the Western Capital

the Western Capital The history of Xi'an, China followed a few dynasties long known as Tokyo, is the capital of Chinese, history of thirteen dynasties in the capital. The Western Zhou Dynasty The Zhou Haojing , The Western Han Dynasty The capital of Changan, The Eastern Han Dynasty The capital Changan , the Wei state of the Three-Kingdoms Period At the beginning of the yellow (two years 221 years ), Changan as one of the five, called Xijing [1]. Changan is the capital of the Sui and Tang Dynasties, sometimes called atlantis. Don King highest virtue (two years 757 years Instead, Jing Zhao Fu) Changan As the Beijing [2], Fengxiang for the Xijing Fengxiang Prefecture, in Shaanxi Province Baoji City Fengxiang County .
the Western Capital
Tang dynasty Balhae Xijing Yalu, in this Jilin Mount Bai city Linjiang One said, The Korean Peninsula Cijiangdao The Yalu River The East Coast。 The Northern Song Dynasty Xijing Henan Prefecture, in this Henan province Luoyang City . Xixia Xijing Xiping Prefecture, in Ningxia Lingwu city. liao dynasty , Jin Dynasty , Yuan Dynasty Xijing Datong In this. Shanxi province Datong . Republic of China National Government Nanjing was the capital of Shaanxi Province, to this Xi'an City To build capital, was renamed Xijing city.
In other countries of East asia, Japan Yamaguchi The nickname for kyoto In the west, also known as the "Xijing region". The Korean Peninsula The Wang Korea to 926 years take Pyongyang To tokyo. Vietnam The Thanh Hoa Province , Hujimao Have moved the capital to this.

the Western Capital From the capital city of Changan

Xi'an, referred to as the pick, referred to as the period of the Republic of China, formerly known as Changan, Jingzhao . Located in the hinterland of Chinese, a typical radiation type city. The ancient Silk Road, the East starting point and starting point is the capital of the Sui and Tang Dynasties in the Grande Canale, the longest time in the history of the ancient capital of China. Xi'an has three thousand years of history of the city, is a famous historical and cultural city. The history including Zhou Qin Han, Sui, Tang, 13 dynasties have been in the capital. Once a long time as Chinese political, economic and Cultural Centre for over one thousand years, with Beijing, Luoyang, Nanjing and known as the four ancient capital China.
In 25 ad, the Western Han Dynasty Royal emperor Liu Xiu, the capital of Luoyang, the establishment of the Eastern Han dynasty. Due to the Western Han Dynasty Liu Xiu's successor in Luoyang become the country itself, under the condition of the old capital of Changan to tokyo. At that time Changan was called "Xi", "West", writer Ban Gu's "Liangdu" and Zhang Heng's "two Beijing Fu", the capital of Changan has been described.
The long period of the Eastern Han Dynasty warlord ending, is Wei Shu Wu situation of three kingdoms. The Northern Wei Dynasty is the Eastern Han Dynasty accept so-called "demise" and the establishment, in the orthodox phase advertised, Luoyang became the new dynasty of the country, while Changan has once again played the role of chongqing. In addition, North Fang Jun Do ye city (Hebei Linzhang), the Cao Wei regime started Xu (Henan and Xuchang) Wei emperor Cao Cao was born Qiao County (Anhui Bozhou) has made the position. The five is the situation lasted for 45 years, after the Western Jin Dynasty replaced Cao Wei, in Luoyang, did not implement the system.
In the period of sixteen, the former Zhao, Qin and Qin three separatist regime has to Changan for the country, and now in Changan for the summer. Zhao regime based in Xiang country (Hebei Xingtai), after the capital in the ye ye, in Changan and Luoyang during the two S. Because of the Western Jin Dynasty, Luoyang and Changan had severely damaged, then the houzhao regime used to repair Changan and Luoyang palace, known as the "two Beijing service", the use of labor force nearly four hundred thousand people, shows the importance of the capital of zhao. In 416 ad, the Eastern Jin Dynasty minister Liu Yu sent troops to the northern expedition, second years in Changan, tapping out in Changan as the houqin, by the end of this year, eager to usurp the regime's Liu Yu hurried south. At this time, Hun leader helianbobo tribe Daxia army south, in 418 BC captured Changan, the Jin Army garrison brought about great The whole army was wiped out., even in. The minister advised Helian Bobo capital Changan, Helian Bobo thinks he is in the north of Shanxi Province according to the Northern Wei regime in North China is the rise of the Xianbei threat to the newly conquered Changan is too risky, so still to Tongwancheng (in Hengshan) for the country, known as Beijing, with Changan as the capital, called when people are called the south, Nandu.
From the Western Zhou Dynasty capital Changan to the year 904 at the end of the Tang Dynasty, Changan thousand years uninterrupted as capital. In 904 ad, Tang Quan Chen, warlord Zhu Wen Tang Zhaozong stress moved the capital to Luoyang, and completely destroyed the Changan 907 years, the demise of the Tang dynasty. Three years later, Zhu Wen replaced Tang established after the regime, Chinese entered the period of the five dynasties. The biggest enemy is entrenched in the North Shanxi, Tang Zhaofeng Jin Wang Shatuo aristocrat Li Keyong, the struggle between the two sides lasted more than and 20 years. After the death of Li Keyong, the son of emperor Li Cunxu in early 923, the Tang Dynasty, known as the history of Tang Dynasty, which is the largest of the five generation. Li Cunxu thought that the Tang Dynasty is called revenge in politics, has made the initiative. In October of the same year, Tang The main beat, captured it, announced the end of Luoyang state, Los Beijing no.. In order to give the old capital of Changan Datang due status and respect, Li Cunxu in Changan for the capital, called xijing. In the year 935, "emperor" Shi Jingtang to sell Youyun Sixteen States as the price, in exchange for Khitan support, elimination of the later Tang Dynasty established Jin dynasty. In the year 938, it is Luoyang in Jin Dynasty, as the number of Xijing, West Changan Jin Changjun down. Thus, in the early Jin Dynasty, Changan is still short of capital as. But since then, there is no longer any feudal dynasty in Changan as the states or capital, although the early years of the Northern Song Dynasty and early Ming Dynasty, Song Taizu Zhao Kuangyin and Ming Zhu Yuanzhang had moved to Changan to the idea, but eventually to a variety of reasons.

the Western Capital The capital of Luoyang

Bring the five generation and the Northern Song Dynasty, many people will then split because of the situation and thought of "war" and "fight". In fact, from the Five Dynasties to the Northern Song Dynasty in these years, as the capital or capital of Luoyang is still the country's political, economic and cultural center, is still left to future generations, countless tianbao.
"Luoyang center" status is not reduced
The last part of the new Luoyang Museum exhibition Chen basic is the five generation of the Northern Song dynasty. The exhibition area of more than and 200 square meters, showing the 6 Dynasties History, 168 artifacts on display (Group), each piece is fine.
In the year 907, after the demise of the Tang Dynasty, China experienced a beam, Tang, Jin, Han, the 5 Dynasty, known as the five generation. During this period, Liang, Tang, Jin is still the capital in Luoyang, Han Later Zhou Dynasty in Luoyang to tokyo.
In the Five Dynasties, Luoyang is the political, economic and cultural center. In the year 960, the establishment of the Northern Song Dynasty ended late Tang Dynasty split situation, economy and culture reached a peak in the history of our country. The implementation of two Beijing, Kaifeng is Tokyo, Luoyang is the two city of Tokyo, has formed two major center of china.
Luoyang World Park
The five generation of Luoyang city after the end of the Tang Dynasty was showing a "broken cities, one hundred households", "less than the Shi Qingxiang Palace" situation, although it was Henan Yin Zhang Quanyi to repair, rebuild wufenglou (Tang Yingtianmen), Chao Yuan Temple and Qingshu buildings, but still less than the pomp of the Sui and Tang dynasties. Song Zhaoding Luoyang Xijing city of Luoyang after a massive reconstruction. Huangchengshan Miyagi and is still the site of the five dynasties. Miyagi week back to nine in the three step, a wufenglou 6 door. As Tai Chi Temple main hall, the palace more than 10 seats. The eighteen week in the two hundred and fifty-eight step, a Regency door 7 door. The outer city across the river two sides, there are more than 120 Li Fang Fang, Sui, Tang and two dynasties.
It is worth mentioning that, in the city of Luoyang to rebuild, Gullo scholar bureaucrats rise built mansion gardens. The Li Gefei in the "mind" in the garden of Luoyang from Luoyang has rich Zheng Park, park park alone in 19, and "private garden in Luoyang to 1000". Shao Yong said: "this world only cold food festival, the world park, Luoyang."
In addition to these, our understanding of the five generation of Northern Song Dynasty in Luoyang City, including unearthed in Luoyang in Northern Song Dynasty palace ruins. The Northern Song Dynasty palace building base is located in Luoyang City, the road on the south side of the site is part of the Northern Song Dynasty palace plays an important role in the construction of civilization of Xijing temple buildings.
Ceramics and gold and silver in the inheritance and innovation
The five generation of the Northern Song Dynasty, around the separatist regime does not stop the progress and development of ceramics.
The Song Dynasty is a thriving and prosperous period of the development of the history of Chinese ceramics, porcelain features is the first to break the "Green White North" situation; second is the variety, the variety of forms; plus color beautiful, embodies the simple elegance advocated by the Confucian culture; in addition, the shape of the Song Dynasty porcelain and before compared with the more rich and colorful, with bowls, plates, pots, cans, boxes, oven, pillow and so on, including the people's daily life with the most. At the same time, can reflect the life of the Song Dynasty and the Song Dynasty gold and silver. The Song Dynasty gold and silver crafts in the Tang Dynasty on the basis of a new development, the traditional production techniques, gold inlay, hammer disc, wrong gold and silver, gold and silver filigree, fried beads can be reflected in the gold and silver wares unearthed in Luoyang in this period.
Cultural development
The five generation of the Northern Song Dynasty especially in the Northern Song Dynasty Luoyang cultural development in the history of China wrote a thick.
The Song Dynasty Xijing Luoyang is the cultural center, with the highest institution of the Imperial College name, Daru gathered in Luoyang. The number of ministers in Luoyang, Luoyang province is only as Zhao Pu, Lv Mengzheng, Zhang Qixian, Wen Zhongshu etc.. Wen Yanbo, Fu Bi 13 composition "Luoyang seniors" drinkingpoems; one of the Tang and song of Ou Yangxiu in Los written "new book of Tang"; Sima Guang lasted 15 years, completed the history of "mirror" China first chronicle......
Not only that, Luoyang is the birthplace of "learning". Cheng Hao, Cheng Yi brothers is a famous philosopher and educator in the Northern Song Dynasty, known as "two-way". They founded the philosophy theory, called "learning", "after the development of Neo confucianism". Two many disciples, Yang Shi, outbound snow waiting for the rest of Cheng Yi, "Li Xue" left respecting allusions.
With the demise of the Northern Song Dynasty, the history of Luoyang as Xijing ended, Millennium Royal Park "big screen" gradually fall.

the Western Capital Liao Datong

Datong Prefecture Five Beijing Liaoning In this one, Shanxi datong. the Western Capital Da Tong The house is in the Northern Wei Dynasty Pyongsong In the Tang Dynasty and the "Datong in Gucheng" on the site of construction, the city has built 10 km perimeter, watchtowers, and defense facilities at shed, a spring, Chaoyang, Dingxi, four door arch. With the palace. Let our left Xijing ya, Xijing and Datong our left behind is the highest in the region by the Executive . since Emperor Xingzong of Liao Thirteen years (AD 1044), shigehiro to Liaoning one of the heavenly gods in certain Chinese religions Paul 3 years (1123 AD), Datong as the Xijing time is 80 years.
In November 936, the general Emperor Gaozu of later Jin take Sixteen, Youyun (now Hebei, northern Shanxi) region was ceded to the Khitan, the Khitan emperor Jin Shi Jingtang established support (the history of the first son emperor). Since then, the cloud state (Datong) classified liao. Liao Xing Zong Zhongxi thirteen years (AD 1044), will be promoted to Datong Fu Yun zhou. The Datong two states seven counties: Philip prefecture (Hebei Yangyuan County), Dezhou (Inner Mongolia northwest of Fengzhen, Datong County, Dai Beach), cloud county (today Tiancheng town), Changqing County (now Southeast, Yanggao County) in Yixian (now Datong northeast), Huairen county (now Huairen East, south of Datong 30 km), Huai'an county (now Hebei, Southeast of the town).
At this point, Da Tong Become liao dynasty Five Beijing (Beijing Linhuang Prefecture , Tokyo Prefecture of Liaoyang Beijing, Nanjing, Fu you A large house Datong is one of the palace).
As early as Emperor Taizong of Liao Accept that they are "Jin Youyun sixteen", for "in the first year (938 years) in November, up to Nanjing, gathered in Youzhou" set up in one of the most important Chinese Provisional capital And to strengthen the control of the South exit. And Youzhou The military town of cloud state independent, because at that time the west is relatively calm, as well as the economic and population development level is inferior and other reasons, has not attracted sufficient attention to the rulers of the Liao dynasty. But to Xing Zong period, with the deterioration of the relationship between Liao and Xixia, as well as economic development, population growth and other reasons, the rulers feel the importance of strengthening the rule of the western territory, the establishment of Xijing it is out of this consideration. Besides Han, some vassal tribe is located in the Western cloud were also included in the new road by the Xijing, Xijing control.
From the defense, Cloud City Week also have a certain ability to terrain. Datong is a small basin, surrounded, surrounded by mountains and Biden cool, but the northern terrain is generally flat. Southern Mt. Hengshan, Ningwu mountains tall, is the natural barrier of Xijing guard. With such a terrain Xijing is easily defensible. Therefore, there are many guards therefore also built in the western capital, such as West Road, southwest to appease the bandit suppression Commission Secretary, southwest patrol division, Hill Road are our deployment etc.. The northern half of the city's political and military center, office and barracks built in the. At the same time, then the cloud state northern grassland, while the north is Ping Yan, no mountain barrier, it is beneficial to the nomadic import. The southern mountain barrier, can play the role of the Central Plains offensive defense. The choice here to build capital, can be taken into account and the Central Plains area ruled prairie of north of the great wall. According to the Chinese ancient capital of the principle of capital or capital should be located as far as possible with the economic center of gravity, at least should be close, so as to meet the capital required material needs, and to facilitate the administration. As the agricultural and animal husbandry with transition region to cloud state city as the center, a large number of counties around the city, such as the dark clouds in the sixteen state (now brilliant), Wu Shuo (Shuozhou today), (now Yingxian County), Wei (now Weixian County) and Philip (today, Germany (now Yangyuan) Liangcheng), Feng Zhou (now Fengzhen), the cloud (without examination), the (now Zhuolu), Huazhou (now Xuanhua), Hunyuan (now Hunyuan), Guangling (now Guangling county) and other states, constitute a city circle. This circle is a large concentration of population, traffic convenience, high level of economic and cultural development for central city (Cloud State) provide a large amount of manpower and materials required to ensure the normal operation of the capital. The establishment is the embodiment of the principle of capital.
With the establishment of the status of the Datong government not only become the center of regional politics on behalf of the north, but rose as one of the most important economic and cultural center of Liao dynasty. Promoting the area of social progress, accelerate the process of feudal khitan.
At the end of Liao Tian Zuodi Paul 2002 (1122 AD), Datong to Jinbing captured. Kim noted Liaoning, Datong is Datong prefecture. Jin Xijing Datong as is 103 years, namely from Wan Yan Sheng Jin Taizong day first year (1123) to Jin zizong Wanyan Shou Xu Zhengda three years (1226).