Coconut (scientific name: Cocos nucifera
L.) coconut palm genus, tall plants, trees, 15-30 m tall, sturdy stems, annular leaf scars, basally thickened, often fascicled roots. petiole
Inflorescences axillary, stout, fruit ovoid or subglobose, fruit cavity ("pulp" containing endosperm or seed), embryo and sap (coconut water), mainly in flower and fruit in autumn.
Native to coconut Asia
to The Pacific Islands
Chinese, southern Guangdong and Islands Leizhou Peninsula
Cultivated tropical southern area.
Chinese two thousand years ago " Redords of the Grand History of China
"To have coconut records. Coconut is the most important tropical woody oil crops. Has a very high economic value, the whole plant parts are used.
(map reference: Chinese overview of plant image database )
Coconut Morphological character
Tall plants, trees, 15-30 m tall, sturdy stems, annular leaf scars, basally thickened, often fascicled roots. Leaves pinnatisect, 3-4 meters long; most outward folding, lobes, leathery, lanceolate, 65-100 cm long or longer, 3-4 cm wide, apex acuminate; petiole
Stout, up to 1 meters above.
Axillary, 1.5-2 meters long, much branched; spathaceous fusiform, thick wood, the lower part of the length of 60-100 cm or longer, old shed; male sepals 3, scaly, 3-4 mm long, with 3 petals, ovate oblong, 1-1.5 cm long, 6 stamens, filament length 1 mm anther length 3 mm; female flower base with several bracteoles; Sepal
Broad rounded, ca. 2.5 cm wide, petals and sepals are similar, but smaller.
Fruit ovoid or subglobose, apex slightly with trigonous, about 15-25 cm long, thin exocarp, mesocarp thick fibrous endocarp hard wood, the base has 3 holes, 1 holes and the relative germination of embryo, from this hole, the 2 hole cavity containing solid, fruit endosperm (i.e. "flesh" or kernel), embryo and sap (coconut water). The main fruit in autumn.
Coconut The main classification
Coconut coconut is divided into high and dwarf coconut, the tall coconut is the most widely cultivated in the world commodity of coconut. Tall coconut plant 15-30 meters high, base dilated, pollination, results in 7-8, high oil content, the economic life of 70-80 years. According to dwarf coconut fruit and leaf color is divided into red, green and yellow dwarf dwarf dwarf three. The plant only 5-15 meters high, self pollination, results in 3-4, the smaller and more fruit, meat thin, soft, and low oil content. The economic life of 30-40 years. The main fruits, parents and ornamental.
Coconut The origin of habitat
Coconut is native to South East Asia, Indonesia and the Pacific islands. Mainly distributed in Asia
Latin America, between 23 DEG S-23 DEG N, the largest coastal area. The main producing areas of Philippines, India, Malaysia, Sri lanka. China southern islands and Guangdong Leizhou Peninsula
Cultivated tropical southern area,
Coconut Growth habit
Coconut in the annual average temperature is 26-27 DEG C, small temperature difference, the annual rainfall is 1300-2300 mm and uniform distribution, annual sunshine 2000 hours, an elevation of 50 meters below the coastal areas most suitable. Coconut is light tropical crops in high temperature and rainy, sunny and sea breeze under the condition of good growth and development. Coconut is suitable to grow in low altitude area, suitable for growth of coconut soil is marine alluvial soil and river alluvial soil, followed by sandy loam, clay gravel soil is again, the worst.
Coconut The mode of reproduction
Coconut Seed selection
In production by selecting excellent seed to harvest trees, improve the yield and quality of coconut.
The selected trees: high yield, spherical or hemispherical canopy, with 28-30 leaf above ear, 6-8 a coconut tree as the mother tree.
The selection of fruit in coconut mature season, fully mature, moderate size, near garden shaped fruits, namely "dense, heavy, ripe" selection method. "Secret" is shorter plants, leaves, fruit number, uniform distribution, "" that is a large proportion of the fruit, thin skin, high germination rate easily bred seedling, "cooked" is ripe fruit, shake a clear "Xiangshui" voice. Pick fruit after storage in ventilation, shade and dry place, 1 months after germination.
Coconut Grow seedlings
Coconut tree seed germination rate is not consistent, easy to cause the direct seeding of coconut garden seedling size uneven and lack of strain, so the best use of coconut seedling seedling. Seedling than direct seeding and labor, high survival rate, less waste of seeds, easy seedling selection.
The germination: in semi shade, ventilation, good drainage of the local site to remove weeds germination, roots, 15-20 cm deep. Then the excavation of germination ditch, germination groove width is slightly larger than the diameter of the fruit, dug a ditch after germination, the fruit of the hole ( Pedicel
) to, or 45 degrees oblique to the ditch, 1/2-1/3 wet sand to cover fruit, keep soil moist, after 60-80 days to germination.
The nursery nursery should be close to water, well drained sandy soil or Loam
Deep plowing, 25-30 cm, border width can be 3-4, row distance of 40-45 cm, planting furrow depth of about 20 cm, width is slightly larger than the diameter of the fruit. Applying decomposed organic fertilizer and soil mixing, and sand termite. According to a distance of 30-40 cm to germination treated fruit oblique ditch, keep the seedlings vertical, buds in the same direction, covering over half of the fruit, that would have to be careful, be forced vibration of the fruit, grow seedlings, should be appropriate to add mulch, and well watered, nursery to strengthen the management, timely weeding, scarification, dry season should be watered regularly, but not the nursery water during the rainy season should pay attention to drainage, spring and summer with nitrogen fertilizer, can be applied to some dilute feces, autumn should be some potash fertilizer, enhance seedling adaptation, 1 years later, when Miao Musheng grows to about 1 m can Chupu planting.
Coconut cultivation techniques
Generally planted in the rainy season, according to the spacing of 6 m x 9 meters or 7 meters by 8 meters per hectare, planting 165-180 strain. The planting hole is 60 cm x 70 cm x 80 cm, cave in the organic fertilizer 20-40 kg, can also be burning leaves in the cave, cave and charred, fill sand ants, the sapling should bring fruit, much less soil, root damage, and to do with digging with the plant, planting depth of coconut seedlings on the base of rooting part can be buried in the soil is appropriate, "deep shallow earth", avoid dirt and leaves into the internal organs, appropriate rooted coconut tree growth than shallow planting, planting high yield than shallow, wind resistance than shallow and strong.
The nurse, after planting seedlings bumiao: to strengthen the management, after planting early due to shading, irrigation and moisture, lack of plant to timely replanting.
The tillage, soil and tillage intercropping: 2 times 1 years, which is combined with the fertilization 1 times in 11-12 months, 8-9 months and 1 times of cultivation, as the plants grow, the stem of a large number of gas minister rooting, Peitu, reinforcing the tree. The coconut garden can be as short-term crops, such as peanuts, beans and so on, to live coverage and improve the humidity effect, conducive to the growth of young trees.
The fertilization: coconut trees need to apply fertilizer to the whole. potassium
Is the second largest fertilizer. nitrogen
Fat, but must pay attention to balanced fertilization. Coconut potassium, stems thin, short leaf, middle leaf canopy first wilting, leaf cluster downward extension, the lower part of the leaf withered and drooping hanging on the trunk; nitrogen deficiency, Leaf Chlorosis, less shiny, old leaves appeared different degree of chlorosis, the amount is reduced, copra production decreased; P will cause bad root and fruit rot; lack of chlorine will affect the size of coconut, copra production and utilization of water and nitrogen uptake and plant. Therefore, when fertilization to organic fertilizer, fertilizer supplement, and some salt. Every year in 4-5 months and 11-12 months without fertilization, fertilization ditch at the base of the tree distance of 1.5-2 meters, good effect. If the broadcast method should be comprehensive, weeding and loosening the soil after fertilization.
Coconut Pest control
Coconut spilled blood disease is a common disease in coconut. Symptoms: stem cracks, exudation of dark brown mucus, dry black, rotten tissue cracks. A control method of chiseling disease tissue, coated with 10% Bordeaux mixture or coal tar.
Red brown like larvae drill trunk, can make the coconut tree withered. The prevention of wound coating with asphalt or mud, severe deforestation burned to prevent spreading.
Coconut scale adults and nymphs on the back of leaf and fruit on the surface of sweat. Control of spraying ammonium parathion, malathion, Dibrom pesticides, also can protect the natural enemies to control.
Coconut rhinoceros, rhinoceros warts in two main hazards, leaves show fan-shaped open, or wavy toothed bite growth, make the plants withered, prevention before March of each year for removing organic coconut and compost, etc., dung breeding sites, rotting with cow dung or dry coconut to lure adults produced eggs concentrated hunting can also use predators such as Metarhizium Tufeng, rhinoceros larva control.
Coconut The main value
Coconut Juice and yerou containing large amounts of protein, fructose, glucose, sucrose, fat, vitamin B One
Vitamin E, vitamin C, potassium, calcium, magnesium and so on. Coconut color white jade, smooth crisp aromatic Coconut Juice cool sweet. Yerou, Coconut Juice is the ages of delicious fruit. In every 100 grams of coconut, energy reached about 900000 coke, 4 grams of protein, 12 grams of fat, 4 grams of dietary fiber, and a variety of trace elements, the carbohydrate content is also very rich.
The taste of coconut sweet, flat, into the stomach, spleen, large intestine; the flesh has strong tonic, Yiqi Qufeng, eliminate rickets insecticidal efficacy, long food can make facial moisturizing, nourishing strength and tolerance of hunger, tapeworms, treatment of infantile Fasciolopsiasis; coconut water has the efficacy of nourishing, Qingshu thirst. Attending heat class thirst, thirst insufficient fluid; coconut oil for treating tinea, treatment of syphilis.
Coconut comprehensive utilization of 360 kinds of products, with high economic value, the whole plant parts have uses, coconut can produce different products, be fully utilized in different industries, is a renewable and unique tropical green and environment-friendly resources.
Coconut oil, raw food, cooking, can also be made of coconut milk, coconut, coconut, coconut sauce and canned coconut sugar, biscuits, coconut water can be used for soft drinks, coconut fiber can brush, carpet, cable, coconut shell can be made of a variety of Arts and crafts, advanced activated carbon, can be used for building the trunk the material, leaves the roof or woven coconut, beautiful tree, is a fine species of tropical green landscaping, coconut root can be medicine, in addition to drinking coconut water, due to the presence of growth substances, is a good promoter for tissue culture.
Coconut Plant culture
Coconut The literature
The Western Han Dynasty As for " Shanglin Fu
"When (138 BC) wrote"...... Left Yu Xu (a "Xu Xie"), and the frequency of benevolence......". "Xu Yu," coconut "," benevolence frequency "" Betel nut
"And" gate "refers to" Palm
". "Shanglin Fu" is the earliest mention of China documents of coconut.
According to historical records, Zhu Geliang
Yunnan expedition, commanded the soldiers to cut down the coconut trees, called "small states do not make some foreign bodies, more fresh air also". If so, that Zhu Geliang had misunderstood the coconut. But from one side shows in Yunnan Three times
There are coconut cultivation.
Jin Dynasty With Ji
(304 BC). " South of vegetation
"For the accurate description of coconut, Su
Dan ear in Hainan (now Danzhou city), known as "forest of coconut water to wine, and praised the poem" instrument with coconut shell carved coconut crown". Hainan celebrity Qiujun
In the "Fu" Nan Ming Qi Austin said in a ten "coconut with the appropriate".
the Ming dynasty Li Shizhen
In " Compendium of Materia Medica
"In the description:" coconut sweet, flat non-toxic ". "Food is not hungry, a face Yue ze". "Sweet coconut water temperature, non-toxic". Coconut shell can cure syphilis and pain."
Coconut Folk legend
About the origin of the coconut, there is a legend in the folk legend: Lin Yi and Wang Yue complain, make the assassin by the drunk, the first, hanging in the trees, as coconut, its nuclear still has two, so that the customs The king's head