Pine (Latin name: Pinus Linn) Pinaceae
A plant in the genus of evergreen trees, rare shrubs, with smooth bark resin; or slit or flaky peeling; winter bud scales; the branch has long branch and short branch branch, long branch of unlimited growth, but there is no green leaves, scalelike leaves and twigs is not highly developed, was born in Long Branch scaly leaf axils, unisexual flowers monoecious; male flowers axillary, base clusters in young, most of a spiciform, pollen balloon; female flowers side or subterminal, solitary or multiple cone beam, shape, symmetry or oblique, pedunculate or sessile, third years mature, a pearl scale developed when ripe Seed scales
, wood, thick, the exposed part of the name Scale Shield
(Apophysis), scale shield back or top part of uplift name Umbo
(Umbo); seeds winged or wingless. Genus of about 80 species, distributed in the northern hemisphere, from the Arctic to North Africa, and South Asia until the Sino US equator
To the south, Chinese has 22 species and 10 varieties, widely distributing, is one of the most important tree species for afforestation.
Pine The origin of the time
1 ancient geography evidence
Pine is mainly distributed in the northern hemisphere, the southern hemisphere basically no pine trail, after which pine originated in the unified Pangaea split. The ancient geography research shows that Pangaea split into Laurasia and Gondwana in the Early Triassic Mesozoic time.
2 palynological evidence
Foreign reports on pine fossils in the Cretaceous strata in the excavation of Belgium Belgium pine (P.belgica) is the earliest fossil. China science Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology by Mr. Zhang Lujin in Sichuan Weiyuan area based on the sporopollen found three late Triassic, Weiyuan pine (P.weiyuanensis) and surrounded by pine (P.amplexus) 2 fossil species, and the genus for two types of pine kossen genus vascular pollen fossils. That has appeared in the Late Triassic in Kangdian oldland pine and differentiation, can even distinguish single and double vascular type.
Conclusion pine originated in Mesozoic triassic.
Pine Place of origin
North America lacks the most primitive subgenus (Group), but it has 15 Pinus in subgroup 12, 54 and 95 species, more than other areas, it should be the modern distribution center of pinus.
Between the modern distribution center of origin and there is a certain distance. The origin of the plant should have the earliest fossils and primitive taxa most concentrated the evolutionary stage of taxa are represented the area, and this area since this genus occurs again without huge disaster. Pine sporopollen have discovered late Triassic strata in the Weiyuan area of Sichuan Chinese, this is the earliest fossil record of pine. The eastern Chinese southwest and Indochina Vietnam has focused on the 2 of the original 2 subgenus group and 4 of the original sub group (Subsect. Krempfianae, Subsect. Balfourianae, Subsect. Genardlianae, Subsect. Cembroides) in the first 3 groups on behalf of the history and the huge disaster occurred, Pinus plant originated in this area the maximum likelihood. The Triassic, here in the eastern margin of the ancient Mediterranean, belongs to the Kangdian ancient land and the Indosinian paleo climate, humid tropical and subtropical climate. This is a good explanation of the Pinus plant can be extended to other genera of Pinaceae and tropical regions was not able to reason. The passage of time, climate change, Pinus gradually adapted to drought, cold environment, forming a species widely distributed in northern hemisphere of the.
Pine Morphological character
Evergreen trees, rare shrubs; branches verticillate, born each year a day or two or more sections; winter bud bud scales were numerous, imbricate.
There are two types: leaf scale leaf (primary leaf) solitary, spirally arranged, in the seedling period for flat bar, green, after gradually degenerated into membranous bract, base decurrent along the growth or not; coniferous (secondary leaf) spiral health, radiation spread, often 2 needle 3, needle or 5 needles in bunches, bractlike scales in the axilla, was born in the development of short branch top, leaf sheath base composed of needles each bundle of 8-12 pieces of the bud scales, leaf coniferous deciduous or persistent, margin entire or serrulate, back without stomatal lines or stomatal lines, gas hole line on both sides of the ventral, transverse triangular, fan-shaped triangle or semicircle, resin with 1-2 bundle and 2 to more than and 10 Chinese students or students in the thin edge. Flowers unisexual, monoecious; bracts axillary shoots in the lower part of the male ball of peanut, most gathered into spiciform, sessile, splay or drooping, stamens numerous, spirally arranged, anther chamber 2, the crack, connective scaly, margin with fine micro tooth, pollen balloon; female flowers solitary or 2-4 was born near the top of branches, erect or pendulous, composed of most of the spiral and the ovuliferous scale bract, ovuliferous scale abdominal (on) surface base with 2 anatropous, dorsal (lower) surface of the base with a short bracts.
Small fruit second years after fertilization in spring grew rapidly, erect or pendulous cones, with stems or sessile; scales of woody, persistent, closely arranged, the upper part is a "Scale Shield", there is no transverse ridge or transverse ridge, apex or central scale shield with a warty salient "scale umbilical, umbo spiny or unarmed; cone second years (dilute third years) autumn, when ripe seed scales open, not open out, dilute, seed shedding, scale development with 2 seed; the upper seeds with long wings, wings and a combination of seed, or the joint and the seeds from, or with short winged or wingless; cotyledon 3-18, germination unearthed.
This genus of about 80 species, distributed in the northern hemisphere, north to the Arctic, South Africa, China, Indochina peninsula south of the equator where sumatra. As the main species of timber production and the world. China of 22 species and 10 varieties, distribution throughout the country, such as pine, Huashan pine, Yunnan pine, Pinus massoniana, Pinus sylvestris, etc. as the main forest species in China, at the same time in the future still occupies an important position on reforestation. The other people of 16 species and 2 varieties, including slash pine and loblolly pine, Pinus caribaea, Ye Song, pine, pine, just grow faster and are promising tree species.
Pine Subordinate classification
Diploxylon Pinus Subgen. Pinus
Single bundle Pinus Subgen. Strobus (Sweet) Rehd.
Pine A list of
P. armandii of Huashan pine
Jack Ye Song P. banksiana
Caribbean pine P. caribaea
Dabeshanensis P. dabeshanensis
P.densata P. densata
Pine P. densiflora
Bud pine P. echinata
P. elliottii of Pinus elliottii
Hainan pine P. FENZELIANA
Tibet P. gerardiana.
Joe pine P. griffithii
P.henryi P. henryi
Korean pine P. koraiensis
Southern China pine P. kwangtungensis
South Pine P. latteri
Masson P. massoniana
Taiwan pine P. morrisonicola
European black pine P. nigra
Ye Song P. palustris
Japanese white pine P. parviflora
P. pinaster of Pinus pinaster
Ponderosa pine P. ponderosa
P. pumila Pinus pumila
Just loose P. rigida
Tibet captain Ye Song P. roxburghii
Xinjiang pine P. sibirica
Pinus strobus P. strobus
Scots pine P. sylvestris
P. tabuliformis of Pinus tabulaeformis
P. taeda of loblolly pine
Mount Huangshan pine P. taiwanensis
Xingkai Lake pine P. takahasii
Tropical pine P. tropicalis
Pinones P. virginiana
Pinus wangii P. wangii
Yunnan pine P. yunnanensis
Pine This kind of mode Scots pine P. sylvestris
The origin of trees, up to 40 m tall; bark red brown, foliated deciduous; branchlets reddish brown Taupe; winter buds oblong, ovoid, with resin. Conifer needles in bunches of 2, blue green, thick and hard, usually twisted, 3-7 cm long, diameter of about 1.5-2 mm, apex, both sides have stomatal lines, margin serrulate; transverse semicircular, subcutaneous layer cell monolayer, leaves of resin canal edge. Female flowers have short stems, pendulous, fruit kind of scales with small spikes. When ripe dark brown cones, conical ovoid, basally symmetrical slightly oblique, 3-6 cm long; scale scale shield flat or triangular shaped uplift, umbo small, often spikes.
Native to Europe, for distribution of common forest tree. Northeast China culture.
And the use of wood properties of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica and luetong. Used as a garden tree.
Pine The main value
Texture, straight or oblique, structure to rough, the material is hard or soft, easy construction. For the construction, poles, sleepers, pillar, bridge, vehicle, material, tools, appliances and furniture etc, also can be used as industrial raw materials of wood fiber. Trees can be used to mining, bark, needles, roots can be used, made of a variety of chemical products, seed oil. Medicinal turpentine, pine pollen, pine needles and turpentine from various pine harvesting and extraction. The majority of white pine have larger seeds, edible. Most of the species for forest regeneration, afforestation, greening and garden trees.