The Sierra Nevada

Nevada is part of the North American Cordillera mountain is located in the western margin of the United States. The state of California In the East, north of Lassen peak, south only ytti Hachapi Yamaguchi, connected with the Cascade Mountains, along the Pacific coast of the mountain, 640 kilometers in length.
The Sierra Nevada

The Sierra Nevada brief introduction

The United States Dalin District, Nevada
The Sierra Nevada yes North America cordillera Part of the western edge of the mountain, located in the United States The state of California In the East, north of Lassen peak, south only ytti Hachapi pass, and Cascade Mountain On the Pacific mountain is 640 kilometers in length.
The Sierra Nevada mountains formed Jurassic Period To the end of Cretaceous At the beginning, due to dramatic changes in the crust, such as strong folds and lava, the nature of the change and the long-term erosion of granite widely exposed to the Sierra Nevada
 The Sierra Nevada The Sierra Nevada
Provides a prerequisite for the formation of.
The Sierra Nevada mountains into the clouds, area more than 3600 meters above sea level over the snow covered mountain, snow, and green forest, contrast.
The western slopes of the Sierra Nevada Yosemite park is one of the most beautiful scenery of the United States National park,
 The Sierra Nevada The Sierra Nevada
Built in 1890. In 1906, Yosemite Valley and the butterfly jungle into the park, the area of nearly 310 thousand hectares in size.
A special, Yili, Lotte and Yosemite Yosemite Valley in 3 tributaries merged into the Merced River across the bottom, forming a waterfall in most regions of the world gathered.
Yosemite Falls is the highest waterfall in North America, a total length of 739 meters gap on the waterfall, waterfall. From the valley north down, hongranzuoxiang. The south wall hanging bride veil falls, a drop of 189 meters in the dry season, the waterfall as thin as cicada's wings, like a veil hanging air. Verne, waterfall, nearly 97 meters long, waterfalls, splash, forming a dense fog, reflecting a rainbow, very beautiful, well-known, far and near.
Yosemite Valley, also stand with many unique rock. The half dome rocks up to 1463 meters; the vertical general rock is 1097 meters high; high rock stand up arrows falling 853 meters, like a huge bird. In 3 the park is located in the famous California redwood forest land is varvel. The valley 56 kilometers south of the most famous butterfly jungle. There is a huge grey pine forest, up to 11 meters in diameter, as the world's fifth giant trees, many tourists here and take a photo. The southern slope of the Canyon Park stands sentry hill, a vigorous pine called Jeffle". This song Qiu branch ring, simple and graceful, Jubi stretch, like welcoming.
In addition, the park also has a large number of wild deer and raccoons, 1300 kinds of plants, 30 kinds of trees. A collection of Indian exhibits exhibits and the area of wild animals and plants in the Jose Miti museum.
The majestic Sierra Nevada is the nature entrusts with the unique human landscape, to the people left a large number of wealth, but also let people deeply enjoy the city's quiet and beautiful without.

The Sierra Nevada The origin

The Sierra Nevada mountains formed in the late Jurassic and early Cretaceous period, due to dramatic changes in the crust, such as strong
 The Sierra Nevada The Sierra Nevada
Strong and fold Lava The nature of the eruption, changes and long-term erosion of granite exposed widely, provides the premise for the formation of the Sierra nevada.
Since the third century crustal uplift and the accompanying faults, lift pulling formed from the massive mountains, east to the west, the tall and majestic Sierra nevada.
The Sierra Nevada Mountains towering steep, without stop. The average elevation of 1800 ~ 3000 meters 4300 meters; there are 10 peaks over 4418 meters above sea level, the Whitney for the United States to the peak. The distribution of the Sierra Nevada mountains are steep slope, steep cliff stood straight The Great Basin On the relative height of 1500 to 3000 meters; the west slope is gentle, rivers, thus forming many deep canyons, such as Yosemite Valley 1600 meters deep.
The Sierra Nevada mountains of West Slope influenced by Pacific moist air, precipitation, promote the growth of green plants, relatively dense mountain forest, ponderosa pine, sugar pine, growing Douglas fir, Sequoia and other plants, is an important area of forestry in the United states.
The Sierra Nevada mountains into the clouds, area more than 3600 meters above sea level over the snow covered mountain, snow, and green forest, contrast.
In addition, Nevada long deep in the mountains, across the rivers and lakes. Feather, more than and 10 Merced River flows slowly through the west slope, the Central Valley of California Sacramento River and The San Joaquin River . Directly used for agricultural irrigation water and city water resources. These mountain lakes of various sizes. The Lake Tahoe area, about 501 square kilometers, is the second United States deep lake.
The Sierra Nevada and the western slope of the eastern slopes are on the contrary, dry climate, sparse vegetation, shrub and herbage to.

The Sierra Nevada Natural features

(1) terrain. The Sierra Nevada mountains on both sides of the asymmetry. Ridge And the peak was east. Peak elevation of 3350 to 4270 meters (11000 to 14000 feet), the Whitney peak elevation of 4418 meters (14494 feet), the highest in the United States
 The Sierra Nevada The Sierra Nevada
Peak. North peak is much lower, Lake Tahoe to the north of the peak altitude of only 7000 to 9000 feet.
Rock mostly granite granite or similar. There are bad (change due to heat and pressure and the occurrence of sedimentary rocks (interlayer) remnants are sedimentary basin once the huge area) and some large areas of extrusive rock, especially the Lake Tahoe area to the north; the northern end of the Sierra Nevada, the integration of the rock and cascades volcano rock.
(2) water and ice. The west slope is gentle as a series of river cut by rivers, much longer than the su. Youba (Yuba) River, America River, Mo Kay Remis River (Mokelumne), Stanislaus (Stanislaus), Merced River (Merced), Kern River (Kern) cutting River and other rivers have been dominated by granite and some volcano rock valley. In addition to the rest of Kern River, North River respectively into the Central Valley of the Sacramento River and south of the San Joaquin River and two tributaries in the Gulf of San Francisco merged into the Delta, and finally into the Pacific ocean. For the Kern River inland river, into the San Joaquin River south of the lake basin, bouet naweisi tower.
In 1 million 600 thousand years ago ended years ago during the Pleistocene glaciation was 10 thousand, river valley is a large area of etching several glaciers. Glacial climate there are at least 4 times development and disappear, every time there is an excess of snow ice and snow fields and glaciers built deep. The west slope of V valley glaciers will be etched into U Valley, at an altitude of about 5000 feet deep. The icing results very much, the glacier merged to form a cap. The ice caps from the north near Hunan to Tahoe Whitney peak mountain stretches nearly 322 kilometers (200 miles).
The ice cap extends downward many finger like valley glaciers, glacier west slope is relatively flat and steep uplift on slope is relatively short. The glacier erosion caused very spectacular: a huge cirque (amphitheater shaped basin, steep rock), a Moraine (rock deposits), there are tens of thousands of lakes dotted on the mountain and semi mountain landscape. This exciting magnificent terrain is Jose Miti (Yosemite) the main landscape Basin National Park and lake tahoe. Lake Tahoe is the world's largest and deepest lake, the water area of nearly 518 square kilometers (200 square miles), northwest of the deepest depth of about 500 meters (1640 feet).
(3) climate. The Sierra Nevada in the latitude zone and the Pacific and the role of
 The Sierra Nevada The Sierra Nevada
That is an unusually mild mountain climate. Although the valley winter temperatures often drop to -18 degrees C (0 degrees F), but in the hillside area so little at low temperature. The mountains of Northwest - southeast direction exactly with the central North America winter storm paths intersect, results in the wet season (November to April) windward slope (West Slope) abundant rainfall, leeward (East) appeared obvious rain shadow effect. The western foothills of the average rainfall of 760 mm (30 inches), the northern half mountain elevation 4500 to 6500 feet. The 70 ~ 80 inches. Leeward slope rainfall is much less, only 20 to 40 inches. Snowfall increases with altitude and latitude, the northern mountain snowfall from 10 to 12 meters (33 to 38 feet). Echo peak (Echo Summit) had one day snow 1.7 meters (5.5 feet) of, at an altitude of 2160 meters (7085 feet) of the Donner pass (Donner Pass) was measured over 20 meters (67 feet) of snow. The snow area 7000 feet above 3 to 4.6 meters (10 to 15 feet) are not uncommon.
Type of wind over the Sierra Nevada to the Pacific Subtropical Anticyclone in summer, the most powerful, dry air blowing through the mountains to the sea. If the pressure brought to the power in winter is not weakened, there will be several consecutive years of drought, mid 1930s, mid 70s and mid 80s to early 90s has occurred in this case, the jet stream at mid latitude storm path will diminish, split or pushed north.

The Sierra Nevada Animals and plants

Generally speaking, the western slope of the Sierra Nevada mountains have 5 distinct vegetation zones. The lower foothills
 The Sierra Nevada The Sierra Nevada
Most A deciduous tree And there are shrubs, evergreen oak (Quercus wislizenii) live inland. At the higher the foothills are black oak, pine and cypress, North america. Mountain forest is the main business district of wood, there are fir, red fir, Jeffrey Song (Jeffrey Pine) and Redwood (public protection area of Sequoia National Park is specially established for this purpose). In the subalpine forest in the mountains, mountain hemlock, black pine, western white pine and cypress. Above the timberline is widely distributed with moss, lichen and low Alpine flowering plants. Dry mountains, Dongpo sagebrush bitterbrush, cypress, pine and poplar. In addition to the mountain area outside the mountains on both sides of the growth with chaparral, mainly dwarf oak, bear fruit and California evergreen shrub.
Since twentieth Century the most recognizable in the Sierra Nevada mountains of large mammals has not so rich, partly because more and more people come here. The black bear habitat area than in the big grizzly. Stone goat now only in the south of it. Mule deer and mountain lions live at the foot of the mountain. In the middle and low altitude mountains, small mammals have Huan America, Canada star weasel, Red cat The beaver, and the northern flying squirrel. Fishers and Gulo Gulo are rare. In the upper limit of dwelling trees and vegetation with hyraxes, rabbits and marmot.
There is low at the blue headed blackbird, California horned lark and pheasant rich birds in the Sierra Nevada mountains; the bushes and at the foot of the Pearl neck Ling area, canyon wren and Roadrunner; forest belt tits, spotted owl and spotted tail pigeon; and the higher the forest eagle and Hammond (Hammond flycatcher); sub flycatcher Alpine birds are Sparrowhawk and white toed woodpecker.
Some mountain streams in Nevada trout is the local varieties, the other is introduced from outside. Because the dam and other natural ecological change, the fish in the mountainous region is quite common. Salmon and steelhead trout will be traced back to the mountain rivers in the spawning season.

The Sierra Nevada The development of scenic spots

The Sierra Nevada Mountains Qifeng Lin, Lake distribution, Waterfall Pour, more unique scenery of the glaciers, a beautiful mountain scenery, the mountains Piyou Jose Miti and other 3 National Parks and many state parks and resorts.
The western slope of the Sierra Nevada Yosemite National Park is one of the most beautiful scenery of the United States, founded in 1
 The Sierra Nevada The Sierra Nevada
890 years. In 1906, Yosemite Valley and the butterfly jungle into the park, the area of nearly 310 thousand hectares in size.
There are special, the Yili Yosemite Yosemite Valley Lotte and 3 tributaries merged into the Merced River across the bottom, forming a waterfall in most regions of the world gathered.

The Sierra Nevada Residents of the economy

The Sierra Nevada live in America Indian Lived in hunter gatherer life. In addition to capture prey and set fire to cause local impact, the economic landscape of the mountains did not cause long-term effects. The first Europeans came to the area of the Spanish explorers and missionaries, who in the early eighteenth Century has been to California, impact on Sierra Nevada also not worth mentioning.
In January 1848 America River (near the present-day state of California, Prather or Placerville) found a gold nugget, set off an international gold rush, not only to California but also to the United States the historical evolution of influence. For the first time found that after two years, there are about 50 thousand miners in the Sierra Nevada mountains. Require banks, retail business, transportation facilities, logging, agriculture and industry to meet the rapid growth of the population, such as the start and prosper like bamboo shoots after a spring rain. The economic development of California to join the union, contributed to the construction of the central area of the first, known as San Francisco And sacramento. To the 1880 golden age reached its peak, although there are still some mining activity continues.
After the initial crude Mine Road, built in 1860s to 70s and the transcontinental railroad railway area. Built in 1920s the first through the Sierra Nevada several paved road. But the central mountains still did not pass the highway or railway throughout the year. The rapid development of the economy has been endangering the environment. For example, the Lake Tahoe Basin is one of the most beautiful places in mountainous area, it is a tourist resort, often encountered in air and water pollution, traffic congestion, sewage treatment, and the decline of aesthetic value.
For water and power (and after the Second World War to the needs of amusement) has changed the face of the Sierra nevada. Through the length of the western slope of the river 3/4 is under control. At the beginning of twentieth Century, the first large-scale water conservancy projects for water in San Francisco Yosemite National Park Beh Zich Chi river reservoir built (Hetch Hetchy Reservoir), flooded comparable near Yosemite Valley natural scenery scenery. The latest and most magnificent river water conservancy development Fischer (Feather River, the state water project started in 1950s), to the beginning of 90s is still under construction.
The Washoe county capital of the state of Nevada Reno near the 19 burst fire, strong winds through the rapid spread, destroyed dozens of homes, forcing tens of thousands of people were evacuated, influence of vice president Joseph Biden trip.
The fire occurred shortly after 19 in the afternoon, the cause is unknown. The local strong wind, maximum instantaneous wind speed of about 131 km per hour. With the strong wind, the fire spread rapidly, the number of hours in the burned area of nearly 13 square kilometers, 12 meters high head. The fire spread along the foot to Reno, the evening arrived in the southern suburbs of fire.
Nevada governor Brian Sandoval announced the same day, Reno, a state of emergency. About 10 thousand people evacuated, more than 20 houses were burnt.
US Vice President Biden day visit to Reno, speaking at the galena high school. Because of the strong wind, the speech was delayed for two hours beginning. Speaking to twenty-fifth minutes, Biden told the audience that he had to shorten the speaking time, began to answer the question, then officials will take him out of this place "".
This is about two months to Reno near the city of second fires. Once a transmission line ground, caused the fire, burned area of about 5 square kilometers, burned 30 homes and forced the evacuation of about 10 thousand people.
Reno fire chief Hernandez said, "almost two fires, strong winds and dry weather as like as two peas" fueling the fire. The area under the snow early this week, the previous 56 consecutive days without precipitation, a record of the number of days without precipitation in winter.