Name. In China belongs to a local ethnic autonomy
The regime, and the same as ordinary administrative status of the county, but in accordance with the Constitution of the People's Republic of China
The provisions of autonomous counties (banners) compared with the general county has more authority. To the end of 2015, China, a total of 120 ethnic autonomous counties (banners).
autonomous county Overview
China is a country with 56 ethnic groups, more than 1 billion 300 million people, 9 million 600 thousand square kilometers of land area of the country, the form of state structure is unitary, in a single system, the implementation of the system of regional ethnic autonomy, which is a new Chinese in the political system of a creation. Practice has proved that 60 years of the founding of new China, the regional national autonomy system is suitable for the situation of our country, it is successful, correctly handle the relationship between various nationalities in China, safeguarding national unity and national unity.
August 1952, The Central People's Government
The Committee approved by The State Council
Through the "regional ethnic autonomy implementation program". In accordance with the provisions of the "implementation program", at that time, the establishment of administrative position is equivalent to the township (Village), District, county, area or area above the level of national autonomous areas. From the provisions of the "implementation program" can be seen at that time from the township (Village) to the provincial level with the national autonomous areas, ethnic autonomous areas and then formed now has a considerable difference.
Autonomous County (banner) is in Country
Under the unified leadership, the Ethnic minority
In the local implementation of county regional autonomy, set up The organs of self-government
The exercise of autonomy, the county (banner).
autonomous county Name list
autonomous county North China (9)
autonomous county The Northeast (12)
autonomous county East China (1)
autonomous county The central region (9)
autonomous county Southern China (21) The Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
autonomous county Southwest (48)
autonomous county Northwest (20)
autonomous county Features
Chinese is a unified multi-ethnic country, so far, recognized by the central government of the nation 56. The population of the other 55 ethnic groups have a relatively small population, used to be called ethnic minorities.
The fifth national census in 2000 statistics, the minority population is 106 million 430 thousand people, accounting for 8.41% of the total population. Multi ethnic countries the world has different system mode in dealing with ethnic problems, Chinese is used in regional autonomy of minority nationalities.
Regional national autonomy is under the unified leadership of the state, the ethnic minority inhabited areas organs of self-government are established to exercise the power of autonomy, the implementation of regional autonomy. The Chinese regional national autonomy to solve the ethnic problems, is an institutional arrangement based on its historical development, cultural characteristics, ethnic relations and ethnic distribution in specific circumstances, to meet the requirements of common interests and development of the people of all ethnic groups. Chinese the Constitution and the law on regional ethnic autonomy and make clear provisions on regional national autonomy and its implementation. The system of regional ethnic autonomy is a basic political system of China. National autonomous areas Chinese divided into autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous county level three.
The establishment of People's Republic of China before 1947, in China under the leadership of the Communist Party, the liberated China Mongolian area established Chinese first provincial ethnic autonomous region the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
After the founding of new Chinese, Chinese government began full implementation of the regional ethnic autonomy in ethnic minority inhabited areas. In October 1955, the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region was established; in March 1958, the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region was established; in October 1958, the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region was established in September 1965, the establishment of the Tibet autonomous region. At present, Chinese has established 155 ethnic autonomous areas, including 5 autonomous regions, 30 autonomous prefectures and 120 autonomous counties (banners). Of the 55 ethnic minorities, has established 44 autonomous areas, the implementation of regional autonomy of minority population accounts for 71% of the total population. At the same time, Chinese was the equivalent of township ethnic minority inhabited areas established 1173 ethnic townships, as a supplement of the national autonomous areas. 11 because the population is less and less and no region inhabited by ethnic minorities in the autonomous region, there are 9 ethnic townships built. According to the provisions of the Constitution and the law on regional national autonomy, the organs of self-government, the autonomous region, autonomous prefecture or Autonomous County People's Congress and the people's government, the local state organs in the exercise of their authority and autonomy.
autonomous county Autonomous management of internal affairs
The Standing Committee of the people's Congress Chinese 155 national autonomous areas are the implementation of regional autonomy of ethnic citizens as director or deputy director, chairman of the autonomous region, autonomous prefecture or autonomous county are all from the implementation of regional autonomy of ethnic citizens. The other members of the organs of self-government of the departments under the law, reasonable with the implementation of regional autonomy of ethnic minority cadres and other ethnic minority cadres. At present, the total number of ethnic minority cadres of about 2900000 people.
autonomous county Have the power to formulate autonomous regulations
As of the end of 2004, ethnic autonomous areas have formulated the current effective 133 autonomous regulations, 418 separate regulations. National autonomous areas according to the local reality, the marriage law, inheritance law, modifications and supplementary provisions of the electoral law, land law, grassland law 68.
autonomous county The national language
At present, there are 22 ethnic minorities China using 28 kinds of the national language. In 2003, the publication of books in ethnic minority languages have 4787 kinds, totaling 50 million 340 thousand copies; 205 kinds of magazines, newspapers and a print run of 7 million 810 thousand copies; 88 or 131 million 300 thousand copies. At present, Mongolia, Tibetan, Uygur, Korean and Yi languages have encoding character set, font keyboard, national standard text operation and laser phototypesetting system has been implemented on the Windows system.
autonomous county Freedom of religious belief of ethnic minorities
As of the end of 2004, the Tibet autonomous region has a total of more than 1 thousand and 700 Tibetan Buddhist activities, some 46 thousand resident monks and nuns; the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has about 23 thousand and 900 mosques, staff of about 27 thousand people. In addition, the ethnic autonomous areas have the right to preserve or reform the customs, independent arrangement, management and development of local economic construction, independent management of local finance, the independent development of Education Science and technology culture, health, sports and other social undertakings. The state through various measures to help and support the development of the ethnic autonomous areas of economic and social undertakings,
Mainly includes: to speed up the development of the ethnic autonomous areas placed in a more prominent strategic position, reasonable arrangement of priority in national autonomous areas of infrastructure construction, increase the national autonomous local financial investment and financial support, pay attention to ecological construction and environmental protection in ethnic autonomous areas, take special measures to help national autonomous areas to develop education and science and technology increase, for the poverty-stricken ethnic minority areas to support efforts to increase social undertakings in ethnic autonomous areas, to support national autonomous areas to expand the opening, the organization developed areas and ethnic autonomous areas to carry out targeted aid, care for ethnic minorities special needs, etc..
autonomous county Poverty alleviation in Minority Areas
China government began in 2000 to implement the western development strategy, by the end of 2004, started more than and 60 key projects, total investment reached about 850000000000 yuan, involving transportation, energy, education, health, environmental protection and other aspects. 83 Autonomous County of the 5 autonomous regions, 27 autonomous prefectures and 120 autonomous counties were incorporated in the scope of the western development. The country's "87 poverty alleviation program", "China rural poverty alleviation and development program, and organize the implementation of the eastern coastal developed areas and the western region targeted aid action," project of compulsory education in poverty-stricken areas and poverty-stricken ethnic minority areas and capital "and" natural forest protection project "," radio and television every village project "so, will help accelerate the development of ethnic minority areas as an important content.
The national development of Tibet made special arrangements. From 1994 to 2001, the central government direct investment in Tibet 3 billion 900 million yuan, the construction of 30 projects. The Tenth Five Year Plan (2001 - 2005) period, the central government in Tibet to invest 31 billion 200 million yuan, the construction of 117 projects. In the country and the developed areas and with the support and assistance of the ethnic autonomous areas, give full play to their strengths, keep the economic development, political stability, social progress, national harmony and good situation. From 1994 to 2003, the average annual growth rate of Chinese national autonomous areas of GDP was 9.87%, higher than the national average of nearly 1 percentage points. In 1994 the national autonomous areas per capita GDP equivalent to the national average of 63.5%, rising to 66.3% in 2003. In 2003, national autonomous areas local revenue of 67 billion 400 million yuan, compared to 1994 increased by 2.3 times. The same year, Tibet's GDP per capita was 6871 yuan, equivalent to the national average of 75.5%; Xinjiang per capita GDP of 9700 yuan, equivalent to the national average of 106.6%. ? because of the successful implementation of the system of regional ethnic autonomy, Chinese minority according to the independent management of the national affairs, democratic participation in administration of state and social affairs, and guarantees the national China regardless of the size of the equal economic, political, social and cultural rights, to safeguard national unity and oppose secession and undermining national unity, formed a harmonious ethnic relations between different nations support and help each other and work together for common prosperity and development.
autonomous county The national policy
1 new Chinese national policy principles of the new Chinese after the founding of the Communist Party and people's Government of ethnic equality, ethnic unity and common prosperity principle. 2 ethnic minorities into the socialist transformation of the socialist society after the start of the party and the government of the democratic reform and land reform in minority areas. The democratic reform through peaceful means to abolish the system of exploitation, the elimination of class oppression, establish socialist economy; minority has entered the socialist society. 3 party and government system of regional ethnic autonomy in ethnic minority areas of regional ethnic autonomy. At the beginning of the 1990s, the country has established five provincial autonomous regions, more than and 100 autonomous counties. This will satisfy the desire of ethnic minorities in power, to achieve national equality, also to ensure the unity of the motherland and national unity.
The common prosperity of all ethnic groups in 4 (1) people's government has always attached great importance to the economic and cultural development in ethnic minority areas, support from the resources and manpower, to achieve the common prosperity of all ethnic groups. (2) after the third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, the country to further implement the national policy of reform and opening up in ethnic regions. The economy in ethnic minority areas has become an important part of the national economy. Problem analysis: after the founding of new China, minority has entered a new historical era of development performance.
autonomous county social system
The new Chinese before the establishment of long-term minority in a backward state, some retained slavery or serfdom, some people still retained in different degrees of residual primitive commune system. After the founding of new Chinese, after the social reform has entered the socialist society.
autonomous county political system
The new Chinese before the establishment of national government, ethnic oppression, ethnic discrimination policy. After the founding of new Chinese, implement the system of regional ethnic autonomy, their realization of ethnic equality in power.
autonomous county Democratic rights
Before the establishment of new Chinese, ethnic minorities oppressed. After the founding of new Chinese, minority areas to abolish the system of exploitation, the elimination of class oppression, ethnic minorities have equal democratic rights. The basic meaning and characteristics of the system of regional ethnic autonomy. The implementation of ethnic regional autonomy in minority areas is under the unified leadership of the state, the implementation of regional autonomy in ethnic minority inhabited areas, organs of self-government are established to exercise the power of autonomy, the ethnic minorities in power, their management of the autonomous areas of things inside. It is the "People's Republic of China constitution", the provisions of China's ethnic relations a political system, but a basic policy to solve national problems.
autonomous county Two features
A Chinese is the regional national autonomy is under the unified leadership of the state autonomy, all national autonomous areas are a part of China could not be separated, the autonomous authority is a local government under the leadership of the central government, must obey the unified leadership of the central committee. The two is Chinese ethnic autonomy, not only ethnic autonomy or local autonomy, but rather a combination of ethnic factors and regional factors, is a combination of political and economic factors.
autonomous county The reason
1 Chinese in history has long been a centralized and unified Country
. In the long history of development, China ethnic Chinese territory gradually sink synthesis.
2 long China to mixed ethnic distribution and small communities. The long-term economic and cultural links, the formation of the nation is only suitable for cooperation and mutual assistance, and is not suitable for the separation of ethnic relations.
3 of China's population, resources distribution and the unbalanced economic and cultural development. Only the implementation of the system of regional ethnic autonomy, is conducive to the development of nationalities and national prosperity.
4 since 1840, the national China are facing the common task and the fate of anti imperialist and anti feudal struggle for national liberation. In foreign enemies and for national independence and liberation struggle, the national China established a close relationship together, forming a mutual cannot do without the political identity. This is the establishment of a unified new China, laid a solid political and social foundation and the practice of regional autonomy in minority areas.
autonomous county Superiority
Practice has proved that the implementation of ethnic regional autonomy is in line with the development of history, and the reality, has great superiority.
1 contribute to the national unity and ethnic minority autonomy together, while maintaining the unity of national sovereignty and security affairs of the minority rights management.
2 contribute to the specific characteristics of the policy of the country and minority areas combine to do because of national conditions, due to regional conditions, which is conducive to the development of economic and social undertakings in ethnic autonomous regions.
3 contribute to the national prosperity and prosperity together.
4 help to the national feelings of love of the motherland and love the national feelings together.