Balhae


Balhae
Balhae (698 - 926) is one of the ancient history of East Asia to Mohe nationality As the main body of the regime, its scope is nowadays Northeast China , The Korean Peninsula Russia and Northeast China far east A part。 698 years, Sumomohe Chief Go of Balhae In the East (now the Jilin Mou Dunhua ) claiming to be "shock king", the establishment of regime. 713 years, Tang xunzong Da zuorong was canonized" The governor of Bohai "And" Suddenly, sweat Dudu In the beginning, "Bohai" as the no.. 762 years, Bohai will be upgraded to the Tang Dynasty imperial edict. In addition to" Mohe China "," Bohai mohe"," Country of Koryo "Nickname.
The capital of Bohai in the early capital (now Jilin Dunhua 742 years), the German government was moved to Beijing (now Jilin Dragon ), moved to 755 years go to the nation's capital Longquan Palace (now Heilongjiang peaceful For 785 years, and then moved to Tokyo) The original dragon palace (now Jilin Hunchun 794 years, the complex transfer) The capital of Longquan Prefecture . Bohai is a multi-ethnic country, residents from the mohe, Goguryeo People and other ethnic composition. According to Bohai's political and economic system of Tang Dynasty, heyday territory, whole fifteen prefectures, sixty-two States, the popular culture The Tang Dynasty culture Influence, enjoy" Dongsheng country "In the world.
926 years, Bohai China The country Put in for the Khitan The Dongdan state . In Bohai lasted 229 years, Wang Chuan 15. Although Bohai culture developed, but the extant literature disappeared completely, the original data on the only time The Tang Dynasty and Japan The relevant records and later archaeological excavations, the Bohai's many problems to solve, especially its historical status and ownership has been China , North Korea , The Republic of Korea A dispute between countries etc..

Balhae The country

Balhae Shock (vibration)

In the beginning of the "Bohai earthquake" (vibration) Department. Go of Balhae His father. Dae Jung sang By Wu Zetian The title "shock Guogong grant". And on the "shock" the meaning is not a popular view is that, from " The book of changes " Zhengua The name is analyzed Sumomohe It is from the Sui Dynasty Chinese culture A deep impact, Da zuorong is familiar with Chinese history, it is located in the east The "shock" for the country. Korean scholar Pu Shiheng believes that "shock" is "the power of the country mean square shock" But Wu Zetian, a Dae Jung sang "shock Guogong" by Megatron Quartet meaning almost impossible. Some scholars have pointed out that should be Geolsa Biu Wu Zetian was closed for a public account, and that from Phonology It said, "Xu" and "shock" as possible" Mohe The nickname "" another name for the Ruzhen Homonym.
But there are also some scholars think that the above statement is very far fetched, Da zuorong was whether there is such a high Han culture is questionable, especially his founding of the UN The Turks Combat Policy That means he is unlikely to accept Wu Zetian The "shock". Although " The new book of Tang "For the record" shock ", but" Book of Tang "," In Ming Dynasty "," Comprehensive Mirror for Aid Government "Other important historical and Xinluo Choe Chiwon The "not in the North Xie table" were written as "vibration", so the zuorong not inherited the father's "shock Guogong" Dynasty "knighted, but vibration". The name "Zhenguo" energy in ancient times The Korean Peninsula The" Chen country "The purpose is to attract Goguryeo Yimin.
 Bohai's administrative planning Bohai's administrative planning
Some scholars believe that Bohai first name is neither the "earthquake country" nor "Zhenguo", but "Mohe country", but this says accept less.

Balhae The Bohai Sea

"Bohai country" from The Tang Dynasty The gift of the "Bohai king" title. Some people think that "Bohai" is" Mohe "The sound sound. Some people think that Bohai is not referring to a sea, but the sea to the East with its general term of the Tang Dynasty, the East Sea and named "Bohai". Some scholars believe that the title of Prince Bohai and the Central Plains family " Bohai Gao Relating to, and Goguryeo The country's name is Gao, because of the Tang Dynasty to subdue the difficult process of Goguryeo and fresh, Go of Balhae "Korea is not a" plus a large number of the Goguryeo Dynasty follow him, so the Tang Dynasty definitely do not want this new foreign country and Gaogouli have any relationship, and to eliminate it between Goguryeo and the Gao any possible association from the people's consciousness. So, think of the Tang Dynasty and chose another kaoi, Han dynasty Since a Gao and look - Bohai. The Da zuorong regime and Bohai Gao Integration, which will actually Zhifan Tang in Bohai as its territory and advertising world.
North Korea Is that "Bohai" is not a title originated in the Tang Dynasty, but the Korean Nationality Ancestors The people of Bohai The Tang Dynasty, just admit it to an established fact. And pointed out that "Bo" (BAL) is Old Korean In the "light" and "light", and "the sea" (HAE) in Korean is the "sun", so use Chinese characters labeled "Bohai", meaning "bright sunshine place", with the same strain of "North Korea" title meaning.
In addition, at the time of the Japan In the process of engaging with Bohai called" Country of Koryo "This is part of Bohai's claim Goguryeo One of the country on the basis of inheritance. But some scholars have pointed out that the so-called "Korean" just Japan unilaterally imposed a call, not accepted by the state of Bohai.

Balhae History

Balhae The background

The founder of Bohai country Go of Balhae Historical records, from the attachment Goguryeo The Sumomohe ministry This is generally used in, say China statement. This is the ancient sumomohe national in seventh Century in Northeast China Mohe nationality ( another name for the Ruzhen Offspring, Manchu A powerful group of tribal ancestors) the south, due to life At the end of the water chestnut Because of the basin, the name "sumomohe". "Mohe" two words are interchangeable words should be used in this ancient Mo Jie, real history from Han dynasty" Wu Ji Sound instead, "Wu Ji" is the ancient Tungusic language "waijoi" transliteration, meaning "Mountain Tribe", today the hezhen language and Manchu language Still use the word read (weji). At the end of the millet two words to the Liao and Jin Dynasties "Song tile", to the Ming and Qing Dynasties and transliteration of "Songhua", at the end of today's millet water Songhua River . Sumomohe actually means "Songhua River basin mountain tribe".
Go of Balhae Belongs to tribal and then Northeast Asia power Goguryeo A deep relationship. According to historical records, the Mohe nationality is divided into seven parts, the seven part and Gaogouli related only two, namely sumomohe and Baishan mohe. In late fifth Century, sumomohe just migrated from northern to At the end of the water chestnut River Basin, and the Koguryo regime because of competition for land and gradually produce conflict, that the "Korea Kou each history". Prior to the Sui dynasty, Sumomohe Gradually at a disadvantage in the war and Goguryeo in 8 at the end of a tribal leader in Millet S check Led to Liao West of Sui Dynasty as the placement of them, specially set up Liaoning County . Baishan Mohe is rather plain attached to Korea".
Arrived Emperor Gaozong of Tang The general chapter of first year (668 years), and to the Tang Dynasty Xinluo Joint destruction Goguryeo Then, in order to prevent the restoration of Gaogouli and effectively control the Goguryeo Dynasty and near Mohe Khitan, Xi The Tang Dynasty and other ethnic minorities, and will be forced to "sumomohe of Korea" located in western Liaoning Province Camp state (now Liaoning Chaoyang ), and Go of Balhae Father Dae Jung sang (at that time for the tribe) in the sumomohe people. Dae Jung sang a year since 668 was moved to camp to 698 years from the new zuorong rate all move back to the "sumomohe haunt" period, living in the camp in the past 30 years, Dae Jung sang son Da zuorong was born and grew up in this period.
But the Japanese scholar Tsuda Sauyoshi China, scholars Lijiancai That Da zuorong was born in Baishan mohe. Da zuorong was born in the attachment of Goguryeo Mohe tribes, this is not a problem, but do not have any historical data display Sumomohe There have been attached to Goguryeo's history, and Da zuorong belongs to tribal can only be "attached to the Korea Baishan mohe. Anyway, Da zuorong and his father Dae Jung sang Is attached to Goguryeo The Mohe, after the demise of the Tang Dynasty was moved to Goguryeo Camp state But, Policy During the period of" Business in the state of chaos "The Bohai country on the stage of history.

Balhae Mohe East

The main entry: Business in the state of chaos , Battle of Tianmenling
At the time of the Tang Dynasty (camp state is Policy The central city of the northeast, in addition) Go of Balhae The Mohe The man who lives Goguryeo , Cathayan , Xi people , The Turks So, the ethnic problems, prone to unrest. (696 years Long live First, the leader) Lijinzhong A week, kill the camp state Dudu Zhaowenhui That is for" Business in the state of chaos ". After the incident, the Empress Wu Zhou Wu Zetian Sent to the army to quell the division, was defeated, then combined with Zhou Jun After the Turkic Khanate The Silent SIP Khan Both north and south. Camp state The rebels loyal, Lee died. 697 years, Zhou Jun Xi and Li people to destroy the United faithful remnant Sonne Wanrong Department of, Likaigu Such surrender, business in the state of chaos pacification, Gaiyuan Wu Zetian" Magic "To celebrate.
 Bohai Sancai fuming furnace Bohai Sancai fuming furnace
At that time, living in the camp, Mohe, joined the anti Zhou ranks, Da zuorong father Dae Jung sang It is Lijinzhong Awarded the "big relics" office. Dedicated to Lee after the failure of the Mohe leader Geolsa Biu Dae Jung sang with the rate of business in the State Department of public Mohe, East Liaodong. Wu Zetian take pacify policies for them, more than four are respectively sealed begging Yu and Dae Jung sang "Xu Guogong" and "shock in public, forgive their crimes involved in the rebellion. But for more than four clear plume refused to accept, so Wu Zetian ordered the Khitan general Li Kai solid pursuit, cut more than four feather kilimanjaro. At this time Dae Jung sang in vagabondising died in, Go of Balhae Father standing to rate his East escape. Wu Zetian sent Likaigu After visiting the crusade. 697 years (the first year of September, magic) in chasing Da zuorong to Tianmen Mountain, the skillful Da zuorong with complex terrain Tianmen Ling, "Korea, Mohe people", defeated Zhou Jun, Li Kai also only solid body. Battle of Tianmenling O Rong led the team to win the East respite.

Balhae Zuorong 1949

 Beijing ruins Beijing ruins
(698 years Seventh The first year), The Turks Silent SIP Khan and Policy His enemies, GUI state , Tanzhou , Dingzhou , Zhaozhou Etc. (now Hebei Midwest), and the Xi Also attached to the Turks, and the Central Plains to the northeast of the road was blocked. Go of Balhae The situation in the east capital (now Jilin Mou Shan Dunhua County Fushun City The establishment of the regime, and to the title) "Da (ancient Tungusic languages, namely, its own chieftain)" surname's large, claiming to be "shock king" (a vibration) is the beginning of the founding of Bohai.
From the perspective of the Da zuorong, since Camp state East is the most important link, the East team which is based on Mohe People oriented, Goguryeo The passengers, with a small amount of The Han people , Cathayan Etc.. These people are the foundation of Bohai.
In order to consolidate Da zuorong The earthquake in China Not only in the regime, then immediately sent and The Turks But rather the south alliance Xinluo Cleverly, mediate between the power with the neighbors, so in a few years, has been the rapid development of power. The territory of Xinluo to the south, North Heishui Mohe The west, the Khitan, Turks, the people include the Mohe, Gao Juli, Han, qidan, Xi And the Turks, Shiwei and other ethnic groups, there are more than 10 households, over tens of thousands of soldiers, 5000 (say 2000). At that time, become the northeast region an important political force.

Balhae By Tang Cefeng

 Bohai's Beijing ruins overlooking Bohai's Beijing ruins overlooking
705 years, Emperor Zhongzong of Tang Reset, send Shi Shi Zhang Ji Da zuorong zhaofu. Go of Balhae To accept the amnesty. The Tang Dynasty Kneel, and sent his son The door of Art With Zhang Ji on, leave for Su wei. The Tang Dynasty for further canonized Da zuorong, but "Khitan and The Turks Even the old Kou Bian, the mission is not up to" So, one thing to shelve the canonization. Tang xunzong Tang emperor whose reign started brilliantly and ended disastrously Came to the throne, in 713 BC (born two years) will send Lang Cuixin Photo The Honglu Temple To the earthquake, China, Da zuorong for worship Left Xiaowei generals , The governor of Bohai And, with its system for Suddenly, sweat Suddenly, with sweat, grant Dudu Since then, Bohai has become the new country. Cui Xin be canonized Go of Balhae The deeds of the moment in the town (now Liaoning Arthur A piece of stone), i.e." Tang Honglu wells monument "Become important evidence witness Tangshan Bohai relations.
With Da zuorong was canonized, become the Tang Dynasty under the control regime, Bohai's new security, but also to ease the pressure of the Tang Dynasty in Northeast china. During the reign of zuorong, sent 6 officials in the Tang Dynasty or son worship, the Central Plains civilization began to enter Bohai Everfount, promote economic and social development in Bohai. 719 years, Da zuorong died, "the Chinese private Shi Gao Wang yue". Tang xunzong It is awarded Tejin , and sent to mourn.

Balhae Wu Yi only

Da zuorong after the death of his eldest son. Wu Yi The throne, is Bohai king. Although Wushu also accepted the canonization of the Tang Dynasty, but more autonomy, not "Sigai years reign of the Tang Dynasty. Ringha " ", and denounced the soil Yu, the Northeast Yiwei chen". Thus, Wushu throne wars, conquer T l Whisk, pinch, more joy, Yu Lou "northeast the barbarians", especially on him Heishui Mohe The war. Blackwater Mohe from 722 years to 726 years to the Tang Dynasty. Tang xunzong To set up its Blackwater dudufu Dispatch, and Long history And the collar. A smell of Wushu, think Heishui Mohe is privately Tong Tang and Tang found himself, so he sent brother door art and uncle Yafa as soldiers against Blackwater mohe. The door of Art Fear of offending against the invasion, the Tang Dynasty, but Wushu evolved into a conflict persist in wilfully and arbitrarily, and finally the door leaving the Tang Dynasty art asylum.
Then around the gate art event, Tang Bo contradictions gradually deepened. 727 years, Wu Yi sent to Japan, trying to aid against Japan in Tang Dynasty, to ensure the safety, in addition to the Khitan were also aligned. After completing preparations, Wu Yi In 732 years of land and water, invasion of the Tang dynasty. Water by Zhang Wenxiu straight from the pirates Dengzhou Kill the governor, Wei Jun By land; Wushu horse to lead a force they (now eastern Hebei) area, killing people. The Tang Dynasty generals Wu Cheng Emperor Gai Fushun, struggling to fight against the invasion of Bohai, Xinluo , Heishui Mohe Also, Shiwei heisuke Tang, the war into a stalemate. In the meantime, Wushu to open the situation, had sent to Luoyang. The door of Art But failed. Wushu is aware of not to continue the fight against the Tang Dynasty, then sent to the Tang Qing sincere apology, Tang xunzong Under the charter to be forgiven. Later Wu Yi The return of troops, and the Tang Dynasty Tang Zhaoyi the prisoner, reward, Tang Bo finally restored relations.

Balhae The king ruled

737 years, Wu Yi The title "King", died, his son Emperor Mun of Balhae The throne, is Bohai king. Daqingmao reigned for 56 years, during the period of Bohai was on the upgrade, on the culture of the Central Plains have also entered the peak phase of absorption. Daqingmao Xing Wenzhi, imitate the institutions of Tang Dynasty, the central government set up in three departments and six ministries Whole, and Fu, state and county system in place, improve the state of Bohai Centralization The political system. Daqingmao reign, Bohai agricultural economic development, and the strengthening of the Tang Dynasty and the Japanese business and trade, which sent down to Japan 49 times, 12 times, not only the number of visiting missions, the scale is large. In culture, daqingmao in his second year sent Tang copy " Thornleigh "And" Romance of the Three Kingdoms "," Jin "Spring and Autumn", "thirty-six country classics, and then repeatedly sent to the children of the Tang Dynasty study.
Externally, Emperor Mun of Balhae Continue to keep up with the Tang Dynasty Vassal relations In. Rebellion During the period of risk involved, but take the capital Beijing to prevent the rebels invade, strengthen ties with Japan and other measures. 762 years, just put down the rebellion Emperor Daizong of Tang He then upgraded Bohai for the country, canonized daqingmao is the king of Bohai, and granted zhengyipin calibration of Bohai Wei, as a compliment, make Bohai improve the status of. At the same time, daqingmao and Japan also frequent, not only sent 12 times to visit Japan, and Japan for the first time in 758 years sent Onoda Mori to Bohai et al. Although the Tang daqingmao feet, but use your reign of ( Daxing , Calendar ), or even the use of "emperor" and "saints" and other titles. Wu Yi Since the independent policy can continue.

Balhae Dongsheng country

 Bohai Beijing prosperous Temple stupa Bohai Beijing prosperous Temple stupa
793 years, Bohai King Emperor Mun of Balhae Death. The next more than and 20 years, Bohai once entered the decline period, has replaced the king of Dayuan, Wang Yi waste Dahua Yu Montevideo, Gang of Balhae And the king Jeong of Balhae Xi, Wang Big meaning Jane, Wang Gan of Balhae The six generation of the king, during the political turmoil, repeatedly palace coup, Wang Yuan Yi is the waste of dethroned and killed, Yu, Yu Yuan, Dahua Zhong Daming can also be and ascended the throne or death due to the coup. 818 years, Go of Balhae The younger brother Large Yebo The son of Seon of Balhae Is Bohai King ascended the throne. Daren show later, Bohai was ZTE, and entered the heyday. Xuan Wang Daren show focus on martial arts, he had broken Xinluo That forced Xinluo to retreat to the Pei River (now Taedonggang Building) The Great Wall Three hundred; at the same time to conquer other Mohe Fu Yu Lou tribes such as nirvana, and more like other department, and defeated in tough Heishui Mohe Will, Xingkai Lake , The Wusuli River Until the river basin Sanjiang plain Placed under the control of Bohai, in the. Huaiyuan Palace , Anyuan Palace Therefore, the historical records show "benevolence is against Haibei tribes, we will open the active yu".
830 years, Seon of Balhae The death of the sun. Dae Ijin The throne. Dae ijin further construction period go to the nation's capital In, and the development of Tang Dynasty and the Japanese economic and cultural relations. In particular, the most frequent contacts with the Tang Dynasty, DAE ijin not only 14 times to send Tang tribute, and sent many students learning The Tang Dynasty culture . The Tang Dynasty also sent Jian Zhang Zhang Visit to Bohai by Zhang Jianzhang DAE ijin hospitality, after returning to the author of "Bohai mind", a detailed record of the year, Bohai Wang Shihao, the official system, geography, transportation, property, customs etc., become precious historical research in Bohai country. Though the book has been lost, but Song dynasty Ou Yangxiu Series " The new book of Tang "The contents refer to the book, so that Bohai can be recorded in detail. It is for this reason, the kings of Bohai, used only in the title Dae Ijin Before the reservation, and then lost DAE ijin. Dae ijin death in 857, and then experience Dae Geonhwang , Dae hyeonseok The two generation of Wang, Bohai's culture has become more and more mature, highly regarded as" Dongsheng country ".

Balhae Dead in the Khitan

895 years, Dae hyeonseok Bohai had died Dae wihae , Dae inseon The two generation of the king, until 926 years by the Khitan extinction. The history about Bohai and social conditions of the record, the main event in 897 years with Bohai Xinluo In the Tang Dynasty tribute "for long (" event Choe Chiwon The "table" in the north to thank for this) and 906 years in Bohai Wu Chao and sub phase guangzan and the people of Xinluo and for matters such as Bin Gong ranking. In 920 years, Bohai has occurred in Japan Pei Ting The mission in 4 members of the "Dun stay" Japan does not belong to the event, after 925 years of frequent occurrence of aristocratic Bohai Nantou Korea (the end of Xinluo North Korea Later Three Kingdoms One of the events that) Bohai has been plunged into a crisis of class contradictions fall apart, Ethnic conflicts Also to the very sharp point. It also gives out the long - strong neighbor The country An opportunity. At the beginning of Tenth Century, Khitan is captured Bohai controlled Liaodong At the end of 925, the Khitan emperor; Yelv abaoji The rate of force deployed in Bohai, the following spring fall The capital of Longquan Prefecture , Dae inseon Surrender, the destruction of Bohai.
After a Baoji de Bohai, Bohai China The Dongdan state The eldest son. Yelü Bei by Dongdan The king, as by the Bohai state transition the direct rule. 982 years, Liao (Cathy) revoke the Dongdan state, transfer Tokyo Road (say the Dongdan state also continues to maintain a period of time). After the fall of Bohai, was unwilling to accept the Khitan rule, a fierce struggle, is established Jeong-an kingdom , Heung-yo kingdom China, Dayuan China against the regime, but have been suppressed, and returned to Bohai in the war has been greatly damaged, the civilization of Bohai suffered a devastating catastrophe; on the one hand is a large number of flight or forced migration, migration of Bohai adherents generally have four aspects, accounting for about half of the population of people who haunt and death into the Jurchen area, Jin Dynasty During the period of their assimilation into the jurchen Be strong; Liao Khitan moved to the mainland and Liaodong area the number is less than 1 million, then a part of Mongolian into, into the most The Han nationality . Go to Korea The number is more than 300 thousand, are now integrated into Korean ethnic groups, The Korean Peninsula Shaanxi Xi is said to Bohai's too Royal's descendants. The number of adherents defected to the Central Plains rarely, quickly into the Han nationality in.

Balhae territory

Balhae Territory

About Bohai's territory. " The new book of Tang "There is a general summary:" namby Xinluo In order to. The mud river For the poor environment, the East Sea, the west...... In the five thousand place". While Bohai's territorial scope has a change, generally divided into Go of Balhae During the period of, Wu Yi to Emperor Mun of Balhae During the period of, Seon of Balhae After the three stage, expanding its territory. Da zuorong founding, its territory was limited to Jilin today Dunhua Along the east mountain range as the center of the Mou small region. With the Wushu "exclusion soil Yu", to daqingmao era, Bohai's territory has expanded to the East today Hunchun So far, the west of Jilin Dragon So far, the southwest of Liaoning Kuandian So far, the southeast of North Korea Hamgyong So far, the Northeast Mudanjiang Downstream, northwest Jilin Nong'an Etc.. Daren show period of "Dajing Yu", and a new round of expansion, Bohai laid in the heyday of the territory. Since Bohai's territory, South to Pei River (now Taedonggang ) and The mud river (now Xing Jiang) and Xinluo For the community, the North arrived today Sanjiang plain Along with the north. Heishui Mohe Is the East The sea of Japan So far, Jilin and Inner Mongolia at the junction of the West Baicheng , Da Near the border of khitan. Was the Northeast vast feudal power.
A little bit about the biggest Bohai territory dispute is whether the occupation of Liaodong and its time. Liaodong in the Tang Dynasty for a long time border no-man's land The land, especially Rebellion In the future, Protectorate General to Pacify the East Cancel, Tang power has been difficult to Bohai and Liaodong, the country may be provided according to Liaodong. Some scholars believe that Bohai is the largest territory since Dandong (Bo burning mouth) to Xinbin , Kaiyuan For the community, do not occupy Liaodong. More and more scholars such as Guo Zhong Wei , Fangxuefeng , Jin Ji sun , Yong Zhen Zheng Is the support of Bohai occupied Liaodong statement. From the historical point of view, although there is no clear record of Bohai occupied Liaodong, but that the Bohai according to the facts of Liaodong. Such as " Qidan Guo Zhi "Volume one:" Tokyo is in Bohai now, since Baoji Twenty years before the war, and built for Tokyo." " The Liao Dynasty - Tianzuo Ji ":" Tokyo, the Bohai Haiti, fought for more than 20 years of the dynasty." "Liao history and geography":" Tokyo Prefecture of Liaoyang ...... Emperor Gaozong of Tang flat Korea In this setting, Anton dudufu, after Bohai's all." " Comprehensive Mirror for Aid Government "Volume 273 Later Tang Dynasty With the two years (924 years), "razed all service is northeast of Khitan, but Bohai did not take...... Is the first in Bohai hit Liaodong." " SHOKU nihongi "Volume eleven" Bohai Province Taiwan to the Japanese government official dispatch "cloud too:" On the domain East, Liaoyang West block, two states to more than 10000". The later Bohai territory includes Liaodong is the fact, and also Khitan seized from Bohai in Liaodong. While Bohai has occupied the Liaodong time, King Xuan Seon of Balhae The possibility of relatively high period. But Bohai has Liaodong to manage, due to the lack of historical data and the unknown.

Balhae administrative division

The administrative division of Bohai in imitation of the Tang Dynasty, the implementation of Whole system Under the fifteen. Fu Sixty-two, state, county 130. Bohai is the whole country:
go to the nation's capital Longquan Palace Today in Heilongjiang Province Ning'an City Bohai town
Beijing Xian De Fu: now in Jilin Province Helong The ancient city of the West
Tokyo The original dragon palace Today in Jilin Province HunChun Citylink eight
Xijing Yalu: now in Jilin Province Linjiang
Nanjing South Sea House North Korea today: South Hamgyong BYD county
 Administrative divisions of Bohai Administrative divisions of Bohai
Bohai has experienced four times the capital, Go of Balhae When the capital of East muyama founding Old Its location in Jilin. Dunhua Area. 742 years in Beijing moved to Xian de house, moved to 755 years The capital of Longquan Prefecture 785 years, moved to Tokyo The original dragon palace 794 years, the complex moved to Beijing Longquan house, until death. In addition to Beijing Palace, and Che bin Jie, Dongping, Huaiyuan, Anyuan and other office t l, and directly under the state, such as copper Ying Zhou Prefecture system. In addition to the 15 and 62 state government, Jinyufu It proves that there are more than and 130 counties in Bohai. But just admitted to the known figures, the heyday of Bohai county that has more than 200.

Balhae Politics

Bohai in the country feudal society That is taken as the core of the king Centralized system . Bohai's constitution "was like China System" Bohai, after the demise of the people of Bohai in accordance with the "rule of the law" Bohai, the country is in accordance with the laws of Tang Dynasty in central plains. The king of Bohai is at the top of the Bohai society, although the Tang Dynasty accepted canonization, but not in the Datang Our rules, and has its own title, title, or even be called" The Emperor "," sage " Both domestic and foreign, by the king of independent Bohai, although visible for the Tang Dynasty vassal state But, with considerable independence in the fact that the king of Bohai has exercised supreme sovereignty and. About Bohai royal system. " The new book of Tang Wang said that "recorded" vulgar " The husband can poison "Yue" sage sovereign "Yue" Base ". The life of "teaching". Wang said the father " Lao Wang "Mother," imperial concubine of a deceased emperor "Wife" The imperial concubine "The eldest son said," Vice King Qin said, "" Prince "". In strict accordance with the feudal Bohai The patriarchal clan system In principle, the throne inheritance by the eldest son, and follow the Tang Dynasty "clan Temple", for the management of the Royal family.
The Royal noble's following several major" Right. "High, Wang, Li, Zhang, Wu, Yang, he, together with the royal family together these nobles monopolized the Bohai regime, so that the patriarchal system and in politics has become the political foundation of maintaining Bohai's. On this basis, Bohai's overall organization in accordance with the Tang regime, to help with the rule of the king, three departments and six ministries , respectively:
Xuan Zhao Province The equivalent of the Tang Dynasty: Under the door, Review, put forward by the Taiwan province executive decree, the two products are Left. It has left. Ping Zhang Zheng Is the official to have. Sijung Left, Chang Shi, Jian yi;
Taiwan Province The equivalent of the Tang Dynasty: Secretariat Responsible for drafting, revising, decree, chief executive for the two products are the Right. The right, under the Ping Zhang Zheng, a officer NEISHI Zhao Gao, secretary;
Zheng Tong Province The equivalent of the Tang Dynasty: Chancery And as the head of government departments responsible for the implementation of the executive decree High internal phase In grade, two products are also configured as assistant, left and right Our government That position in the left and right Pingzhang Shi There are about two genera, officer. Under the six department:
- Zhong Department The equivalent of the Tang Dynasty: The Ministry of personnel Responsible for the civil service, and a reward assessment, etc.;
- Nibe The equivalent of the Tang Dynasty: The Ministry of In charge of land, tax;
- The Ministry of Justice The equivalent of the Tang Dynasty: The Ministry of Rites Responsible for the ritual, worship, imperial examination, etc.;
- Intelligence Department The equivalent of the Tang Dynasty: Hyobu Responsible for personnel, military, mapping, and weapons management etc.;
- The Ministry of Rites The equivalent of the Tang Dynasty: Xingbu Responsible, judicial and prison complex trial, etc.;
- The Ministry of The equivalent of the Tang Dynasty: Department Responsible for transportation, construction, water conservancy, and the architect of the personnel.
 Bohai Zhen Xiao princess in painting in the tomb of Bohai man Bohai Zhen Xiao princess in painting in the tomb of Bohai man
In addition, Bohai also has twelve in the central division, a ( In Taiwan That is equivalent to the Tang Dynasty censorate Responsible for correcting, impeach officials, long said Is big The equivalent of the Tang Dynasty. imperial censor The seven temple (Temple), temple - the equivalent of Tang Dynasty Temple Province Responsible for the royal family, the basic necessities of life management, long said Big order The equivalent of the Tang Dynasty. The house of prison Grade, from three; clan Temple -- the equivalent of the Tang Dynasty It ; Too often Temple ; Our main temple The equivalent of the Tang Dynasty The Honglu Temple Danong temple; the equivalent of the Tang Dynasty Sinongsi Our Tibetan temple; the equivalent of the Tang Dynasty Taifusi The company; the equivalent of the Tang Dynasty temple Paul Temple ), hospital (Literature Institute, the equivalent of the Tang Dynasty The Imperial Academy ), a prison (prison helmet is equivalent to the Tang Zi. The Imperial College A bureau (,) Xiang Bo Bureau of the equivalent of Tang Dynasty The Chamberlain Province In charge. Eunuch ) and other institutions.
Bohai's rank of Lord system also follow the example of the Tang Dynasty, official rank nine, and founding the public, founding male, Column in China Lord. Bohai's robes also imitate the Tang Dynasty, more than three rank wear purple, tooth Wat, goldfish. Five rank above wear red, tooth Wat, whitebait. Six rank, seven rank shallow red dress, eight rank green, all wood wat.
Bohai's whole set in the local area, under the jurisdiction of government, state and county, there are Dudu , Cishi , governor of one or more provinces . But in addition to this Centralized system Besides, remote areas retained by autonomous tribal natives.
According to some scholars Emperor Wenzong of Tang Give the book "Bohai imperial concubine and vice king, long history, such as the gift of Pingzhang Shi" sentence appeared "long history" in the title, and that the central government stationed in Bohai in the Tang dynasty" Long history A post monitor collar. But because it is hard to judge Gudzafflheng, therefore, being in doubt.

Balhae Military

Go of Balhae and Policy Playing field Battle of Tianmenling Then, was born in Bohai, so it can be said that Bohai is the founding in wuhan. Although the culture gradually developed after the founding of the PRC, but also keep the prominent martial arts, has experienced Wu Yi "Excluding soil Yu" and Seon of Balhae "We will open Yu two external forces and large-scale expansion, and the Tang dynasty, Xinluo , Heishui Mohe The Ministry and other neighboring countries and national war, established a vast territory of Bohai "five thousand". About Bohai's military institutions, according to the " The new book of Tang Bohai biography "," Wu Meng, Xiong Wei members about Ben, PI Wei Nan, left right, left the North back and generals, general" That is too simple, but in general it is imitation of the Tang Dynasty " Sixteen. The system and simplified, so that Bohai also follow the implementation of the Tang Dynasty Fubing system . In addition to the ten guard outside, Bohai also set up their own imperial guards That is about. Shence Army And about one hundred and twenty of our armed forces. According to records, in Bohai's western border town Fuyu Palace "Often Tunjin these Khitan soldiers" Bohai, it is also a place of soldiers or guards. This shows that Bohai's military government and army composed by the central government and local military structure. Bohai in the government organizations Zheng Tong Province Under the "wisdom", responsible for the military management.
The number of troops in Bohai is quite big, the beginning of the founding of the victorious army of tens of thousands of people" To Bohai, the latter is "hundreds of thousands of soldiers". The history of Bohai said "men of his wisdom, brave in right, to have" three people in Bohai when a tiger of the language" , which shows the military quality is very strong, has become an important pillar of Dongsheng country.

Balhae Economics

Bohai from various nationalities are at different stages of development, is engaged in the production of various types of tribal or national economic development in the region of Bohai, thus beginning level are not balanced. The situation in Bohai in 200 years, has not been fundamentally changed. Generally speaking, the Beijing is now Mudanjiang In the middle reaches is bounded in its west and South Area Puyo , Goguryeo and Okjeo Reason and Mohe nationality In the south, is a predominantly agricultural area, economy and culture developed; East and northeast, is Bohai's annexation Heishui Mohe Yu Lou, the more joy, Nirvana, the Department of Fu t l is still in the stage of economic development, fishing and hunting. Causes of the differences, because of the terrain, climate, resources and other natural conditions caused by inconsistency.
The unbalanced development of social economy, reflected in the field of production is the diversification of social production. " The new book of Tang Bohai "records:" your customs, said Taibai Mountain The tiger, the South China Sea Kelp, Fuyu city gate bean, deer, hog Che, Bin The horse, Explicit state The cotton cloth, Vaud, Longzhou city of iron, in addition, Lu city of rice, Mei Tuohu The crucian carp. There are nine results (pills) are the Li Le Tour of pear." Visible, Bohai regional social production category is complete, in addition to hunting and fishing industry, the Central Plains of agriculture, animal husbandry and handicraft industry, all have. The following brief on various categories of production through the introduction, to illustrate the general situation of the development of social production.

Balhae Agriculture

Bohai's agricultural production has been widely used in iron tools. They use Iron sickle , Iron plow , Iron hooks And in this Jilin shovel. Dunhua Heilongjiang peaceful and Suifenhe Basin and the Bohai site are found. The capital of Longquan Prefecture Unearthed from the site of curved iron for iron casting, 36 cm long, weighing nearly 4.5 kg, Bohai people that turn the soil from Mohe era "Tian coupled to farming, development for animal traction. Crop variety also increased, not only millet, wheat, sunflower and Ji food, and rice, beans, buckwheat, hemp, Abutilon and garlic, also plum, pear and other fruits. It is worth noting that the famous "Lu city rice", it shows that the people of Bohai in more than 1000 years ago has been successfully introduced into rice cultivation near 43 degrees north latitude and the North area. This shows that the ratio of agricultural production only Goguryeo With the rapid development of the times.

Balhae Animal Husbandry

Bohai people generally support pig Also, feeding Horse , cattle Other livestock. Pig in Heilongjiang today A Cheng The area (Mao Jie), Suifenhe River (now the horse Bin The most expensive). The horse is an important commodity trade between Bohai and the Central Plains region of the time Poetry of Jane Lee has The present system of Shandong peninsula "goods Bohai City horses, but not".

Balhae handicraft industry

Bohai's hand textile industry, smelting iron, gold and silver products, ceramic manufacturing and shipbuilding industries. Textile cloth, cotton, linen and silk noil, raw material is the main origin in Jilin province. Helong County Near the area ( Explicit state ), North Korea South Hamgyong ( Vaud The middle reaches of Mudanjiang (and) Longzhou ). The death of Bohai, The Dongdan state Annually to the Khitan tribute 150 thousand horses in the rough, the Bohai area of the textile industry is quite developed. Copper smelting and production of a certain size. In addition to the production of copper used in the life of various utensils and ornament making, but also to a large number of wrought copper shipped to Shandong Peninsula (today Ziqing Sell). This Heilongjiang peaceful To the south of Haerbaling Area and Dongning County Dachengzi area is mainly copper smelting. The main origin of iron in Chukyo Xian De Fu, a county of iron, was the most famous. The Bohai times has found nearly 50 kinds of iron products. The people of Bohai can also make gold and silver products. Dragon Beijing University, Beijing china, Dunhua Six the top of the mountain At the site of Bohai, gold and silver products unearthed gold belt, gold ornaments, gold bracelet, gold Erdang gilt silver hairpin and a large number of artifacts and etc.. 814 years, Bohai had to Tang Dynasty, the silver Buddha donations. Ceramic products in recent years in Bohai unearthed a lot. Pottery bowl, bowl, pot, bottle, disc, cylinder, and cups, and found a lot of glazed pottery and fine texture Three Tao. Porcelain pieces on Dunhua and Russia, Ning'an Ussuriysk ( Ussuriysk ) to a site in Bohai are found. In addition, the south of Beijing in Bohai in early 1960s of this Xing Shan Xiang Found a large Bohai Brick kiln group The ruins, 1980 has proven more than 20 seats.

Balhae Hunting and gathering

Fishing and hunting and gathering still occupies a certain position in society in Bohai. Engaged in fishing is more joy, Nirvana, Lou Yu, Fu t l of residents. In the history of the valuable fishing products Mink , tiger , leopard , The bear , brown bear , deer , eagle Hellbenders, whale, Mullet This paper, dry fish etc.. There are many types of precious goods collection, the ginseng, white monkshood and pine nuts, these are used to pay tribute and exchange.

Balhae business

 Beijing Longquan house restoration plan Beijing Longquan house restoration plan
Bohai country commodity economy The more developed. The city's famous rise. The capital of Longquan Prefecture Beijing, Tokyo, Xian De Fu The original dragon palace Xijing, Yalu, Nanjing South Sea House Etc.. In especial go to the nation's capital This city has a population of about one hundred thousand and dozens of Li Fang business convergence, store Pianlie Di metropolis, Bohai is not only China's economic center, have become at that time Northeast Asia Regional trade hub. In addition, near the temple transactions are more active. The rise and development of the city is a symbol of commercial prosperity. In addition, Bohai actively develop foreign trade, mainly with The Tang Dynasty and Japan , and the emergence of Li Yanxiao, Li Guangxuan gallop in the The sea of Japan , Yellow Sea and The East China Sea Among the famous businessmen in Bohai. In addition to Bohai Heishui Mohe Khitan, Xinluo Even in Central Asia have a trade.

Balhae Culture

Bohai in the original Mohe , Goguryeo On the basis of national culture and absorb a large number of Central Plains culture of Tang Dynasty, created a brilliant and unique civilization, have" Dongsheng country "Said. After the founding of Bohai by the high King Go of Balhae And the king Wu Yi And the king Emperor Mun of Balhae The three generation of intermediate business, although the political changes, but the social development has not stopped, to the king Seon of Balhae To reach its peak period. At the time of Bohai's vast territory, numerous nationalities, social economic level is uneven, so the Bohai's folk culture also has the characteristics of complex. In Bohai the whole range, and The Tang Dynasty , Xinluo , Uighur , Japan Communication with neighboring countries, city economic prosperity, foreign culture has almost become the mainstream. Living in the city within the upper nobility, religious belief has been mostly accepted from the Central Plains region, which is the most prominent buddhist. at that time The capital of Longquan Prefecture That is not only the temple under 100, a large number of monks, since some Buddhist temples are still in use, incense for thousands of years without a break. According to the " In Ming Dynasty "Record, Emperor Tang Xianzong Yuan and nine years and twelve years, Bohai's high school Lijin two tributary Datang, Jin Feng Lu city rice "gold and silver statues, for the royal family held every sixty years" Famen Temple Ying Feng "refers to the Buddha Shirley Use. Every year Bohai king room also in Su state (now in Jilin Province Jilin City It is) Sumomohe Zuting held no meeting to cover his sickle "first ear" Lu city rice "worship Buddha, second ear" Lu Cheng rice "with Datang emperor, the Bohai aristocracy are the remaining rice and share. Bohai people are very devout Buddhist, even after the death of the tomb will imitate Buddhist stupa reincarnation to Buddha, the most typical is The king of Bohai The privet Hui Princess tomb, the tomb pagoda restored to seven layers, about twenty meters high, this is very rare in the ancient tombs in China. Explore the far east coastal region of Russia Xingshan temple ruins of Bohai post Bin The famous Buddhist temple palace local nobles donated, the temple layout of regular building large-scale, as was the Central Plains and Japan similar buildings. In addition to the existing Bohai Buddhist Architecture The capital of Longquan Prefecture There are some ruins, Jilin Province Emmanuel tower The brick tower, five Miyan, and Xi'an The small wild goose pagoda The structure is very similar. In addition to Nanjing South Office also found many Buddhist temple ruins.
 The Bohai times tower built Emmanuel The Bohai times tower built Emmanuel
In Bohai's folk religion, because many people, not only a wide range and a trend of gradual integration. In addition to a small number of tribal leaders to accept Bohai family court, entered the ranks of nobility appointed, the majority of people are still in the clan system, in the production of composite agricultural piscary combination. Therefore, in their life more preserved the nation's primitive belief, i.e." Shamanism ". The founding of Bohai due to the material life of the rich folk Shamanism quickly gained more expressive means in modern times through archaeological excavations in Chinese in Northeast China, the Russian Far East, and North Korea have unearthed a large number of Bohai in the period of civil use of copper Yaopai, Shamanism waist bell, drum stick handle, God wears the copper inlay, God, all kinds of instruments used in ceramic. Shamanism is common in Bohai's folk remarkable.
Bohai in the period from the Central Plains to the Confucian culture has also gained popularity and development, which is from Bohai six with loyalty and" Wuchang You can see the name ". Bring the Confucian culture with few Han subjects, the local Chinese higher degree Goguryeo Yimin has also become an important cultural dissemination, but more important, more influential is the upper class in Bohai. From the king Go of Balhae Bohai, the official will continue to send students to learn the Confucian culture of Tang Dynasty, most of these people came from aristocratic family, or the royal family of Bohai, they are well versed in Confucian classics, Chinese high attainments, but also understand the political culture of Tang Dynasty, after returning mostly among the politicians, has become an important person in Bohai court, in addition to Bohai also follow the the Tang Dynasty The Imperial College Set" eldest son Prison ", as an important base for spreading Confucian culture, Confucian culture, so on the Bohai's role is quite huge. Even after the fall of Bohai is still on the Liao and Jin two generation impact. In addition, the Central Plains people bring Taoism and bring people of Central Asia Nestorianism There are traces spread in Bohai.
The literary works of the people of Bohai are scattered in Japanese history and unearthed Fiona filial piety, Zhen Hui Princess epitaph, his poetry deeply by the Tang Dynasty, the poets of Bohai have left a name Zhouyuanbo , Release changsoo Yang, Yangtaishi , Pei Ting , Pei beautiful jade High solid element, et al. Bohai music also achieved high achievement, not only at that time was introduced into Japan, later the court has a special "Bohai music". Bohai country Bohai. The official text, as Chinese, and Bohai's is your own writing, there is no conclusion. But the main academic point of view there are two:
One is that Bohai does not have its own characters, strange to see a site in Bohai is not difficult to read by the people of Bohai original characters, some of which are variants of Chinese characters. When there are some minority caused by learning the advanced culture of the Central Plains in the process of error, not intentional. While a small part may be similar to carving names unique symbols like craftsmen. Jilin Province in 1982 Yanbian Museum The Li Qiang By mastering and collection of Bohai "text tile" first-hand materials, including Bohai three Beijing, the Beijing Longquan house, Tokyo Dragon Palace, Bohai palace, three Xian de Beijing Beijing around the temple ruins, some architectural ruins found in the text tile, language of Bohai carried out a more detailed collection. In addition to the site, including Japan in 1937, " Jiandao Province Site investigation report "1939," Tokyo, the city of Bohai in Beijing Longquan house excavation site investigation "and China Jinyufu Sir, "annals of Bohai Changbian" collection of text tile. In summary, there are more than and 250 characters and symbols. Mr. Li Qiang will be divided into three categories, namely, words and symbols in different classes. He believes that Bohai did not create the national language, the so-called singular words can be said to be the most Chinese characters variants of a word or by artisan culture degree caused by finite typos. This kind of different word dispel most of the other three word cannot be said to be the people of Bohai from the text, which may be caused by the craftsmen do what sign, stamp form non-standard reason.
The two is that Bohai state owned their own native language, to express their ideas and noun national essence, according to the unique pronunciation of the native language, created the national language. South Korean scholar Jin Zaishan argued that in Bohai have their own characters, with unique voice. With Goguryeo , Khitan, Jurchen nationality as reference Chinese characters written by yinxun notation to express their national feelings, delight in literature, proper names and place names. And put forward this practice in North Korea has been popular. Which he referred to "Japan Ji" before 14 set: "Bohai chief high out of Dover, leave The country Place, The Chinese Even if the ticket and the history of Shengyu long horse born Xi Bohai. . Bohai Tong Xi cover Chinese characters and its language center, has not included Chinese characters sound, so don't to show that this new system, to know the origin of the singular "that Bohai is the country of the nation's own language. Good and gold in still another article " Li Bai With Bohai "in the text" Li Taibai Wang dust essay "cloud:" Bohai state-owned book in the Tang Dynasty, there is no solution, Li Bai can solve the answer". Pointed out that Bohai in ruins Found on the text, a considerable number of tiles are unable to interpret the pronunciation and meaning of words. This is also possible for the people of Bohai the national character, according to the Chinese national development suitable for the use of the word pronunciation.

Balhae Nation

Bohai is a multi-ethnic country, there are Mohe , Goguryeo , Khitan , The Han people , Xi people Nine, surnamed Hu, regardless of clutter, Uighur A number of people. From the family, which belongs to the Mohe another name for the Ruzhen Family, Koguryo Puyo - Yemaek Family, Khitan and Xi and belongs to Gu Eastern Hu - Xianbei Family, belong to the Han people China In the family, and nine belong to the miscellaneous surname Hu The Turks Family. The main ethnic groups in Bohai, China is generally considered the Mohe, to be exact Sumomohe Also, some scholars believe that the Baishan mohe. But North Korea and South Korea believe that Bohai is to Goguryeo Mainly, Mohe were minority.
Jin Ji sun , Guo Zhong Wei Other scholars believe that the Bohai China in founding and development in the integration of many tribes, the formation of a new nation, namely "Bohai nationality". But this says controversial scholar Jinxiang , Yong Zhen Zheng Bohai said that Bohai can not be established, all domestic have different language, different customs, not into a whole, so Bohai should still be regarded as multi ethnic country.
After the founding of Bohai has made more than ten million households, a population of about 70 - 800 thousand, the late population gradually increased to about 3 million.

Balhae International Relations

Balhae And the Central Plains

The state of Bohai and the Tang Dynasty maintained Vassal relations With the south. Xinluo country The same is the Tang Dynasty Vassal . The Tang Dynasty established "Bohai two and Xinluo affairs will Xinluo, Bohai, together with the inclusion of foreigners in the bin gongke, Emperor Dezong of Tang , Emperor Wenzong of Tang When Xiazhao "Chinese incompatible with Xinluo , The Bohai Sea Foreigners buying traffic" These facts show that the Tang Dynasty, the state of Bohai and Xinluo is seen as the equivalent of the "foreign" or "foreign country". But Bohai, unlike Xinluo, Bohai without Tang Zhengshuo, has his own reign, even self-esteem" The Emperor "," sage "Xinluo inscriptions and literature in the self proclaimed" Datang Xinluo country "," Tang Xinluo country ", and the Bohai instruments is not yet found the words. The Bohai than Xinluo with strong independence, the relationship between Bohai and Tang Dynasty in the world in order to intimacy, Datang's position is slightly inferior to Xinluo. But it doesn't change Bohai's politically from the Tang Dynasty to the truth, can only say that the Bohai country has both internal and external duality, is independent of internal and external, especially in Tang Dynasty is vassal state . Bohai's first organized into a dudufu of Tang Dynasty ( Suddenly, doudufu sweat The monarch), only the second, the name is Tang Dynasty under the local control regime. 762 years of Tang Dynasty imperial Bohai for the country, but still The Tang Empire A system of Canonization Subsidiary of the country And always perform, including tribute, pilgrimage, He Zheng, on the proton, and between the Tang Dynasty vassal obligations, in politics, economy and culture etc. keep in frequent contact with close contact.
 Bohai Beijing Yongxing temple ruins Bohai Beijing Yongxing temple ruins
At that time, the king of Bohai came to the throne must be The emperor of the Tang Dynasty Sent to the canonization of legal, and years to the Tang Dynasty Pay tribute And sent into sub Su wei. 200 years of time, although there have been contradictions and disputes, and in Wu Yi The outbreak of a war, but overall, Qinmu friendly relations is the mainstream of Tang bo. Bohai traffic and the Tang Dynasty as "tribute", namely in Bohai the Western Capital Yalu, a The Yalu River To. Dengzhou (now Shandong Yantai), leading to the The city of Changan . Tang Bo trade is mainly to tribute trade The form of the Tang Dynasty sent to Bohai tributary missions 132 times to Back rest , Tang Send mission each 5, 6 times, each time will be given back to a large number of Tang dynasty". In addition to the tributary, the Tang Dynasty Dengzhou is one of the main distribution center of Bohai commodity sales to the Tang dynasty. Here all the year round parked Bohai "pay off the ship". In the Tang Dynasty Qingzhou (Monday Dengzhou) set the "Bohai Museum", in charge of the same business in Bohai area. A skin, seal skin, skin, white tiger skin, marten fur, leather, horses, sheep, mainly to the export of Bohai Eagle tang, Costin Hellbenders, Falcon, whale eye, mullet, dried fish, the ginseng, kelp, bezoar, hair, pine nuts, Huang Ming, white monkshood, honey, gold and silver, gold and silver statues, sixty mechanized cloth, silk, silk, fish teeth glow boots, agate cabinet, purple porcelain basin mouth, mouth, and female servant etc.. There are mainly imported silk, silk and other silk robes, crown belt, millet, herbs, and vessels of gold and silver classics books etc..
Bohai's influence by the Tang Dynasty, the military and political system of the Tang Dynasty; the economy is actively introduce advanced agricultural technology in the Central Plains, the social and economic development with the mainland trade significantly, but also never; widely absorbs the culture of Tang Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty sent a large number of students learning, through the literature can be recognized by the Bohai student Li Juzheng, Zhu Chengzhao, Liu Tang, Gao Shouhai Ming Chu solution, Zhaoxiaoming , Bao Jun Liu Ukraine, Ukraine, Zhao guangzan, high solid, Wu Chao Deng Tang et al Department of bin gong. From the poet Wen Tingyun " The prince of Bohai to send home "The famous poem can be seen in Bohai and Tang Dynasty intimacy and blending status. The poem said: "although the heavy sea and Xinjiang, book a car. Sheng Hoon return to the motherland, in line The Chinese people . And autumn rose, open sail to Shu xia. Nine pretty good, looking back at the horizon."

Balhae With Xinluo

Bohai Xinluo Neighboring each other, although the same as the two countries Datang Dong Fan, but tensions. Go of Balhae In view of national period is weak, rather briefly in Xinluo, Xinluo has received "the five big Can" was. But then the two countries in the territory, economic and political interests of the two countries always conflict, in opposition to state for a long time. 732 years Wu Yi The invasion of the Tang Dynasty, Xinluo Tang asked the offensive in southern Bohai, but was also without success. Then Bohai also tried to unite Japan from Xinluo. To the end of Bohai, Xinluo and Bohai in the Tang Dynasty took place in front of the "indisputable long" incident, Xinluo literati Choe Chiwon As a "table" in the north to Xie, itself" Hibiscus flowers Bohai is a village "" Hu Shi China". At the same time the people of Xinluo and people of Bohai for the event bin Gongke ranking. The death of Bohai, Xinluo also has Fabing help.
The Tang Dynasty in Bohai and Xinluo between the differentiation" Play off one power against another "Strategy is one of the important causes of confrontation between the two countries. Although the two countries have been in a state of confrontation, but not on behalf of the two completely diffidation, " The new book of Tang "Clearly documented in Nanjing South Sea House (now North Korea BYD ) is the hub of the "Xinluo road" exists , " Samguk sagi "Also records Xinluo Sent two "North" (Bohai) So, the Bohai Romania especially with folk should still.

Balhae With Japan

Bohai Japan The relationship is quite friendly. According to records, in Bohai from 727 years, a total of 34 times (sent to Japan 3 times, Japan defeated the shipwrecked) sent to Bohai 13 times, until the The Dongdan state There are still sent envoys during the day. Bohai has opened up a shuttle The sea of Japan Japan's "Tao", as Bo day channel between the two countries. "Japan" route from Bohai to Tokyo The original dragon palace (now Jilin Hunchun According to) Salt state (now Russia Kraskino ) in Hong Kong, across the sea of Japan, arrived in Japan portal Dazaifu (this Kyushu Fukuoka ) or other ports along the coast. But also from Nanjing South Sea House The number of days to spit pu. Bohai early on exchanges, and is due to The Tang Dynasty The tension and the surrounding tribal relations with Japan, so want to aid, open the isolation of the situation. 758 years later, Bohai and Japan and attempting to attack the United Xinluo . But with the Bohai position changes, this military alliance also stopped, from the beginning of the 762 years, Bohai will no longer send Wu ambassador to Japan, but changed to fumiomi, Bohai communication will become increasingly frequent bilateral economic and cultural. In the economy, Bohai to the Japanese tiger (tiger), output leather, leopard, bearskin ginseng, honey and other native silk, imported from Japan, silk, cotton, color silk, and silk etc.. In culture, the two envoys of responding poems, music and dance in each input. Chinese characters cultural circle The history of writing a brilliant page. It is worth noting that Bohai not only directly communicate with Japan, but also plays an intermediary role in the exchange of Japan in Tang dynasty. Such as the Bohai country to help Japanese kentoshi In the Tang Dynasty, and returned to Japan to study aid monks and students returned to Tang Dynasty and Tang Japanese, convey brigade letters and articles, the information transfer in Tang dynasty. In addition to Bohai in Japan in Tang Dynasty cultural relics, such as the Tang Dynasty " Changqing Xuanmingli "And" respect the holy Sanskrit mantra "spread to japan.
 Bohai Province Taiwan to the Japanese government officials too. Bohai Province Taiwan to the Japanese government officials too.
However, the relationship between Bohai and Japan are disharmonious factors, mainly lies in the relations between the two countries is not equal. Bohai will relations with Japan as a peer attention to diplomacy, of the Tang Dynasty Pay tribute This relationship, from Bohai's envoys for Tang, and the fact that Japan's big sent envoys seldom can be seen. Wushu and diplomatic relations between Japan's credentials have "made appointment o" and "Yongdun good neighbor" to describe the equality of good neighborly relations statement. But at that time in Japan The thought of But the extreme expansion of "Chinese" always regarded Bohai as "foreign country", as a tribute to Bohai, the two countries can not therefore conflict. From the beginning of the 753 years, Japan requires Bohai with Fan Li, 771 years took place in Japan in Bohai "illegal credentials rude" and refused to accept the event, then the Bohai relations occur frequently in Bohai and Japan's "rude" and "illegal" and "no" or mission carrying business travel by return Bohai Beijing envoys credentials or even refuse to do. Bohai adhere to independent equality, maintain independent dignity.
Japan asked Bohai tributary is based on Bohai Goguryeo Successor states and Goguryeo is Japan's tributary country, so Bohai has the obligation to Japan to render tribute to the conqueror in Japan for the first time, such as Bohai itself is to invoke Goguryeo ("search routine Korea The old record ") Later, the emperor Bohai credentials have "kaoi following the thread, each mu and seek; we (referring to Bohai's complex) medium, also accounted for the vast and extravagant wind" "In Korea, its heyday when Wang Gaowu, Ju Ying Yi ancestors who lies, brothers, if the righteous. Sail the sea mountain ladder, tributary continued. Caught between season, Gao fall. Since, since the news, the vast silence. Yuan Ji turtle for four years, Wang Xiankao my Wei generals Prince Bohai Zuojinwan, sent to North Korea, began to repair tribute" Statement. Therefore, Japan said in Bohai" Country of Koryo "Or" Goguryeo "Bohai king", called the king of Korea "," the envoy ambassador to Korea". Japan sent envoys to Bohai or boats, called "sent Korea" and "Korea people to send", or "sent Korean ship". Bohai showed the inheritance of Koguryo consciousness, such as Wu Yi "Letter to the Japanese in the complex Korea The former residence, a Fuyu The relic" , Gang of Balhae By Japan's credentials "wind of interest, since the tireless in admiring Guaqing; often, be in pursuit kaoi" etc.. About this problem, some scholars believe that Bohai in Korea itself is not diplomatic language, but based on the reality of our awareness of Koguryo inheritance. China scholar Guo Zhong Wei Other advocates called Bohai Koryo is Japan's unilateral processing scam, aim to induce Bohai to concede defeat, and speculated that "Korean" called by the Bohai boycott.

Balhae And the nomadic people

In addition to the Tang dynasty, Xinluo Japan, etc. Chinese characters cultural circle Countries outside Bohai, and The Turks , Heishui Mohe , Huihe The nomadic and hunting, the tribe and the existence of the regime of diplomatic relations. The Turks ( After the Turkic Khanate ) Bohai is the first country to establish diplomatic relations, new and old Tangshu records Go of Balhae A first sent to the Turkic communication. Just when the founding of Bohai is itself in the Turks, protected by the Turks, Turks stationed" Tudun Monitors; by Tang and the formation of Zhaofu book sealed two genera and the relationship between the Tang Dynasty and the Turks, after the Turkic Khanate decline, this relationship does not exist. Bohai is to meet the need of the Turks, and the Turks not agree, so immediately after the fall of the Turks, and the Turks get rid of subordination. According to historical records, the Turks in 735 years has sent Bohai, Bohai sent troops to help the Turkish attack Khitan and Xi But, Bohai Wu Wu Yi But the angel will detain. Bohai and the Turks at this time have been visible from.
For the following The Turks Xing Huihe Khanate There is no historical records of Bohai, and their relationship. But from the archaeological excavated Turkic script Stone, Nestorianism Cross style pottery and other artifacts of view and badge, Uighur people In May rate Bing (now Russia Ussuriysk Area) is engaged in the business activities, and put the Nestorian faith into Bohai territory.
The ancestors of the Bohai had long been in Camp state and Cathayan The common life, and part of the Khitan people launched Business in the state of chaos Therefore, the initial Bohai and Qidan good relations, even in the period of may have some kind of Wushu alliance or tacit understanding. But overall, tension in Bohai and the Khitan, contains the history of Bohai in the western border town Fuyu Palace "Often Tunjin these Khitan soldiers". Later the Emperor Yelv abaoji The crusade against Bohai, called Bohai "a" Japan. Emperor Daigo Yes The Dongdan state The envoys of the imperial edict also said: "I smell in the world of an Bohai Khitan, the kingdom" Remarkable, hostile relations between Bohai and china.
Bohai Heishui Mohe Also the hostile relations. Wu Yi That is caused by the invasion of Tang and Heishui Mohe competition. Later on the Bohai Heishui Mohe gradually prevail, mergers, whisk the pinch, more like t l, Yu Lou, South Blackwater Mohe tribes, set the state and county rule, which ceased and Wang Hui Carry on (ie no longer tribute to Tang Dynasty, and Chen Bohai).

Balhae List of monarchs

Posthumous Full name Nianhao In the age of The canonization of the situation
Wang strong Da Zhong like see the light again - -
High King Go of Balhae The day 698 years -719 years 713 years of Tang Dynasty canonized as the left Xiaowei generals, Bohai governor, and the governor of Prefecture Khan
posthumous title of the Zhou-dynasty founder
  
Wu Yi Ringha
  
719 years -737 years 719 years of Tang Dynasty canonized as the left Xiaowei generals, Bohai governor, and the governor of Prefecture Khan
father of the first Zhou king Emperor Mun of Balhae Daxing
  
737 years -774 years
737 years of Tang Dynasty canonized as the left Xiaowei generals, Bohai governor, and the governor of Prefecture Khan
Trimble In the tired, gat Prince Zhan Shi guest
762 years of the king of Bohai, Qiu Jin Feng calibration
In Dali, Qiu Sagong kapay tired
Calendar 774 years -782 years
Daxing 782 years -793 years
Wang waste Yuan Yi - 793 years -
Wang Dahua Yu ZTE 793 years -794 years -
health king Gang of Balhae Is the calendar 794 years -809 years
795 years of Tang Dynasty canonized as the left Xiaowei generals, Bohai King
798 years plus Yin Guanglu doctor, calibration Sagong, Jin Feng king of Bohai
805 years, Jin Lu Sagong, doctor calibration
806 years plus calibration Qiu
King Jeong of Balhae Yongde 809 years -812 years 809 years of Tang Dynasty canonized as Yin Guanglu doctor, Secretary of state supervision, and calibration of Khan captaincy general, the king of Bohai
Wang Xi Big meaning Rosefinch 812 years -817 years 813 years of Tang Dynasty canonized as Yin Guanglu doctor, Secretary of state supervision, and calibration of Khan captaincy general, the king of Bohai
Jane Wang Gan of Balhae It is too 817 years -818 years -
King Xuan Seon of Balhae LITE-ON 818 years -830 years
818 years of Tang Dynasty canonized as Yin Guanglu doctor, Secretary of state supervision, and calibration of Khan captaincy general, the king of Bohai
805 years, Jin Lu Sagong, doctor calibration
- Dae Ijin Salty and 830 years -857 years 831 years of Tang Dynasty canonized as Yin Guanglu doctor, Secretary of state supervision, and calibration of Khan captaincy general, the king of Bohai
Wang Yuan Dae Geonhwang Huanglong 857 years -871 years 858 years of Tang Dynasty canonized as Yin Guanglu doctor, Secretary of state supervision, and calibration of Khan captaincy general, the king of Bohai
Jing Wang Dae hyeonseok The dew 871 years -894 years By the Tang Dynasty canonization, time, is unknown
- Dae wihae - 894 years -906 years
  
By the Tang Dynasty canonization, time, is unknown
The king of sorrow Dae inseon Tian Shou 906 years -926 years suffer Wu Yue of China Qian Liu Canonization, time is unknown,

737 years of Tang Dynasty canonized as the left Xiaowei generals, Bohai governor, and the governor of Prefecture Khan
Trimble In the tired, gat Prince Zhan Shi guest
762 years of the king of Bohai, Qiu Jin Feng calibration
In Dali, Qiu Sagong kapay tired
795 years of Tang Dynasty canonized as the left Xiaowei generals, Bohai King
798 years plus Yin Guanglu doctor, calibration Sagong, Jin Feng king of Bohai
805 years, Jin Lu Sagong, doctor calibration
806 years plus calibration Qiu
818 years of Tang Dynasty canonized as Yin Guanglu doctor, Secretary of state supervision, and calibration of Khan captaincy general, the king of Bohai
805 years, Jin Lu Sagong, doctor calibration

Balhae Ownership dispute

Bohai is in 7 - tenth Century Northeast Asia A major political area, but could not leave the first hand data, the later study related records in Bohai on the only Tang Zhaohe of Japan and the archaeological data. Due to the lack of historical data, a lot of questions about Bohai's have not reached a consensus, especially its historical status and ownership is more relevant countries (especially China) the focus of controversy.

Balhae China

The earliest record of Bohai's literature is the people of the Tang Dynasty in early ninth Century Jian Zhang Zhang Write "Bohai", "New Tang Bohai" refer to the content of the book, but has been lost in the process of spreading. On the understanding of the Bohai Chinese is to " Book of Tang "And" The new book of Tang "As the foundation, always think that Bohai is the Chinese Mohe The people of the country. In twentieth Century, China the emergence of "Bohai Zhi" in Tang yan, Huangweihan "Bohai in mind" and Jinyufu Research on "the Bohai annals works a long series of" Bohai in the history of Bohai conducted a preliminary arrangement. After the new China was just launched a comprehensive research work in Bohai, including the historical data and archaeological excavations and research works, especially Northeast Engineering More to promote the research on the Bohai's Chinese.
Modern China believe that Bohai is part of the Tang Dynasty of the local minority regime, is a part of Chinese history and the local history of northeast china. The main basis is: first, Bohai is Mohe nationality The establishment of the country, while the Mohe family is ancient ethnic Chinese territory. Two, Bohai accepted the Tang Dynasty to the Tang Dynasty and had canonized, tribute, has sent into sub Shi, He Zheng, and other obligations of the hajj. Three, Bohai belongs to the territory of Tang Dynasty, was designated as the Tang Dynasty Suddenly, doudufu sweat And, like other Jimifuzhou, the Tang Dynasty and the implementation of prison administration of Bohai. Four, Bohai officials appointed by the Tang Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty granted Bohai envoy rank, while Bohai people can also in the Tang Dynasty official. Five, the Bohai region mainly in the China territory, according to the China historians principle, who in the history of Chinese within the scope of nation and the regime, is a part of China history, the history of China by the Central Plains and border regime together From this point of view, a part of the principle of China Bohai belongs to history, and the land of Bohai in the Zhou Dynasty. another name for the Ruzhen Is the "North Chinese soil", since ancient times is an inalienable part of the territory of Chinese. Six, Bohai is deeply influenced by the culture of Tang Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty are imitating the form ", a book" situation with the Tang Dynasty, we can see that the consistency of the Tang Dynasty and Bohai. Seven, after the fall of Bohai, the majority of residents are Han assimilation, become a member of the Chinese nation, only 7% of the people in The Korean Peninsula . Chinese said Bohai's history textbook "was included in the territory of Tang Dynasty", in addition to Bohai's "country" and "separatist regime" and other statements, in Bohai have insisted that the country is part of the Tang Dynasty view.

Balhae The Korean Peninsula

North Korea Xinluo Since the past dynasties were not regarded Bohai as the same country. Xinluo literati Choe Chiwon In the "table" in the north to Xie said in Bohai for this attachment Goguryeo "Sumomohe small fan" and "Mohe family", but in "Tang and Jiangxi", "Dr. Xiang Pei and Shangzan" and "Rites" in the shape of Taishi on "but he said this sentence Li, Bohai", "in the sentence Li, is this Bohai", "Koguryo residual evil groups, North poly Taibai Mountain The country, Bohai, on the one hand it seems that Bohai is the Mohe nation, on the other hand that Bohai is the successor state of goguryeo. Some scholars believe that Xinluo has deliberately put Bohai under the name of Kokuryo, is to remind the Tang Dynasty to Gaogouli yuhen passed on to the head of Bohai. Korea people Kim Bu sik For " Samguk sagi ", which also called Bohai" Bohai Mohe "and" Mohe "," Bei Di "and" Di ", means that it is not the Bohai lead to similar. Joseon Dynasty Early Jeong in Ji The repair " Goryeosa Also called "the Bohai" Sumomohe Also". The earliest in Bohai as The history of the Korean Peninsula That is the late Joseon Dynasty literati Yu deuk Gong In 1784, he wrote a book on "Bohai" strongly urged to name the Bohai section of the order all writes:
"Korea does not repair the history of Bohai, Korea is also the vibration. The Gao said in the north. Goguryeo Fuyu; in the west, said Baekje Portsmouth, celecoxib, Kim; living in the southeast, said Xinluo . Is suitable for the three countries, the history of Three Kingdoms, and high Lixiu, is! And Fuyu's death, Gao Kim died, the south, the North's large, said Bohai is called North and South China . Should the South Korean history, while Korea does not repair the non! The husband's big man? But the people of koguryo. All the land where? Is the land of goguryeo."
Liu Degong will not only clear in Bohai included in the national history, is also proposed in the times of North and south. At the beginning of the twentieth Century, the nationalist historian shin chae-ho Again the status of Bohai, he criticized Kim Bu sik with Sadaejuui The guiding ideology of writing " Samguk sagi "While ignoring the north of the Bohai, he even mentioned Bohai High King Go of Balhae And the king Seon of Balhae When the elevation is called the "emperor" and "emperor xuan". Despite the appeal, but will be regarded as the history of Bohai The history of the Korean Peninsula It has not yet become a mainstream in 1960s, "Xinluo united" is still the prevailing view, however, after 1960s, with the South Korean nationalist historiography gradually replaced the positivist historiography in Bohai, began to be considered Korean history, representative of Li Longfan and Li You; at the same time, North Korea began to re-examine the history of Bohai, the earliest in Xinluo unified question is the former North Korean leader Kim Jong Il In 1960, he published the "review" of the three problems in the article emphasizes unity Xinluo There is no unified three, because the north and Goguryeo Bohai's existing inheritance. Since then, with Pu Shiheng Zhang Guozhong as the representative of the Korean scholars also started the research of the history of Bohai. As a result, Bohai will be North Korea and South Korea to its history.
The basic idea of the modern North and South Korea is the country belongs to the Bohai The history of the Korean Peninsula Bohai, Goguryeo inherits the country, Go of Balhae As the Goguryeo Dynasty, is also the main nationality in Bohai Goguryeo . Which South Korea will Bohai and Xinluo as a mutual confrontation" North and South China Times "North Korea is regarded Bohai as the orthodox, Xinluo will be excluded. They will Chinese historical records of Bohai as "Korea type" and the "Korea" historical records in Japan and Bohai is called "Korean" as Da zuorong was Goguryeo, Bohai is the successor state of Goguryeo basis, and through the archaeological data obtained in Bohai culture Goguryeo Conclusion culture. Korean scholar Pu Shiheng believes Bohai's Royal and Gaogouli Royal kaoi are of the same origin Zhang Guozhong believes that the people of Bohai, 70% - 80% are Goguryeo, Mohe and other races, but 20% - 30% In the history, claimed that Bohai is called Mohe or sumomohe is denied Bohai Kokuryo successor state and deliberate. In this regard, although South Korea and North Korea is not much difference, but not monolithic, such as South Korea's Bohai history expert Jihao song that Da zuorong was Sumomohe People, but said the Goguryeo Mohe, after all, still emphasize the Koguryo attributes, and that Bohai's ruling class for Goguryeo, while the lower is the Mohe people There are also scholars pointed out that South Korea; Xinluo And no family consciousness and unity consciousness between Bohai, so it is difficult to be called "north and South china". In addition to Bohai's ownership, North Korea and South Korea scholars tend to Bohai is an independent country, Korea scholars call Bohai "the emperor of China" or "imperial Empire", denying Bohai for the Tang Dynasty Vassal Reduce or avoid the canonization of the Tang Dynasty, Bohai; South Korean scholars believe that Bohai has to Tang vassal state And in the dual attribute of imperial Empire Also, Koreans simply to "imperial Bohai" called. And they think Chinese local regime in Bohai as belonging to the Tang Dynasty's point of view is to adopt double standards in Bohai and Xinluo, Chinese critique of "distorting" the history of Bohai. Thus, China and the Korean Peninsula in Bohai in the history of considerable disagreements.