can be second times the ball transplanting, plant spacing of 60 to 120 cm. After surviving to maintain loose soil around the roots of each plant, the decomposed manure 100 to 120 kilograms, buried after water flooding, after strengthening the management, promote the growth of seedling.
White bark pine Pest control
Pest control, pay attention to fly maggot larvae damage seedling after sowing, the base fertilizer applied to full maturity, mashed. Cinarapineamordwiko seedling twigs and needles, easily lead to black mildew, caused by the force is weak, and even death. Control method: spray 50% phoxim emulsion in the early damage, 2000 kg per kg of water.
White bark pine The main value Watch
The trees are beautiful, exotic ornamental bark. It uses configuration in the garden is very broad, it can be planted, the plant can also be planted, forest or trees, can obtain good effect. It is suitable for the courtyard hall, pavilion side planting, the pine Qifeng Xiangyingchengqu, quite spectacular. Dry skin mottled appearance, coniferous tubby bright, is a good historical landscape is a traditional tree to adapt to a wide range, in calcareous soil and mild saline well growing evergreen coniferous species. Isolated planting, row planting are highly ornamental value. Medical
Fruit (Bai Songta, Songta): bitter, warm. Antitussive, expectorant and antiasthmatic. For cough phlegm. Economics
Wood for building, furniture, stationery and other materials; edible seeds; green evergreen trees are beautiful, bark white or brown and white, very beautiful, excellent garden tree species. Straight texture, soft, shiny and processed for joinery pattern.